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Winner of the 2014 Diamond Anniversary Book Award Finalist for the 2014 National Communications Association Critical and Cultural Studies Division Book of the Year Award In 2000, the National Human Genome Research Institute announced the completion of a "draft" of the human genome, the sequence information of nearly all 3 billion base pairs of DNA. Since then, interest in the hereditary basis of disease has increased considerably. In The Material Gene, Kelly E. Happe considers the broad implications of this development by treating "heredity" as both a scientific and political concept. Beginning with the argument that eugenics was an ideological project that recast the problems of industrialization as pathologies of gender, race, and class, the book traces the legacy of this ideology in contemporary practices of genomics. Delving into the discrete and often obscure epistemologies and discursive practices of genomic scientists, Happe maps the ways in which the hereditarian body, one that is also normatively gendered and racialized, is the new site whereby economic injustice, environmental pollution, racism, and sexism are implicitly reinterpreted as pathologies of genes and by extension, the bodies they inhabit. Comparing genomic approaches to medicine and public health with discourses of epidemiology, social movements, and humanistic theories of the body and society, The Material Gene reworks our common assumption of what might count as effective, just, and socially transformative notions of health and disease.
The book gives an overview of developments in Quantitative Genetics and variance component analysis in an era of Big Data and Sequenced Genomes. It provides a detailed description of a direct method of estimation that will be a useful means of extracting information from a large set of data that was inconceivable 10 to 20 years ago.The book is a combination of a history of variance component analysis and a forward looking view as to how direct methods of estimation arise from the availability of big data sets and sequenced genomes of each individual in the sample.Many papers and books on quantitative genetics versions of the general linear model from statistics are useful for analyzing the data, using relatively small sets of data. In this book, new methods of direct estimation are introduced and analyzed that are appropriate for an era of big sets of data and sequences genomes. These direct methods of estimation are based on taking conditional expectations rather the methods of least squares that characterize many applications of the general linear model of statistics.
DNA typing of non-human DNA is a fast developing area of research and professional practice. The application of DNA typing in wildlife forensic science is one of these prime uses of DNA typing and is gaining increasing profile. The use of DNA profiling in wildlife forensic science falls into two broad areas: species testing and genetic linkage. Species testing answers the question 'what species is this?' and genetic linkage answers the question 'did these two samples come from the same organism or population?' "Wildlife DNA Analysis: Applications in Forensic Science" provides an accessible introduction to both of these key areas. Clearly structured throughout, the introduction highlights the different types of crime where these techniques are regularly used. This chapter includes a discussion as to who performs forensic wildlife examinations, the standardisation and validation of methods, and the role of the expert witness in this type of alleged crime. This is followed by a detailed section on the science behind DNA typing including the problems in isolating DNA from trace material and subsequent genetic analysis are also covered. The book then undertakes a comprehensive review of species testing using DNA, including a step-by-step guide to sequence comparisons. A comparison of the different markers used in species testing highlights the criteria for a genetic marker. A full set of case histories illustrates the use of the different markers used. The book details the use of genetic markers to link two or more hairs/feather/leaves/needles to the same individual organism and the software used in population assignment. The problems and possibilities in isolating markers, along with the construction of allele databases are discussed in this chapter. The book concludes with evaluation and reporting of genetic evidence in wildlife forensic science illustrated by examples of witness statements. -An accessible introduction to this fast developing area of research within forensic science-Case studies throughout to link theory and practice and to highlight the use of DNA testing in species testing.-Covers both crimes against wildlife and offences where wildlife can provide vital evidence-Assumes only a basic background knowledge of DNA-Includes a comprehensive review of species testing using DNA, including a step-by-step guide to sequence comparisons
Surveying the last sixty years of research, this book describes the physical properties of DNA in the context of its biological functioning. It is designed to enable both students and researchers of molecular biology, biochemistry and physics to better understand the biophysics of DNA, addressing key questions and facilitating further research. The chapters integrate theoretical and experimental approaches, emphasising throughout the importance of a quantitative knowledge of physical properties in building and analysing models of DNA functioning. For example, the book shows how the relationship between DNA mechanical properties and the sequence specificity of DNA-protein binding can be analyzed quantitatively by using our current knowledge of the physical and structural properties of DNA. Theoretical models and experimental methods in the field are critically considered to enable the reader to engage effectively with the current scientific literature on the physical properties of DNA.
'Species' are central to understanding the origin and dynamics of biological diversity; explaining why lineages split into multiple distinct species is one of the main goals of evolutionary biology. However the existence of species is often taken for granted, and precisely what is meant by species and whether they really exist as a pattern of nature has rarely been modelled or critically tested. This novel book presents a synthetic overview of the evolutionary biology of species, describing what species are, how they form, the consequences of species boundaries and diversity for evolution, and patterns of species accumulation over time. The central thesis is that species represent more than just a unit of taxonomy; they are a model of how diversity is structured as well as how groups of related organisms evolve. The author adopts an intentionally broad approach, stepping back from the details to consider what species constitute, both theoretically and empirically, and how we detect them, drawing on a wealth of examples from microbes to multicellular organisms.
"From his work as part of the prosecution in the 1995 O. J. Simpson murder trial to his star billing on TV's America's Most Wanted, former San Diego prosecutor George "Woody" Clarke has been party to some of the justice system's most visible, controversial, and melodramatic moments. He puts that populist knack to work in this nonfiction page turner that should appeal just as much to true crime buffs as those concerned with the workings of the criminal justice system."-Publishers Weekly (starred review) "Clarke's account of the rise of DNA evidence is engaging and well paced, and the author comes across as likable and genuinely humble-a rarity in a book of war stories."-San Francisco Chronicle "As a former prosecutor who specialized in DNA evidence, Woody Clarke has the ability to make the difficult science that sometimes confuses a jury understandable to his reader."-Dominick Dunne Databases of both convicted offenders and no-suspect cases demonstrate the power of DNA testing to solve the unsolvable. George "Woody" Clarke chronicles his experiences in some of the most disturbing and notorious sexual assault and murder court cases in California. He charts the beginnings of DNA testing in police investigations and the fight for its acceptance by courts and juries and illustrates the power of science in cases he personally prosecuted or in which he assisted, including his work with the prosecution team in the trial of O. J. Simpson. As Clarke tells the story of how he came to understand and use this new form of evidence, readers will develop a new appreciation for the role of science in the legal system. George "Woody" Clarke, a judge of the Superior Court in San Diego County for the past several years, lectures internationally on DNA evidence and has cohosted America's Most Wanted.
Known world-wide as the standard introductory text to this important and exciting area, the seventh edition of Gene Cloning and DNA Analysis addresses new and growing areas of research whilst retaining the philosophy of the previous editions. Assuming the reader has little prior knowledge of the subject, its importance, the principles of the techniques used and their applications are all carefully laid out, with over 250 clearly presented four-colour illustrations. In addition to a number of informative changes to the text throughout the book, the chapters on DNA sequencing and genome studies have been rewritten to reflect the continuing rapid developments in this area of DNA analysis: * In depth description of the next generation sequencing methods and descriptions of their applications in studying genomes and transcriptomes * New material on the use of ChiP-seq to locate protein-binding sites * Extended coverage of the strategies used to assemble genome sequences * Description of how the Neanderthal genome has been sequenced and what that sequence tells us about interbreeding between Neanderthals and Homo sapiens Gene Cloning and DNA Analysis remains an essential introductory text to a wide range of biological sciences students; including genetics and genomics, molecular biology, biochemistry, immunology and applied biology. It is also a perfect introductory text for any professional needing to learn the basics of the subject. All libraries in universities where medical, life and biological sciences are studied and taught should have copies available on their shelves.
This book comprehensively discusses our current understanding of the role and biological mechanisms of horizontal transfer of genetic elements in the environment, which has been important in the evolution of prokaryotes (archaea and bacteria). Horizontal transfer of genetic elements generates variations of prokaryotes and their genomes. Comparative studies of genomes revealed that it frequently occurred during archaeal and bacterial evolution. The book introduces a variety of studies related to horizontal gene transfer, gene silencing, plasmids, phages, transposons, and the emergence of microbes that degrade man-made xenobiotics and have antimicrobial resistance. Written by leading researchers in DNA traffic, the book is a valuable guide to horizontal transfer for both young scientists and experts in the field.
Praise for the First Edition extremely well written a comprehensive and up-to-date overview of this important field. Journal of Environmental Quality Exploration and Analysis of DNA Microarray and Other High-Dimensional Data, Second Edition provides comprehensive coverage of recent advancements in microarray data analysis. A cutting-edge guide, the Second Edition demonstrates various methodologies for analyzing data in biomedical research and offers an overview of the modern techniques used in microarray technology to study patterns of gene activity. The new edition answers the need for an efficient outline of all phases of this revolutionary analytical technique, from preprocessing to the analysis stage. Utilizing research and experience from highly-qualified authors in fields of data analysis, Exploration and Analysis of DNA Microarray and Other High-Dimensional Data, Second Edition features: * A new chapter on the interpretation of findings that includes a discussion of signatures and material on gene set analysis, including network analysis * New topics of coverage including ABC clustering, biclustering, partial least squares, penalized methods, ensemble methods, and enriched ensemble methods * Updated exercises to deepen knowledge of the presented material and provide readers with resources for further study The book is an ideal reference for scientists in biomedical and genomics research fields who analyze DNA microarrays and protein array data, as well as statisticians and bioinformatics practitioners. Exploration and Analysis of DNA Microarray and Other High-Dimensional Data, Second Edition is also a useful text for graduate-level courses on statistics, computational biology, and bioinformatics.
Almost, but not quite human, the yeti and its counterparts from wild regions of the world, still exert a powerful atavistic influence on us. Is the yeti just a phantasm of our imagination, or is it a real creature? A survivor from our own savage ancestry? This is the mystery that Bryan Sykes set out to unlock. Three hair samples from the remote Himalayan kingdom of Bhutan are the cause of the investigation. The hair samples were from the miogi, the Bhutanese yeti, that legendary creature of the high snows that has haunted the imagination of travellers for centuries. Professor Sykes was asked to identify the hairs using DNA analysis. The miogi hairs did not surrender their secrets easily, but eventually two were identified as known species of bear. The third remained a mystery. Ten years later two scientific developments caused the migoi to enter Professor Sykes' thoughts again. The first, a purely technical improvement, meant that it was now possible to get a very good DNA signal from a single hair. The second development came from the surprising conclusion of an article published in 2010.This paper contained the details of the DNA sequence from another human species, Homo neanderthalensis, the Neanderthals, widely thought to be extinct. One of the many theories to account for the yeti legend is that there were small groups of Neanderthals that had managed to survive until recent times, or maybe even until the present day. If so, would it be possible to detect recent interbreeding between our own species and Neanderthals in the genomes of indigenous people living in remote regions. Locations where the yeti legends are strongest and the sightings most numerous? Professor Sykes set a goal to locate and analyse as many hair samples as possible, with links the yeti. In doing so Professor Sykes found himself entering a strange world of mystery and sensationalism, fraud and obsession and even the supernatural. Protected by the ruthless vigour of genetic analysis he was able to listen to the stories of the yeti without having to form an opinion. The only opinion that mattered was the DNA. Two years on the project is almost complete, and there have been some surprising and significant discoveries. The yeti remains an enigma. There is something out there. But what?
Wide coverage of traditional unsupervised and supervised methods and newer contemporary approaches that help researchers handle the rapid growth of classification methods in DNA microarray studies
Proliferating classification methods in DNA microarray studies have resulted in a body of information scattered throughout literature, conference proceedings, and elsewhere. This book unites many of these classification methods in a single volume. In addition to traditional statistical methods, it covers newer machine-learning approaches such as fuzzy methods, artificial neural networks, evolutionary-based genetic algorithms, support vector machines, swarm intelligence involving particle swarm optimization, and more.
"Classification Analysis of DNA Microarrays "provides highly detailed pseudo-code and rich, graphical programming features, plus ready-to-run source code. Along with primary methods that include traditional and contemporary classification, it offers supplementary tools and data preparation routines for standardization and fuzzification; dimensional reduction via crisp and fuzzy c-means, PCA, and non-linear manifold learning; and computational linguistics via text analytics and n-gram analysis, recursive feature extraction during ANN, kernel-based methods, ensemble classifier fusion.
This powerful new resource: Provides information on the use of classification analysis for DNA microarrays used for large-scale high-throughput transcriptional studiesServes as a historical repository of general use supervised classification methods as well as newer contemporary methodsBrings the reader quickly up to speed on the various classification methods by implementing the programming pseudo-code and source code provided in the bookDescribes implementation methods that help shorten discovery times
"Classification Analysis of DNA Microarrays" is useful for professionals and graduate students in computer science, bioinformatics, biostatistics, systems biology, and many related fields.
Bringing the power of biochemical analysis to toxicology, this
modern reference explains genotoxicity at the molecular level,
showing the links between a DNA lesion and the resulting cellular
or organismic response. Clearly divided into two main sections,
Part 1 focuses on selected examples of important DNA lesions and
their biological impact, while the second part covers current
advances in assessing and predicting the genotoxic effects of
chemicals, taking into account the biological responses mediated by
the DNA repair, replication and transcription machineries.
Written by an international team of experts, Somatic Genome Variation presents a timely summary of the latest understanding of somatic genome development and variation in plants, animals, and microorganisms. Wide-ranging in coverage, the authors provide an updated view of somatic genomes and genetic theories while also offering interpretations of somatic genome variation. The text provides geneticists, bioinformaticians, biologist, plant scientists, crop scientists, and microbiologists with a valuable overview of this fascinating field of research.
This book is the first to approach the fast developing field of wildlife forensics with a focus on the application of DNA profiling and analysis. Case studies throughout link theory and practice and highlight the use of DNA testing in species testing. The text assumes only a basic background knowledge of DNA, so offers information boxes clarifying technical information, step-by-step guidance on sequence comparisons, and a discussion of the different markers used in species testing. This produces a highly accessible introduction for both students and forensic professionals.
Now in its fifth edition and for the first time available as an electronic product with all entries cross-linked. This very successful long-seller has once again been thoroughly updated and greatly expanded. It now contains over 13,000 entries, and comprehensively covering genomics, transcriptomics, and proteomics. Each entry contains an extensive explanation, including a comprehensive listing of synonyms and acronyms, and all formulas have been redrawn to create a uniform style, while most of the figures are custom designed for this dictionary. The ultimate reference for all terms in the -omics fields.
In this book, the author deals mainly with two topics: (1) single-molecule visualization of switching behaviors in the DNA nanoframe system utilizing different kinds of molecular switches through the use of high-speed atomic force microscope (AFM); (2) construction of photocontrollable DNA nanostructures in programmed patterns and direct visualization of the dynamic assembling process. Here, high-speed AFM was employed to observe the dynamic movements of single molecules. Compared to a traditional single-molecule analysis method, such as fluorescence spectroscopy or electron microscopy, high-speed AFM makes possible the real-time observation of molecule behaviors. DNA nanostructures were designed and assembled as scaffolds to incorporate interested biomolecules. The observations were carried out under robust conditions without complicated pretreatment. Moreover, the photoresponsive molecules were successfully assembled into around 100 nm-sized DNA nanostructures. The assembly/disassembly of nanostructures can be regulated reversibly by photoirradiation. This book explains how DNA origami has gradually become a useful tool for the investigation of biochemical interactions in defined nanospace. It also shows the possibility of DNA nanostructures acting as nanodevices for application in biological systems, serving as a good introduction to basic DNA nanotechnology.
By way of its clear and logical structure, as well as abundant highresolution illustrations, this is a systematic survey of the players and pathways that control genome function in the mammalian cell nucleus. As such, this handbook and reference ties together recently gained knowledge from a variety of scientific disciplines and approaches, dissecting all major genomic events: transcription, replication, repair, recombination and chromosome segregation. A special emphasis is put on transcriptional control, including genome-wide interactions and non-coding RNAs, chromatin structure, epigenetics and nuclear organization. With its focus on fundamental mechanisms and the associated biomolecules, this will remain essential reading for years to come.
'A book that would have had Darwin swooning - anyone seriously interested in who we are and how we function should read this.' Guardian At the beginning of this century enormous progress had been made in genetics. The Human Genome Project finished sequencing human DNA. It seemed it was only a matter of time until we had all the answers to the secrets of life on this planet. The cutting-edge of biology, however, is telling us that we still don't even know all of the questions. How is it that, despite each cell in your body carrying exactly the same DNA, you don't have teeth growing out of your eyeballs or toenails on your liver? How is it that identical twins share exactly the same DNA and yet can exhibit dramatic differences in the way that they live and grow? It turns out that cells read the genetic code in DNA more like a script to be interpreted than a mould that replicates the same result each time. This is epigenetics and it's the fastest-moving field in biology today. The Epigenetics Revolution traces the thrilling path this discipline has taken over the last twenty years. Biologist Nessa Carey deftly explains such diverse phenomena as how queen bees and ants control their colonies, why tortoiseshell cats are always female, why some plants need a period of cold before they can flower, why we age, develop disease and become addicted to drugs, and much more. Most excitingly, Carey reveals the amazing possibilities for humankind that epigenetics offers for us all - and in the surprisingly near future.
This volume presents an overview of recent developments in systems biology and their applications in cancer-related research. The ongoing advances in our understanding of genomics and proteomics, coupled with the development of new and more robust tools, have led to an emphasis on analyzing biological systems at multiple levels. Thus, there is a need to integrate different types of data into a comprehensive "systems" view.
Written by active researchers in the emerging areas, this book gives senior undergraduate students, graduate students and new researchers an idea of where the frontiers of systems biology are and an opportunity to learn high-throughput techniques in use. One of the particular emphases of the book is to elucidate the molecular mechanisms in cancer. The discovery of biomarkers and anti-cancer drugs using systems biology approach is also extensively discussed.
With over two hundred types of cancer diagnosed to date, researchers the world over have been forced to rapidly update their understanding of the biology of cancer. In fact, only the study of the basic cellular processes, and how these are altered in cancer cells, can ultimately provide a background for rational therapies. Bringing together the state-of-the-art contributions of international experts, Systems Biology of Cancer proposes an ultimate research goal for the whole scientific community: exploiting systems biology to generate in-depth knowledge based on blueprints that are unique to each type of cancer. Readers are provided with a realistic view of what is known and what is yet to be uncovered on the aberrations in the fundamental biological processes, deregulation of major signaling networks, alterations in major cancers and the strategies for using the scientific knowledge for effective diagnosis, prognosis and drug discovery to improve public health.
Computational and high-throughput methods, such as genomics, proteomics, and transcriptomics, known collectively as -omics, have been used to study plant biology for well over a decade now. As these technologies mature, plant and crop scientists have started using these methods to improve crop varieties. Omics in Plant Breeding provides a timely introduction to key omicsbased methods and their application in plant breeding. Omics in Plant Breeding is a practical and accessible overview of specific omics-based methods ranging from metabolomics to phenomics. Covering a single methodology within each chapter, this book provides thorough coverage that ensures a strong understanding of each methodology both in its application to, and improvement of, plant breeding. Accessible to advanced students, researchers, and professionals, Omics in Plant Breeding will be an essential entry point into this innovative and exciting field. A valuable overview of high-throughput, genomics-based technologies and their applications to plant breeding Each chapter explores a single methodology, allowing for detailed and thorough coverage Coverage ranges from well-established methodologies, such as genomics and proteomics, to emerging technologies, including phenomics and physionomics Aluizio Borem is a Professor of Plant Breeding at the University of Vicosa in Brazil. Roberto Fritsche-Neto is a Professor of Genetics and Plant Breeding at the University of Sao Paulo in Brazil.
Molecular Machines presents a dynamic new approach to the physics of enzymes and DNA from the perspective of materials science. Unified around the concept of molecular deformability--how proteins and DNA stretch, fold, and change shape--this book describes the complex molecules of life from the innovative perspective of materials properties and dynamics, in contrast to structural or purely chemical approaches. It covers a wealth of topics, including nonlinear deformability of enzymes and DNA; the chemo-dynamic cycle of enzymes; supra-molecular constructions with internal stress; nano-rheology and viscoelasticity; and chemical kinetics, Brownian motion, and barrier crossing. Essential reading for researchers in materials science, engineering, and nanotechnology, the book also describes the landmark experiments that have established the materials properties and energy landscape of large biological molecules. Molecular Machines is also ideal for the classroom. It gives graduate students a working knowledge of model building in statistical mechanics, making it an essential resource for tomorrow's experimentalists in this cutting-edge field. In addition, mathematical methods are introduced in the bio-molecular context--for example, DNA conformational transitions are used to illustrate the transfer matrix formalism. The result is a generalized approach to mathematical problem solving that enables students to apply their findings more broadly. Molecular Machines represents the next leap forward in nanoscience, as researchers strive to harness proteins, enzymes, and DNA as veritable machines in medicine, technology, and beyond.
Race, while drawn from the visual cues of human diversity, is an idea with a measurable past, an identifiable present, and an uncertain future. The concept of race has been at the center of both triumphs and tragedies in American history and has had a profound effect on the human experience. Race Unmasked revisits the origins of commonly held beliefs about the scientific nature of racial differences, examines the roots of the modern idea of race, and explains why race continues to generate controversy as a tool of classification even in our genomic age. Surveying the work of some of the twentieth century's most notable scientists, Race Unmasked reveals how genetics and related biological disciplines formed and preserved ideas of race and, at times, racism. A gripping history of science and scientists, Race Unmasked elucidates the limitations of a racial worldview and throws the contours of our current and evolving understanding of human diversity into sharp relief.
'A clear and engaging explanation of one of the hottest fields in science' Steven Pinker 'A hugely important book' Matt Ridley, The Times One of the world's top behavioural geneticists argues that we need a radical rethink about what makes us who we are The blueprint for our individuality lies in the 1% of DNA that differs between people. Our intellectual capacity, our introversion or extraversion, our vulnerability to mental illness, even whether we are a morning person - all of these aspects of our personality are profoundly shaped by our inherited DNA differences. In Blueprint, Robert Plomin, a pioneer in the field of behavioural genetics, draws on a lifetime's worth of research to make the case that DNA is the most important factor shaping who we are. Our families, schools and the environment around us are important, but they are not as influential as our genes. This is why, he argues, teachers and parents should accept children for who they are, rather than trying to mould them in certain directions. Even the environments we choose and the signal events that impact our lives, from divorce to addiction, are influenced by our genetic predispositions. Now, thanks to the DNA revolution, it is becoming possible to predict who we will become, at birth, from our DNA alone. As Plomin shows us, these developments have sweeping implications for how we think about parenting, education, and social mobility. A game-changing book by a leader in the field, Blueprint shows how the DNA present in the single cell with which we all begin our lives can impact our behaviour as adults.
The field of high-throughput genetic experimentation is evolving rapidly, with the advent of new technologies and new venues for data mining. Bayesian methods play a role central to the future of data and knowledge integration in the field of Bioinformatics. This book is devoted exclusively to Bayesian methods of analysis for applications to high-throughput gene expression data, exploring the relevant methods that are changing Bioinformatics. Case studies, illustrating Bayesian analyses of public gene expression data, provide the backdrop for students to develop analytical skills, while the more experienced readers will find the review of advanced methods challenging and attainable.
Introduces the fundamentals in Bayesian methods of analysis for applications to high-throughput gene expression data.Provides an extensive review of Bayesian analysis and advanced topics for Bioinformatics, including examples that extensively detail the necessary applications.Accompanied by website featuring datasets, exercises and solutions.
"Bayesian Analysis of Gene Expression Data" offers a unique introduction to both Bayesian analysis and gene expression, aimed at graduate students in Statistics, Biomedical Engineers, Computer Scientists, Biostatisticians, Statistical Geneticists, Computational Biologists, applied Mathematicians and Medical consultants working in genomics. Bioinformatics researchers from many fields will find much value in this book.
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