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Recent developments in behavioural neuroscience and genomics are providing exciting new tools for understanding mammalian evolution. Drawing on a range of disciplines including genomic reprogramming, immunology, genomic imprinting, placentation and brain development, this book examines the leading role played by the mother's genome and epigenome in the successful evolutionary progression of humans from ancestral mammals. Keverne begins by discussing the historic context of the perceived dominance of males and the patriline, before arguing that it is instead the matriline that exerts the dominant influence in shaping the evolution of our brain development and behaviour, especially the co-adaptive development of brain and placenta. Presenting a balanced outlook on the development of sex differences and an alternative to traditional views, Beyond Sex Differences will be of interest to anyone studying and researching mother and infant development.
Our genome is the blueprint for our existence: it encodes all the information we need to develop from a single cell into a hugely complicated functional organism. Yet it is more than a static information store: our genome is a dynamic, tightly-regulated collection of genes, which switch on and off in many combinations to give the variety of cells from which our bodies are formed. But how do we identify the genes that make up our genome? How do we determine their function? And how do different genes form the regulatory networks that direct the processes of life? Introduction to Genomics is the most up-to-date and complete textbook for students approaching the subject for the first time. Lesk's engaging writing style brings a narrative to a disparate field of study and offers a fascinating insight into what can be revealed from the study of genomes. The book covers: the similarities and differences between organisms; how different organisms evolved; how the genome is constructed and how it operates; and what our understanding of genomics means in terms of our future health and wellbeing. The Online Resource Centre accompanying Introduction to Genomics features: For students: - Extensive and imaginative weblems (web-based problems) for each chapter designed to give you practice with the tools required for further study and research in the field - Hints and answers to end-of-chapter problems and exercises support your self-directed learning - Guided tour of websites and major archival databanks in genomics offer a wealth of resources to springboard your own research - Journal club: links to related research articles on topics covered in the book are paired with engaging questions to improve your interpretation of the primary literature - Rotating figures allow you to visualize complex structures For registered adopters: - Downloadable figures from the book.
This volume expands on statistical analysis of genomic data by discussing cross-cutting groundwork material, public data repositories, common applications, and representative tools for operating on genomic data. Statistical Genomics: Methods and Protocols is divided into four sections. The first section discusses overview material and resources that can be applied across topics mentioned throughout the book. The second section covers prominent public repositories for genomic data. The third section presents several different biological applications of statistical genomics, and the fourth section highlights software tools that can be used to facilitate ad-hoc analysis and data integration. Written in the highly successful Methods in Molecular Biology series format, chapters include introductions to their respective topics, step-by-step, readily reproducible analysis protocols, and tips on troubleshooting and avoiding known pitfalls. Through and practical, Statistical Genomics: Methods and Protocols, explores a range of both applications and tools and is ideal for anyone interested in the statistical analysis of genomic data.
A thought-provoking exploration of deleterious mutations in the human genome and their effects on human health and wellbeing Despite all of the elaborate mechanisms that a cell employs to handle its DNA with the utmost care, a newborn human carries about 100 new mutations, originated in their parents, about 10 of which are deleterious. A mutation replacing just one of the more than three billion nucleotides in the human genome may lead to synthesis of a dysfunctional protein, and this can be inconsistent with life or cause a tragic disease. Several percent of even young people suffer from diseases that are caused, exclusively or primarily, by pre ]existing and new mutations in their genomes, including both a wide variety of genetically simple Mendelian diseases and diverse complex diseases such as birth anomalies, diabetes, and schizophrenia. Milder, but still substantial, negative effects of mutations are even more pervasive. As of now, we possess no means of reducing the rate at which mutations appear spontaneously. However, the recent flood of genomic data made possible by next-generation methods of DNA sequencing, enabled scientists to explore the impacts of deleterious mutations on humans with previously unattainable precision and begin to develop approaches to managing them. Written by a leading researcher in the field of evolutionary genetics, Crumbling Genome reviews the current state of knowledge about deleterious mutations and their effects on humans for those in the biological sciences and medicine, as well as for readers with only a general scientific literacy and an interest in human genetics. * Provides an extensive introduction to the fundamentals of evolutionary genetics with an emphasis on mutation and selection * Discusses the effects of pre-existing and new mutations on human genotypes and phenotypes * Provides a comprehensive review of the current state of knowledge in the field and considers crucial unsolved problems * Explores key ethical, scientific, and social issues likely to become relevant in the near future as the modification of human germline genotypes becomes technically feasible Crumbling Genome is must-reading for students and professionals in human genetics, genomics, bioinformatics, evolutionary biology, and biological anthropology. It is certain to have great appeal among all those with an interest in the links between genetics and evolution and how they are likely to influence the future of human health, medicine, and society.
Winner of the 2014 Diamond Anniversary Book Award Finalist for the 2014 National Communications Association Critical and Cultural Studies Division Book of the Year Award In 2000, the National Human Genome Research Institute announced the completion of a "draft" of the human genome, the sequence information of nearly all 3 billion base pairs of DNA. Since then, interest in the hereditary basis of disease has increased considerably. In The Material Gene, Kelly E. Happe considers the broad implications of this development by treating "heredity" as both a scientific and political concept. Beginning with the argument that eugenics was an ideological project that recast the problems of industrialization as pathologies of gender, race, and class, the book traces the legacy of this ideology in contemporary practices of genomics. Delving into the discrete and often obscure epistemologies and discursive practices of genomic scientists, Happe maps the ways in which the hereditarian body, one that is also normatively gendered and racialized, is the new site whereby economic injustice, environmental pollution, racism, and sexism are implicitly reinterpreted as pathologies of genes and by extension, the bodies they inhabit. Comparing genomic approaches to medicine and public health with discourses of epidemiology, social movements, and humanistic theories of the body and society, The Material Gene reworks our common assumption of what might count as effective, just, and socially transformative notions of health and disease.
Epigenetics is a term in biology referring to heritable traits that do not involve changes in the underlying DNA sequence of the organism. Epigenetic traits exist on top of or in addition to the traditional molecular basis for inheritance. The "epigenome" is a parallel to the word "genome," and refers to the overall epigenetic state of a cell. Cancer and stem cell research have gradually focused attention on these genome modifications. The molecular basis of epigenetics involves modifications to DNA and the chromatin proteins that associate with it. Methylation, for example, can silence a nearby gene and seems to be involved in some cancers. Epigenetics is beginning to form and take shape as a new scientific discipline, which will have a major impact on Medicine and essentially all fields of biology. Increasingly, researchers are unearthing links between epigenetics and a number of diseases. Although in recent years cancer has been the main focus of epigenetics, recent data suggests that epigenetic plays a critical role in psychology and psychopathology. It is being realized that normal behaviors such as maternal care and pathologies such as Schizophrenia and Alzheimer's might have an epigenetic basis. It is also becoming clear that nutrition and life experiences have epigenetic consequences. Discover more online content in the Encyclopedia of Molecular Cell Biology and Molecular Medicine.
This volume provides current up-to-date protocols for preparing the ovary for various imaging techniques, genetic protocols for generating mutant clones, mosaic analysis and assessing cell death. Chapters address methods for performing genome wide gene expression analysis and bioinformatics for studies of RNA-protein interactions. Written in the highly successful Methods in Molecular Biology series format, chapters include introductions to their respective topics, lists of the necessary materials and reagents, step-by-step, readily reproducible laboratory protocols, and tips on troubleshooting and avoiding known pitfalls. Authoritative and cutting-edge, Drosophila Oogenesis: Methods and Protocols aims to ensure successful results in the further study of this vital field.
Genome Chaos: Rethinking Genetics, Evolution, and Molecular Medicine transports readers from Mendelian Genetics to 4D-genomics, building a case for genes and genomes as distinct biological entities, and positing that the genome, rather than individual genes, defines system inheritance and represents a clear unit of selection for macro-evolution. In authoring this thought-provoking text, Dr. Heng invigorates fresh discussions in genome theory and helps readers reevaluate their current understanding of human genetics, evolution, and new pathways for advancing molecular and precision medicine.
The series Topics in Current Chemistry presents critical reviews of the present and future trends in modern chemical research. The scope of coverage is all areas of chemical science including the interfaces with related disciplines such as biology, medicine and materials science. The goal of each thematic volume is to give the non-specialist reader, whether in academia or industry, a comprehensive insight into an area where new research is emerging which is of interest to a larger scientific audience. Each review within the volume critically surveys one aspect of that topic and places it within the context of the volume as a whole. The most significant developments of the last 5 to 10 years are presented using selected examples to illustrate the principles discussed. The coverage is not intended to be an exhaustive summary of the field or include large quantities of data, but should rather be conceptual, concentrating on the methodological thinking that will allow the non-specialist reader to understand the information presented. Contributions also offer an outlook on potential future developments in the field. Review articles for the individual volumes are invited by the volume editors. Readership: research chemists at universities or in industry, graduate students.
This volume presents a valuable and readily reproducible collection of established and emerging techniques on modern genetic analyses. Chapters focus on statistical or data mining analyses, genetic architecture, the burden of multiple testing, genetic variance, measuring epistasis, multifactor dimensionality reduction, and ReliefF. Written in the highly successful Methods in Molecular Biology series format, chapters include introductions to their respective topics, lists of the necessary materials and reagents, step-by-step, readily reproducible laboratory protocols, and key tips on troubleshooting and avoiding known pitfalls. Authoritative and practical, Epistasis: Methods and Protocols aids scientists in continuing to study elucidate epistasis in the context of modern data availability.
This book reviews the latest trends and future directions of DNA replication research. The contents reflect upon the principles that have been established through the genetic and enzymatic studies of bacterial, viral, and cellular replication during the past decades. The book begins with a historical overview of the studies on eukaryotic DNA replication by Professor Thomas Kelly, a pioneer of the field. The following chapters include genome-wide studies of replication origins and initiation factor binding, as well as the timing of DNA replications, mechanisms of initiation, DNA chain elongation and termination of DNA replication, the structural basis of functions of protein complexes responsible for execution of DNA replication, cell cycle-dependent regulation of DNA replication, the nature of replication stress and cells' strategy to deal with the stress, and finally how all these phenomena are interconnected to genome instability and development of various diseases. By reviewing the existing concepts ranging from the old principles to the newest ideas, the book gives readers an opportunity to learn how the classical replication principles are now being modified and new concepts are being generated to explain how genome DNA replication is achieved with such high adaptability and plasticity. With the development of new methods including cryoelectron microscopy analyses of huge protein complexes, single molecular analyses of initiation and elongation of DNA replication, and total reconstitution of eukaryotic DNA replication with purified factors, the field is enjoying one of its most exciting moments, and this highly timely book conveys that excitement to all interested readers.
This unique book covers a broad diversity of fungal systems and provides unique insight into the functions of those fungi in various ecosystems from soil, to plant, to human. Bringing together fungal genomic information on a variety of lifestyles and traits, the book covers saprotrophism, pathogenesis (including biotrophs, hemibiotrophs, necrotrophs) and symbiosis. Advances in high-throughput sequencing now offer unprecedented opportunities for identification of novel key molecular mechanisms controlling plant-microbe interactions, evolution of fungi and developmentally- and ecologically-relevant traits, this book explores how these massive streams of fungal sequences can be exploited to gain a deeper understanding of the evolution of fungi and their ecological role. Although tremendous progress has been made in recent years in fungal genomics, thanks to the sequencing of over one hundred fungal genomes, until now no book has used this information to bridge fungal genomics, molecular ecology and ecology. Edited by a recognized leader in fungal genomics and soil metagenomics with over a decade of experience, Genomics & Metagenomics for Harnessing the Ecology of Fungi will be a useful resource for the experienced as well as the new researchers entering the field.
Transposable elements have played a major role in shaping plant genome structure and gene expression. Transposons not only drive sequence expansion, induce mutations and generate chromosome rearrangements, they also help to shape the epigenetic topology of the eukaryotic genome. In Plant Transposable Elements: Methods and Protocols, expert researchers in the field detail many of the methods which are now commonly used to study transposons. These methods include computational approaches to study the ancient transposon remnants that comprise the bulk of plant genomes, as well as laboratory techniques to identify recent and ongoing transposition events. Written in the highly successful Methods in Molecular Biology (TM) series format, chapters include introductions to their respective topics, lists of the necessary materials and reagents, step-by-step, readily reproducible laboratory protocols, and key tips on troubleshooting and avoiding known pitfalls. Authoritative and practical, Plant Transposable Elements: Methods and Protocols seeks to aid scientists in the further study of transposons by providing essential background information and specific experimental protocols.
The national bestseller that reveals how we are descended from seven prehistoric women.
Synthetic biology is one of the 21st century's fastest growing fields of research, as important for technology as for basic science. Building on traditional genetic engineering, which was restricted to changing one or two genes, synthetic biology uses multi-gene modules and pathways to make very significant changes to what cells can do. Synthetic biologists aim to have an impact in fields as diverse as drug manufacture, biofuel production, tackling pollution, and medical diagnostics. Further ahead, synthetic biology may even make possible the long-standing goal of creating new life from non-living starting materials. This Very Short Introduction provides a concise explanation of what synthetic biology is, and how it is beginning to affect many fields of technology. Jamie Davies also discusses the considerable controversies surrounding synthetic biology, from questions over the assumption that engineering concepts can be applied to living systems easily, to scepticism over the claims for commercial promise, fears that the dangers of engineering life are worse than its benefits, and concerns over whether humans should be designing living systems at all. ABOUT THE SERIES: The Very Short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost every subject area. These pocket-sized books are the perfect way to get ahead in a new subject quickly. Our expert authors combine facts, analysis, perspective, new ideas, and enthusiasm to make interesting and challenging topics highly readable.
In 1962, Maurice Wilkins, Francis Crick, and James Watson received the Nobel Prize, but it was Rosalind Franklin's data and photographs of DNA that led to their discovery.
Brenda Maddox tells a powerful story of a remarkably single-minded, forthright, and tempestuous young woman who, at the age of fifteen, decided she was going to be a scientist, but who was airbrushed out of the greatest scientific discovery of the twentieth century.
The earth's daily rotation affects just about every living creature. From dawn through to dusk, there are changes in light, temperature, humidity, and rainfall. However, these changes are regular, rhythmic and, therefore, predictable. Thus, the near 24 hour circadian rhythm is innate: a genetically programmed clock that essentially ticks of its own accord. This Very Short Introduction explains how organisms can "know" the time and reveals what we now understand of the nature and operation of chronobiological processes. Covering variables such as light, the metabolism, human health, and the seasons, Foster and Kreitzman illustrate how jet lag and shift work can impact on human well-being, and consider circadian rhythms alongside a wide range of disorders, from schizophrenia to obesity. ABOUT THE SERIES: The Very Short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost every subject area. These pocket-sized books are the perfect way to get ahead in a new subject quickly. Our expert authors combine facts, analysis, perspective, new ideas, and enthusiasm to make interesting and challenging topics highly readable.
This textbook aims to describe the fascinating area of eukaryotic gene regulation for graduate students in all areas of the biomedical sciences. Gene expression is essential in shaping the various phenotypes of cells and tissues and as such, regulation of gene expression is a fundamental aspect of nearly all processes in physiology, both in healthy and in diseased states. This pivotal role for the regulation of gene expression makes this textbook essential reading for students of all the biomedical sciences, in order to be better prepared for their specialized disciplines. A complete understanding of transcription factors and the processes that alter their activity is a major goal of modern life science research. The availability of the whole human genome sequence (and that of other eukaryotic genomes) and the consequent development of next-generation sequencing technologies have significantly changed nearly all areas of the biological sciences. For example, the genome-wide location of histone modifications and transcription factor binding sites, such as provided by the ENCODE consortium, has greatly improved our understanding of gene regulation. Therefore, the focus of this book is the description of the post-genome understanding of gene regulation. The purpose of this book is to provide, in a condensed form, an overview on the present understanding of the mechanisms of gene regulation. The authors are not aiming to compete with comprehensive treatises, but rather focus on the essentials. Therefore, the authors have favored a high figure-to-text ratio following the rule stating that "a picture tells more than thousand words". The content of the book is based on the lecture course, which is given by Prof. Carlberg since 2001 at the University of Eastern Finland in Kuopio. The book is subdivided into 4 sections and 13 chapters. Following the Introduction there are three sections, which take a view on gene regulation from the perspective of transcription factors, chromatin and non-coding RNA, respectively. Besides its value as a textbook, Mechanisms of Gene Regulation will be a useful reference for individuals working in biomedical laboratories.
The diversity of RNAs inside living cells is amazing. We have known of the more "classic" RNA species: mRNA, tRNA, rRNA, snRNA and snoRNA for some time now, but in a steady stream new types of molecules are being described as it is becoming clear that most of the genomic information of cells ends up in RNA. To deal with the enormous load of resulting RNA processing and degradation reactions, cells need adequate and efficient molecular machines. The RNA exosome is arising as a major facilitator to this effect. Structural and functional data gathered over the last decade have illustrated the biochemical importance of this multimeric complex and its many co-factors, revealing its enormous regulatory power. By gathering some of the most prominent researchers in the exosome field, it is the aim of this volume to introduce this fascinating protein complex as well as to give a timely and rich account of its many functions. The exosome was discovered more than a decade ago by Phil Mitchell and David Tollervey by its ability to trim the 3'end of yeast, S. cerevisiae, 5. 8S rRNA. In a historic account they laid out the events surrounding this identification and the subsequent birth of the research field. In the chapter by Kurt Januszyk and Christopher Lima the structural organization of eukaryotic exosomes and their evolutionary counterparts in bacteria and archaea are discussed in large part through presentation of structures.
This volume focuses on mono-ADP-ribosylation and enzymes that use NAD+ including Sirtuins, PARPs, and bacterial and eukaryotic ADP-ribosyltransferases. The chapters in this book are organized into eight parts, and offer detailed descriptions of key protocols used to study topics such as in vitro techniques for ADP-ribosylation substrate identification; biochemical and biophysical assays of PAR-WWE domain interactions; monitoring expression and enzyme activity of ecto-ARTCs; HPLC-based enzymes assays for Sirtuins; and identifying target RNAs of PARPs. Written in the highly successful Methods in Molecular Biology series format, chapters include introductions to their respective topics, lists of the necessary materials and reagents, step-by-step, readily reproducible laboratory protocols, and tips on troubleshooting and avoiding known pitfalls. Cutting-edge and thorough, ADP-ribosylation and NAD+ Utilizing Enzymes: Methods and Protocols is a valuable resource for anyone interested in this developing and expanding field.
"Genomics in Asia" focuses on issues dealing with the development and application of molecular biology and bioengineering technologies in Asian societies and cultures. The workshop on which this book is based aimed to gain an insight into bioethical issues with relation to the dynamics of Asian societies, cultures and religions. It was to generate debate on Asian Genomics and create a basis for comparative research into the relationship between the development and application of modern genetics, cultural values, and local interests in Asian societies. The papers first of all reflect a great variety of bioethical views discussed from the angle of different disciplinary and cultural backgrounds, creating a basis on which a further comparison between different local knowledge systems in relation to genomic practices will be feasible.
This book provides insights on research into the social, political and ethical aspects of genomics, and reflects the bioethical experiences of researchers from Japan, China, the Philippines, Thailand, Taiwan, Pakistan, India and Malaysia. The subjects of discussion vary from genetics in China to religious perspectives on cloning and genetic therapy. Themes include the commercial and medical application of new bioengineering technologies, such as the impact of preventive genetic medicine, genetic counselling, genetically modified organisms [GMOs] and stem-cell research on wealth distribution, cultural traditions, social well-being, and political and legal regulations and institutions. In the study of bioengineering in Asia, various perspectives were brought together at a concrete research level. The authors tried to avoid macro-concepts incorporated bydichotomies of East and West and to acquire new insights into the relationship between local knowledge systems and cultures and interests groups on the one hand and the constellation of various interests of scientific research, governments and MNCs on the other.
How could a relatively simple chemical code give rise to the complexity of a human being? How could our human genome have evolved? And how does it actually work? Over the past 50 years we have deciphered the inner workings of the human genome. From the basic structure of DNA through to the complete sequence of the code, what first appeared to be simple is actually a complex and beautiful three-dimensional world that makes each of us who we are. In The Mysterious World of the Human Genome acclaimed science writer Frank Ryan leads us through the most exciting scientific discoveries of the last 50 years, revealing how this science has unlocked the cure of some genetic diseases, developed the use of DNA in forensic science and paternity testing, helped us trace our ancestors and provided a definitive map for the movement of humans out of Africa. This scientific journey has had a profound impact on our understanding of the evolution of life itself, through the role of the most ancient of organisms in our basic biology all the way to the revelation that our most recent ancestor, Homo neanderthalensis, lives on in many of us. In the ever more complicated world of the human genome, this is the first book to explain how the human genome actually works as a whole and how that knowledge will have a profound effect on our understanding of where we have come from and where we are likely to be going in the future.
The second edition of a highly acclaimed handbook and ready reference. Unmatched in its breadth and quality, around 100 specialists from all over the world share their up-to-date expertise and experiences, including hundreds of protocols, complete with explanations, and hitherto unpublished troubleshooting hints. They cover all modern techniques for the handling, analysis and modification of RNAs and their complexes with proteins. Throughout, they bear the practising bench scientist in mind, providing quick and reliable access to a plethora of solutions for practical questions of RNA research, ranging from simple to highly complex. This broad scope allows the treatment of specialized methods side by side with basic biochemical techniques, making the book a real treasure trove for every researcher experimenting with RNA.
DNA can be extracted and sequenced from a diverse range of biological samples, providing a vast amount of information about evolution and ecology. The analysis of DNA sequences contributes to evolutionary biology at all levels, from dating the origin of the biological kingdoms to untangling family relationships. An Introduction to Molecular Evolution and Phylogenetics presents the fundamental concepts and intellectual tools you need to understand how the genome records information about evolutionary past and processes, how that information can be "read", and what kinds of questions we can use that information to answer. Starting with evolutionary principles, and illustrated throughout with biological examples, it is the perfect starting point on the journey to an understanding of the way molecular data is used in modern biology. Online Resource Centre The Online Resource Centre features: For registered adopters of the book: - Class plans for one-hour hands-on sessions associated with each chapter - Figures from the textbook to view and download
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