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This book describes how genomics has revolutionized our scientific understanding of agriculturally important plant-associated bacteria. Each chapter focuses on the genomics of particular bacteria: the first described plant pathogen, "Erwinia amylovora"; phytoplasmas lacking cell walls; fastidious, phloem-restricted liberibacters; "Pseudomonas syringae," which is a genetically tractable model system; "Xanthomonas citri," which causes a disease that can devastate citrus crops and "Pseudomonas fluorescens," which can protect plants from diseases.
Topics considered in this volume include the importance of horizontal gene transfer in originating new bacterial strains and species and advances in transcriptomics that allow us to describe the complex regulatory networks critical to plant-microbe interactions. The availability of the "Xanthomonas oryzae" genome has led to new technologies in genome editing, which will revolutionize approaches to genetic engineering, even in eukaryotes. The contributions show how genomics has greatly accelerated progress toward understanding the biology of these bacteria and how that understanding can be translated into novel crop protection methods.
Advances in genome-scale DNA sequencing technologies have revolutionized genetic research on ancient organisms, extinct species, and past environments. When it is recoverable after hundreds or thousands of years of unintended preservation, "ancient DNA" (or aDNA) is often highly degraded, necessitating specialized handling and analytical approaches. Paleogenomics defines the field of reconstructing and analyzing the genomes of historic or long-dead organisms, most often through comparison with modern representatives of the same or similar species. The opportunity to isolate and study paleogenomes has radically transformed many fields, spanning biology, anthropology, agriculture, and medicine. Examples include understanding evolutionary relationships of extinct species known only from fossils, the domestication of plants and animals, and the evolution and geographical spread of certain pathogens. This pioneering book presents a snapshot view of the history, current status, and future prospects of paleogenomics, taking a broad viewpoint that covers a range of topics and organisms to provide an up-to-date status of the applications, challenges, and promise of the field. This book is intended for a variety of readerships, including upper-level undergraduate and graduate students, professionals and experts in the field, as well as anyone excited by the extraordinary insights that paleogenomics offers.
Due to its data handling and modeling capabilities as well as its flexibility, R is becoming the most widely used software in bioinformatics. R Programming for Bioinformatics explores the programming skills needed to use this software tool for the solution of bioinformatics and computational biology problems. Drawing on the author's first-hand experiences as an expert in R, the book begins with coverage on the general properties of the R language, several unique programming aspects of R, and object-oriented programming in R. It presents methods for data input and output as well as database interactions. The author also examines different facets of string handling and manipulations, discusses the interfacing of R with other languages, and describes how to write software packages. He concludes with a discussion on the debugging and profiling of R code. With numerous examples and exercises, this practical guide focuses on developing R programming skills in order to tackle problems encountered in bioinformatics and computational biology.
Legumes in the Omic Era provides a timely review of recent advances in legume genomics research and application. In this post-genomic era enormous amount of biological information is available which could be of huge potential use for crop improvement applications. This aspect of genomics assisted plant breeding is focused throughout the book for all the important grain legume crops. Role of functional genomics and importance of bioinformatics tools in present day genomics and molecular breeding research is also discussed in detail. Use of molecular tools for nutritional fortification of grain legume is briefly presented. A chapter also been contributed on fungal disease resistance to elucidate potential application of genomic tools in molecular breeding of grain legume species. The book contains fifteen chapters contributed by 50 scientists from different countries who are actively involved in analyzing and improving particular legume genome. This book will serve as reference resource to legumes researchers for use of genome information in improvement of major legume crops.
Dr Sanjeev Gupta is Principal Scientist/Project Coordinator-All India Coordinated Research Project on "Vigna" Crops at Indian Institute of Pulses Research (IIPR), Kanpur. He has more than two decades of research experience in grain legume breeding and developed a number of high yielding cultivars in grain legumes. He is authored numerous research papers published in peer-reviewed journals and edited several books in plant breeding aspects. He was the Organizing Secretary of the International Grain Legume Conference, 2009 held in the Indian Institute of Pulses Research, Kanpur, India. He has travelled across the continents to present his research several times. He is recipient of several awards for his research and literary contributions Dr. Nagasamy Nadarajan is the Director of the Indian Institute of Pulses Research (IIPR), Kanpur. He has more than three decades of teaching and research experience and developed more than fifteen legume and cereal cultivars. He has to his credits more than 200 peer-reviewed research publications. He has guided several graduate students for Masters and Doctoral degrees in food legume breeding and genetics research. He has authored a book in biometrics which is one of the most popular books among the agriculture graduate students in India. He is the recipient of three international and six national awards and honours for his outstanding contributions Mr. Debjyoti Sen Gupta is the ICAR International Fellow and Ph.D. candidate at North Dakota State University (NDSU), Fargo, USA. Recently, he visited Department of Crop and Soil Sciences, Washington State University, Pullman, USA for high throughput genotyping work. Before joining at NDSU he was serving as the Scientist in the Indian Institute of Pulses Research (IIPR). He has authored several research articles, review articles and book chapters in the peer-reviewed journals and books from reputed publishers like Springer, CABI etc. He is recipient of several fellowships like CSIR-JRF, New Delhi; ICAR-JRF, New Delhi throughout his graduate study programs. "
Featuring current resources used to discover new legume family genes and to understand genes and their interactions, Legume Genomics: Methods and Protocols provides techniques from expert researchers to study these plants that are so vitally important for food, feed, human nutrition, bioenergy, and industrial purposes. This detailed volume covers genome characterization and analysis, transcriptome analysis and miRNA identification/analysis, forward and reverse genetics, molecular markers, as well as transformation strategies used to investigate gene function and many other topics. Written in the highly successful Methods in Molecular Biology series format, chapters include introductions to their respective topics, lists of the necessary materials and reagents, step-by-step, readily reproducible laboratory protocols, and tips on troubleshooting and avoiding known pitfalls. Authoritative and useful, Legume Genomics: Methods and Protocols aims to serve plant molecular biologists, molecular breeders, plant physiologists and biochemists, developmental biologists, and those interested in plant-microbe interactions.
GENE REGULATION provides a comprehensive coverage on the regulation of gene in bacteria, viruses, and eukaryotes. The book will also deal with often ignored but very essential aspect of gene expression, i.e., chromatin (DNA and protein) modifications that affect gene expression in bacteria, viruses, and eukaryotes that play role in gene expression. Recent aspects, i.e., modification, modulation of gene expression and exploitation of gene regulation will be dealt with in a separate chapter. Some molecular analysis tools dealing with gene expression and regulation will also be dealt with. Recent progresses have been discussed. Nobel Prize winning work finds a special mention. Various terms in the subject have been define in context of the present day knowledge. For this, there is a separate section on glossary of important terms in the book. Recent literature relevant to the subject matter has been cited and complete references are provided to the reader at the end of the subject matter. In addition, references for further reading have also been suggested. Efforts will be made to pin-point applications/implications of different discoveries in the area of molecular genetics.
As imaging technologies and approaches have evolved, the scope of certain imaging techniques has moved far beyond the production of purely illustrative images or appealing time-lapse movies to providing the scientist with a rich range of ways to measure and quantify the biological process and outcome of gene expression. In Imaging Gene Expression: Methods and Protocols, expert authors offer up-to-date approaches and protocols that scientists in the field have developed, which would benefit the broader scientific community. Divided in three convenient parts, this detailed book covers the output of a gene, namely the RNA molecules that are transcribed from the gene and the way by which these molecules can be tracked or quantified in fixed or living cells, protocols that focus on the gene, DNA, or chromatin, as well as a variety of ways by which nuclear processes intertwined with gene expression can be followed and quantified in living cells as well as approaches for studying several sub-nuclear structures found in eukaryotic cells. Written in the highly successful Methods in Molecular Biology series format, chapters include introductions to their respective subjects, lists of materials and reagents, step-by-step, readily reproducible laboratory protocols, and tips on troubleshooting and avoiding known pitfalls. Authoritative and up-to-date, Imaging Gene Expression: Methods and Protocols will serve researchers working toward imaging in the context of complete organisms.
An inspiring overview Recent research into ploidy changes, gene and genome duplications encompasses and wide spectrum of fascinating topics. Like most fields of modern biology, polyploidy research experiences an ongoing transformation thanks to next and beyond-next generation sequencing technologies. More than 30 years ago, Lewis edited his comprehensive work on polyploid plants and animals. Although there have been efforts to bring together polyploidy researchers from botany and zoology in recent conferences, collaboration between them is still scarce. Therefore, the editors of this thematic issue have made a special attempt to mirror and contrast research on polyploid animals with that on plants. Featuring 15 articles on various hot topics in polyploidy research ranging from cytology to evolution, this publication provides an inspiring overview and will be useful reading to both animal and plant researchers.
This book provides an evolutionary conceptual framework for comparative genomics, with the ultimate objective of understanding the loss and gain of genes during evolution, the interactions among gene products, and the relationship between genotype, phenotype and the environment. The many examples in the book have been carefully chosen from primary research literature based on two criteria: their biological insight and their pedagogical merit. The phylogeny-based comparative methods, involving both continuous and discrete variables, often represent a stumbling block for many students entering the field of comparative genomics. They are numerically illustrated and explained in great detail. The book is intended for researchers new to the field, i.e., advanced undergraduate students, postgraduates and postdoctoral fellows, although professional researchers who are not in the area of comparative genomics will also find the book informative.
DNA microarray technology has revolutionized research in the past decade. Initially an application for mRNA expression studies, the technology now has spread to other applications such as comparative genomic hybridization, SNP and mutation analysis. In DNA Microarrays for Biomedical Research: Methods and Protocols, experts explore these now commonly used applications, addressing probe design strategies, fabrication issues and providing practical examples of detailed methods for generation of high quality DNA microarray data. Chapters incorporate information on some of the largest providers of microarray, including Affymetrix, Ilumina and Agilent, and their use on a variety of applications. Composed in the highly successful Methods in Molecular Biology series format, each chapter contains a brief introduction, step-by-step methods, a list of necessary materials, and a Notes section which shares tips on troubleshooting and avoiding known pitfalls.
Authoritative and highly practical, DNA Microarrays for Biomedical Research: Methods and Protocols presents a variety of protocols which can be easily reproduced, allowing researchers to gain surprising insight into the complex world of DNA microarray technology.
In this book, the authors present new research in the study of sex chromosomes. Topics discussed in this compilation include the evolution of mammalian X chromosomes and X chromosome inactivation; the role of sex chromosomes in mammalian female fertility; the fate of the Y chromosome; the role of Y chromosome genes on tumour development risk in disgenetic gonads; deletion of amelogenin Y-locus; non-invasive prenatal diagnosis for foetal sex determination; and application of X chromosomal STR polymorphisms to individual identification.
This book intends to look ahead to the numerous future biomedical applications of DNA and RNA aptamers, especially in the areas of diagnostics and therapeutics. In this book, the editor assembles an international set of contributors from a variety of biomedical disciplines covering the whole gambit of diagnostic and therapeutic applications of aptamers. The reader will also be exposed to some of the latest applications of aptamers for the detection and destruction of pathogenic bacteria, exotic and sometimes lethal viruses and parasites as well as cancer cells.
John Butler, bestselling author of Forensic DNA Typing, now
applies his expertise on the subject of DNA analysis into an
introductory textbook. Fundamentals of Forensic DNA Typing walks
students step-by-step through the DNA analysis process beginning
with collection of evidence at a crime scene to the statistical
interpretation of the results. Also included are brief discussions
of such news worthy topics as victim identification from the
September 11, 2001 attacks, the identification of the remains of
the Romanovs, the last Russian Royal family, and the O.J. Simpson
case. New applications, such as genetic genealogy and tracing
domestic pet hairs to perpetrators, are also detailed. With its
clear and understandable style and extensive list of online
ancillaries and study aids, this textbook will make the subject
accessible to students in forensic science courses worldwide.
Fully integrated and comprehensive in its coverage, "Root Genomics and Soil Interactions" examines the use of genome-based technologies to understand root development and adaptability to biotic and abiotic stresses and changes in the soil environment. Written by an international team of experts in the field, this timely review highlights both model organisms and important agronomic crops. Coverage includes: novel areas unveiled by genomics research basic root biology and genomic approaches applied to analysis of root responses to the soil environment. Each chapter provides a succinct yet thorough review of research.
An important problem in computational biology is identifying short DNA sequences (mathematically, 'words') associated to a biological function. One approach consists in determining whether a particular word is simply random or is of statistical significance, for example, because of its frequency or location. This book introduces the mathematical and statistical ideas used in solving this so-called exceptional word problem. It begins with a detailed description of the principal models used in sequence analysis: Markovian models are central here and capture compositional information on the sequence being analysed. There follows an introduction to several statistical methods that are used for finding exceptional words with respect to the model used. The second half of the book is illustrated with numerous examples provided from the analysis of bacterial genomes, making this a practical guide for users facing a real situation and needing to make an adequate procedure choice.
Intracellular Signalling Proteins, Volume 116, presents an overview of the current developments in mechanisms of intracellular signaling and involvement of these mechanisms in the development of a number of disorders and diseases. Opportunities for targeting the intracellular signaling cascades for benefiting patients are also discussed, along with chapters that focus on Voices from the Dead: The Complex Language of Dead Cells, Nucleobindins and Encoded Peptides: From Cell Signalling to Physiology, Estrogen Receptor Signaling Mechanisms, Intracellular Signaling of the AMP-Activating Protein Kinase, the Relationship between Mitofusin 2 and Cancer, Molecular Signaling in Bone Cells: Regulation Cell Differentiation and Survival, and more.
The onset of cancer presents one of the most fundamental problems in modern biology. In "Dynamics of Cancer," Steven Frank produces the first comprehensive analysis of how particular genetic and environmental causes influence the age of onset.
The book provides a unique conceptual and historical framework for understanding the causes of cancer and other diseases that increase with age. Using a novel quantitative framework of reliability and multistage breakdown, Frank unifies molecular, demographic, and evolutionary levels of analysis. He interprets a wide variety of observations on the age of cancer onset, the genetic and environmental causes of disease, and the organization of tissues with regard to stem cell biology and somatic mutation. Frank uses new quantitative methods to tackle some of the classic problems in cancer biology and aging: how the rate of increase in the incidence of lung cancer declines after individuals quit smoking, the distinction between the dosage of a chemical carcinogen and the time of exposure, and the role of inherited genetic variation in familial patterns of cancer.
This is the only book that presents a full analysis of the age of cancer onset. It is a superb teaching tool and a rich source of ideas for new and experienced researchers. For cancer biologists, population geneticists, evolutionary biologists, and demographers interested in aging, this book provides new insight into disease progression, the inheritance of predisposition to disease, and the evolutionary processes that have shaped organismal design.
In this book, the authors present current research in the study of DNA binding and extraction methods, applications, and limitations. Topics discussed in this compilation include DNA binding to cationic polymers and its implications on gene therapy; metal based anticancer drug-DNA binding; non-covalent DNA-AuNP's interactions; prospects of nanoparticle DNA binding; extraction and purification of DNA from USAB reactor sludge samples; isolation of genomic DNA from microbes and microbial communities; dengue virus RNA extraction challenges and isolating bacterial and viral nucleic acids from clinical samples for diagnostic testing.
Sequencing is often associated with the Human Genome Project and celebrated achievements concerning the DNA molecule. However, the history of this practice comprises not only academic biology, but also the world of computer-assisted information management. The book uncovers this history, qualifying the hype and expectations around genomics.
With the dramatic increase in RNA 3D structure determination in recent years, we now know that RNA molecules are highly structured. Moreover, knowledge of RNA 3D structures has proven crucial for understanding in atomic detail how they carry out their biological functions. Because of the huge number of potentially important RNA molecules in biology, many more than can be studied experimentally, we need theoretical approaches for predicting 3D structures on the basis of sequences alone. This volume provides a comprehensive overview of current progress in the field by leading practitioners employing a variety of methods to model RNA 3D structures by homology, by fragment assembly, and by de novo energy and knowledge-based approaches.
Epigenetics is the most exciting field in biology today, developing our understanding of how and why we inherit certain traits, develop diseases and age, and evolve as a species. This non-fiction comic book introduces us to genetics, cell biology and the fascinating science of epigenetics, which is rapidly filling in the gaps in our knowledge, allowing us to make huge advances in medicine. We'll look at what identical twins can teach us about the epigenetic effects of our environment and experiences, why certain genes are 'switched on' or off at various stages of embryonic development, and how scientists have reversed the specialization of cells to clone frogs from a single gut cell. In Introducing Epigenetics, Cath Ennis and Oliver Pugh pull apart the double helix, examining how the epigenetic building blocks and messengers that interpret and edit our genes help to make us, well, us.
Are you considering to test your own DNA? Do you want to learn more about your health and ancestry? Understand your DNA - A Guide is about what you can use genetics for. For a few hundred dollars, you can now scan your own genes. Millions of people all over the world have already done so. Everyone wants to see what they can get to know about themselves, and the market growing rapidly. But what does it require from you? And what can you really use a DNA test for? Understand your DNA - A Guide helps you put the plots and charts of consumer genetics into perspective and enables you to figure out what's up and down in the media headlines. The book is also a key input for today's debate about what we as a society can and want to do with medical genetics. Genetics will play a growing role in the future. Understand your DNA - A Guide is an easy-to-read and necessary guide to that future. The book is provided with a foreword by Professor Sham Pak-Chung of Hong Kong University.While there are many books about genetics, they typically take the perspective of a scientist wanting to understand the molecular levels. At the same time, direct-to-consumer genetics is a booming market, with millions of people already tested. Very little has been published that will guide them for real, because the need here is more focused on medical and practical understanding, than focussed on molecules.This book therefore aims to hit that vacant spot in the market. It's a walk-through of all concepts that are necessary to understand in your own analysis. Meanwhile, it is also limited in scope to only those concepts - thus distinguishing it from broader works.The book is appropriate for the readerships in modern multi-ethnic metropolises because it mixes European and Asian examples, both from the collaboration between the author from Europe and the foreword-writer, Prof. Pak Sham of Hong Kong University. But also, because many of the examples in the book concerns differences and similarities between Asian and European ethnicities, something the author believes is a trend in time.
Homologous recombination is important in various aspects of DNA metabolism, including damage repair, replication, telomere maintenance, and meiosis, and yeast genetics has successfully provided a framework for the mechanism of homologous recombination. Divided into four convenient sections, DNA Recombination: Methods and Protocols covers recent techniques that best utilize the advantages of the yeast system, prescribing to the belief that yeast will keep serving as a great model organism to study homologous recombination. Chapters have also been included for such exceptions as the group of genes involved in recombination that are found solely in higher eukaryotes, such as BRCA2. And looking forward, a necessary step in the direction of understanding the homologous recombination process is to isolate the machine and let it work in a test tube. Understanding the design by studying the appearance and behavior of the machinery as a single molecule will be an important milestone toward understanding the mechanism of action of the machinery. Techniques covering these topics have also been included. Written in the successful Methods in Molecular Biology (TM) series format, chapters include introductions to their respective topics, lists of the necessary materials and reagents, step-by-step, readily reproducible protocols, and notes on troubleshooting and avoiding known pitfalls. Authoritative and easily accessible, DNA Recombination: Methods and Protocols serves as an ideal guide to scientists of all backgrounds with its well-honed methodologies and strives to bring the reader to the next level of understanding regarding this vital subject.
This volume provides broad coverage of computational and mathematical techniques and concepts related to the field of comparative genomics. The topics covered in the chapters range from those concerned with general techniques and concepts that apply to all organisms to others that are more specialized, covering specific biological systems such as viruses, Drosophila, and Homo sapiens. Written in the highly successful Methods in Molecular Biology series format, by authors who are active researchers in the field, many chapters include step-by-step procedures, which illustrate practical applications of the techniques described. Cutting-edge and thorough, Comparative Genomics: Methods and Protocols should be useful to students and researchers in the continually growing and exciting field of comparative genomics.
"Data Analysis and Visualization in Genomics and Proteomics" is the
first book addressing integrative data analysis and visualization
in this field. It addresses important techniques for the
interpretation of data originating from multiple sources, encoded
in different formats or protocols, and processed by multiple
systems. One of the first systematic overviews of the problem of
biological data integration using computational approachesThis book
provides scientists and students with the basis for the development
and application of integrative computational methods to analyse
biological data on a systemic scalePlaces emphasis on the
processing of multiple data and knowledge resources, and the
combination of different models and systems
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