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Introduces an approach to ethical decision making based on treating data as clients Compares the ethics of three professions; engineering, medicine and bioengineering Provides five moral theories to choose from for evaluating ethical decisions, and includes a procedure for applying them to moral analysis, and application of the procedure to example cases. Explains the process of developing a medical product under FDA regulation Explores the role of lawyers in product development, including intellectual property protection Examines a range of ethical cases, from the historical Tuskegee autonomy case to the modern CRISPR-Cas9 patent case.
Combating neural degeneration from injury or disease is extremely difficult in the brain and spinal cord, i.e. central nervous system (CNS). Unlike the peripheral nerves, CNS neurons are bombarded by physical and chemical restrictions that prevent proper healing and restoration of function. The CNS is vital to bodily function, and loss of any part of it can severely and permanently alter a person's quality of life. Tissue engineering could offer much needed solutions to regenerate or replace damaged CNS tissue. This review will discuss current CNS tissue engineering approaches integrating scaffolds, cells and stimulation techniques. Hydrogels are commonly used CNS tissue engineering scaffolds to stimulate and enhance regeneration, but fiber meshes and other porous structures show specific utility depending on application. CNS relevant cell sources have focused on implantation of exogenous cells or stimulation of endogenous populations. Somatic cells of the CNS are rarely utilized for tissue engineering; however, glial cells of the peripheral nervous system (PNS) may be used to myelinate and protect spinal cord damage. Pluripotent and multipotent stem cells offer alternative cell sources due to continuing advancements in identification and differentiation of these cells. Finally, physical, chemical, and electrical guidance cues are extremely important to neural cells, serving important roles in development and adulthood. These guidance cues are being integrated into tissue engineering approaches. Of particular interest is the inclusion of cues to guide stem cells to differentiate into CNS cell types, as well to guide neuron targeting. This review should provide the reader with a broad understanding of CNS tissue engineering challenges and tactics, with the goal of fostering the future development of biologically inspired designs.Table of Contents: Introduction / Anatomy of the CNS and Progression of Neurological Damage / Biomaterials for Scaffold Preparation / Cell Sources for CNS TE / Stimulation and Guidance / Concluding Remarks
Examining the chemical modification of biological polymers and the emerging applications of this technology, Chemical Modification of Biological Polymers reflects the change in emphasis in this subsection of biotechnology from the study of protein structure and function toward applications in therapeutics and diagnostics.
This book covers the basics on the organic chemistry underlying the chemical modification of biopolymers, including updates on the use of various chemical reagents. It describes the current status of chemical modification of biological polymers and emerging applications of this technology in biotechnology. These technologies are important for the manufacture of conjugate proteins used in drug delivery, for the preparation of nucleic acid microarrays, and for the preparation of hydrogels and other materials used in tissue engineering.
Fundus images of the retina are color images of the eye taken by specially designed digital cameras. Ophthalmologists rely on fundus images to diagnose various diseases that affect the eye, such as diabetic retinopathy and retinopathy of prematurity. A crucial preliminary step in the analysis of retinal images is the identification and localization of important anatomical structures, such as the optic nerve head (ONH), the macula, and the major vascular arcades. Identification of the ONH is an important initial step in the detection and analysis of the anatomical structures and pathological features in the retina. Different types of retinal pathology may be detected and analyzed via the application of appropriately designed techniques of digital image processing and pattern recognition. Computer-aided analysis of retinal images has the potential to facilitate quantitative and objective analysis of retinal lesions and abnormalities. Accurate identification and localization of retinal features and lesions could contribute to improved diagnosis, treatment, and management of retinopathy. This book presents an introduction to diagnostic imaging of the retina and an overview of image processing techniques for ophthalmology. In particular, digital image processing algorithms and pattern analysis techniques for the detection of the ONH are described. In fundus images, the ONH usually appears as a bright region, white or yellow in color, and is indicated as the convergent area of the network of blood vessels. Use of the geometrical and intensity characteristics of the ONH, as well as the property that the ONH represents the location of entrance of the blood vessels and the optic nerve into the retina, is demonstrated in developing the methods. The image processing techniques described in the book include morphological filters for preprocessing fundus images, filters for edge detection, the Hough transform for the detection of lines and circles, Gabor filters to detect the blood vessels, and phase portrait analysis for the detection of convergent or node-like patterns. Illustrations of application of the methods to fundus images from two publicly available databases are presented, in terms of locating the center and the boundary of the ONH. Methods for quantitative evaluation of the results of detection of the ONH using measures of overlap and free-response receiver operating characteristics are also described.
Since synthetic plastics derived from fossil resources are mostly non-biodegradable, many academic and industrial researchers have shifted their attention toward bio-based materials, which are more eco-friendly. Bio-Based Composites for High-Performance Materials: From Strategy to Industrial Application provides an overview of the state-of-art in bio-based composites. The book integrates knowledge from various disciplines including plant science, materials science, polymer chemistry, chemical engineering, and nanotechnology. It discusses the raw materials used in bio-based composites, basic design principles, properties, applications, and life cycle assessments. The book also presents a strategic and policy-oriented view of these composites and considers the costs of retrofitting existing chemical production plants for bio-based composite manufacture. It is a definitive resource on bio-composites for academics, regulatory agencies, research and development communities, and industries worldwide.
Advanced Oxidation Processes for Wastewater Treatment: An Innovative Approach: This book highlights the importance of various innovative advanced oxidation technology to clean up the environment from pollution caused by human activities. It assesses the potential application of several existing bioremediation techniques and introduces new emerging technologies. This book is an updated vision of the existing advanced oxidation strategies with their limitations and challenges and their potential application to remove environmental pollutants. It also introduces the new trends and advances in environmental bioremediation technology with thorough discussion of recent developments in this field. This book highlights the importance of different innovative advanced oxidation process to deal with the ever-increasing number of environmental pollutants. Features: Illustrates the importance of various advance oxidation processes in effluent treatment plant Points out the reuse of the treated wastewater through emerging advance oxidation technologies for effluent treatment plant Highlights the recovery of resources from wastewater Pays attention to the occurrence of novel micro-pollutants Emphasizes the role of nanotechnology in bioremediation of pollutants Introduces new trends in environmental bioremediation
Bacterial reporters are live, genetically engineered cells with promising application in bioanalytics. They contain genetic circuitry to produce a cellular sensing element, which detects the target compound and relays the detection to specific synthesis of so-called reporter proteins (the presence or activity of which is easy to quantify). Bioassays with bacterial reporters are a useful complement to chemical analytics because they measure biological responses rather than total chemical concentrations. Simple bacterial reporter assays may also replace more costly chemical methods as a first line sample analysis technique. Recent promising developments integrate bacterial reporter cells with microsystems to produce bacterial biosensors.This lecture presents an in-depth treatment of the synthetic biological design principles of bacterial reporters, the engineering of which started as simple recombinant DNA puzzles, but has now become a more rational approach of choosing and combining sensing, controlling and reporting DNA 'parts'. Several examples of existing bacterial reporter designs and their genetic circuitry will be illustrated. Besides the design principles, the lecture also focuses on the application principles of bacterial reporter assays. A variety of assay formats will be illustrated, and principles of quantification will be dealt with. In addition to this discussion, substantial reference material is supplied in various Annexes.Table of Contents: Short History of the use of Bacteria for Biosensing and Bioreporting / Genetic Engineering Concepts / Measuring with Bioreporters / Epilogue
Biofertilizers, Volume One: Advances in Bio-inoculants provides state-of-the-art descriptions of various approaches, techniques and basic fundamentals of BI used in crop fertilization practices. The book presents research within a relevant theoretical framework to improve our understanding of core issues as applied to natural resource management. Authored by renowned scientists actively working on bio-inoculant, biofertilizer and bio-stimulant sciences, the book addresses the scope of inexpensive and energy neutral bio-inoculant technologies and the impact regulation has on biofertilizer utilization. This book is a valuable reference for agricultural/environmental scientists in academic and corporate environments, graduate and post-graduate students, regulators and policymakers.
"Science is fun " Is the motto of this fun-filled book by Prof
Reinhard Renneberg. Do you know that in Japan, washing machines
have no "cooking program" thanks to enzyme detergents? How to make
German-style beer from rice? How do you make real snow with dead
frost-bacteria? Is using bio-ethanol as a car fuel going against
our environment? How can you clone your neighbor's beautiful cat?
How to eliminate breast cancer genes before a baby girl is born?
Can the financial crisis be solved by breeding better stock market
traders? How to measure the fitness of students? The questions are
The Encyclopedia of Biotechnology in Agriculture and Food provides users with unprecedented access to nearly 200 entries that cover the entire food system, describing the concepts and processes that are used in the production of raw agricultural materials and food product manufacturing. So that users can locate the information they need quickly without having to flip through pages and pages of content, the encyclopedia avoids unnecessary complication by presenting information in short, accessible overviews.
Addresses Environmental Issues & Sustainability in the Context of 21st Century Challenges
Edited by a respected team of biotechnology experts, this unrivaled resource includes descriptions and interpretations of molecular biology research, including topics on the science associated with the cloning of animals, the genetic modification of plants, and the enhanced quality of foods. It discusses current and future applications of molecular biology, with contributions on disease resistance in animals, drought-resistant plants, and improved health of consumers via nutritionally enhanced foods.
Uses Illustrations to Communicate Essential Concepts & Visually Enhance the Text
This one-of-a-kind periodical examines regulation associated with biotechnology applications?with specific attention to genetically modified organisms?regulation differences in various countries, and biotechnology's impact on the evolution of new applications. The encyclopedia also looks at how biotechnology is covered in the media, as well as the biotechnology/environment interface and consumer acceptance of the products of biotechnology. Rounding out its solid coverage, the encyclopedia discusses the benefits and concerns about biotechnology in the context of risk assessment, food security, and genetic diversity.
ALSO AVAILABLE ONLINE
This Taylor & Francis encyclopedia is also available through online subscription, offering a variety of extra benefits for both researchers, students, and librarians, including:
For more information, visit Taylor & Francis Online or contact us to inquire about subscription options and print/online combination packages. US: (Tel) 1.888.318.2367 / (E-mail) [email protected] International: (Tel) +44 (0) 20 7017 6062 / (E-mail) [email protected] Dennis R. Heldman speaks about his work on the CRC Press YouTube Channel.
This book provides information essential to students taking courses/modules in biotechnology as part of environmental sciences, environmental management, and environmental biology programs. It is also suitable for those studying water, waste management, and pollution abatement. Topics discussed include biodiversity, renewable energy, bioremediation technology, recombinant DNA technology, genetic engineering, solid waste management, composting, vermicomposting, biofertilizer, chemical pesticides, biological control of pests, and genetically modified organisms. The book also discusses bioethics and risk assessment, intellectual property rights, environmental cleanup technologies, and environmental nanotechnology.
Wild Germplasm for Genetic Improvement in Crop Plants addresses the need for an integrated reference on a wide variety of crop plants, facilitating comparison and contrast, as well as providing relevant relationships for future research and development. The book presents the genetic and natural history value of wild relatives, covers what wild relatives exist, explores the existing knowledge regarding specific relatives and the research surrounding them and identifies knowledge gaps. As understanding the role of crop wild relatives in plant breeding expands the genetic pool for abiotic and biotic stress resistance, this is an ideal reference on this important topic.
Modern food biotechnology is now a billion-dollar industry, producing functional foods and nutraceuticals that offer a whole host of increased health benefits, including prevention against illness, and chronic and degenerative conditions. Written by a team of top-tier researchers and scientists from around the world, Biotechnology in Functional Foods and Nutraceuticals brings you up to speed on the cutting-edge research advances taking place in the field.
The book begins with an overview of recent advances in biotechnology and their contributions to food science. It then examines the impact of genetic modification on functional foods and explores various aspects of food manufacturing technology. This one-of-a-kind resource also gives insight into quality assurance and food safety and an assessment of where the field currently stands on legal, social, and regulatory aspects of food biotechnology. The book rounds out its solid coverage with a look at future directions in the applications of biotechnology to functional foods and nutraceuticals.
Biotechnology in Functional Foods and Nutraceuticals is the first book of its kind to position functional foods and nutraceuticals in the broader context of emerging technologies, making it a one-stop reference for food and nutrition scientists as well as researchers in the functional foods and nutraceuticals industries, nutritionists, dieticians, and supplement manufacturers.
This book provides systematic information on the lychee and modern tools to promote its sustainable growth and development. Including dedicated chapters on the evolution and diversification of the lychee, it highlights its genetic makeup and reciprocal exogenous factors, addressing the narrow genetic pool and lack of natural biodiversity. It also discusses issues related to post-harvest losses and robust approaches at the commercial level. Further, the book offers insights on in vitro propagation methods and prospective transgenic approaches for selected lychee cultivars. Chapters on the production of bioactive compounds and their enhancement through genetic transformation and elicitation are also included, reflecting the latest advances in the field of lychee biotechnology. Lastly, the book explores the use of molecular marker techniques to achieve the desired improvements in fruit trees' medicinal and aesthetic value.
Phytochemistry, the Military and Health: Phytotoxins and Natural Defenses comes as a response to the gap that there has for so long existed between phytochemistry and survival of both service personnel and civilian communities during and after conflicts. Armed conflicts cause a lot of devastation to communities and should be avoided as much as it can be possible. The devastation is usually evident in service provisions such as Health, Education, Water, and Food among many others. Both service personnel and civilians are affected to various degrees. Facilities usually end up being physically destroyed, with no essential supplies and/or having dysfunctional systems. Going with untreated wounds, communicable and non-communicable diseases for weeks with no medical interventions due to the conflicts, disease burdens heavily weigh down on communities as well as security personnel. To make the situation even more complicated, masses of people are forced to migrate for safety and security reasons, likely going with diseases along wherever they go. In such instances, phytochemicals become handy in providing solutions from first aid, basic analgesia, antimicrobials, and the general improvement of health. Phytochemicals are known to play a major role in the day to day management of diseases and health. There has been much research into their effectiveness as community medicines and as alternatives to conventional drugs. However, the role that phytochemicals play in the military, counterterrorism, and security has been overlooked. Phytochemistry, the Military and Health: Phytotoxins and Natural Defenses discusses the roles that phytochemicals play as friends and foes in the military, including insights aimed to help develop antidotes against phytochemicals and other chemical agents used maliciously as weapons. Filling a gap between drug discovery, security, and emergency medicine, this book describes which plants can be categorized for protection and controls, which can be helpful in times of conflicts and soon after conflicts, in military operations, and those that can be used as deterrents and as emergency medicines. Carefully designed to show the contribution that phytochemicals play in safety and security, this book is useful for researchers, regulators and anyone interested in plant chemistry.
The science of biology celebrates the discovery and understanding of biological systems that already exist in nature. In parallel, the engineering of biology must learn how to make use of our understanding of the natural world to design and build new useful biological systems. "Synthetic biology" represents one example of recent work to engineer biological systems. This emerging field aims to replace the ad hoc process of assembling biological systems by primarily developing tools to assemble reliable-but-complex living organisms from standard components that can later be reused in new combination. The focus of this book is "genome refactoring," one of several approaches to manage the complexity of a biological system in which the goal is to redesign the genetic elements that encode a living form--preserving the function of that form but encoding it with a genome far easier to study and extend. This book presents genome refactoring in two ways: as an important aspect of the emerging field of synthetic biology and as a powerful teaching tool to train would be professionals in the subject. Chapters focus on the overarching goals of synthetic biology and their alignment with the motivations and achievements in genome engineering; the engineering frameworks of refactoring, including genome synthesis, standardization of biological parts, and abstraction; a detailed description of the bacteriophages that have been refactored up to this point; and the methods of refactoring and contexts for that work drawn from the bacteriophage M13. Overall, these examples offer readers the potential for synthetic biology and the areas in need of further research. If successful, synthetic biology and genome refactoring could address any number of persistent societal needs, including sustainable energy, affordable and effective medicine, and green manufacturing practices. Table of Contents: Tools for Genome Engineering and Synthetic Biology / Bacteriophage as Templates for Refactoring / Methods/Teaching Protocols for M13 Reengineering / Writing and Speaking as Biological Engineers / Summary and Future Directions / Appendix A / Appendix B / Appendix C
The intent of this book is to provide a detailed and specific set of guidelines for both aquapreneurs and researchers related to the application of Biofloc Technology in aquaculture. This book discusses key issues related to both adoption and practices for aquaculture businesses, how to monitor and assess quality and quantity of biofloc, and how to manage the microbial composition and sludge reduction risk in the fish and shrimp culture. The book works through the specific application of disease management and feed management tools for aquaculture from the perspective of this technology. Particular attention is paid on comparing the prototypes of floc development and evaluation on its efficacy in aquaculture. Note: T&F does not sell or distribute the hardback in India, Pakistan, Nepal, Bhutan, Bangladesh and Sri Lanka.
This book explores the journey of biotechnology, searching for new avenues and noting the impressive accomplishments to date. It has harmonious blend of facts, applications and new ideas. Fast-paced biotechnologies are broadly applied and are being continuously explored in areas like the environmental, industrial, agricultural and medical sciences. The sequencing of the human genome has opened new therapeutic opportunities and enriched the field of medical biotechnology while analysis of biomolecules using proteomics and microarray technologies along with the simultaneous discovery and development of new modes of detection are paving the way for ever-faster and more reliable diagnostic methods. Life-saving bio-pharmaceuticals are being churned out at an amazing rate, and the unraveling of biological processes has facilitated drug designing and discovery processes. Advances in regenerative medical technologies (stem cell therapy, tissue engineering, and gene therapy) look extremely promising, transcending the limitations of all existing fields and opening new dimensions for characterizing and combating diseases.
Nature offers abundant renewable resources that can be used to partially replace fossil fuels and commodity chemicals but issues of cost, technology readiness levels, and compatibility with existing distribution networks remain huge challenges. Cellulosic ethanol and biodiesel are the most immediately obvious target fuels, with hydrogen, methane and butanol as other potentially viable products. This book continues to bridge the technology gap and focus on critical aspects of lignocellulosic biomolecules and the respective mechanisms regulating their bioconversion to liquid fuels into energy and value-added products of industrial significance. This book is a collection of reviews elucidating several broad-ranging areas of progress and challenges in the utilization of sustainable resources of renewable energy, especially in biofuels. This book comes just at a time when government and industries are accelerating their efforts in the exploration of alternative energy resources, with expectations of the establishment of long-term sustainable alternatives to petroleum-based liquid fuels. Apart from liquid fuel this book also emphasizes the use of sustainable resources for value-added products, which may help in revitalizing the biotechnology industry at a broader scale. This book also provides a comprehensive review of basic literature and advance research methodologies to graduate students studying environmental microbiology, chemical engineering, bio-economy and microbial biotechnology.
The need for exploration, conservation, and sustainable utilization of bioresources is undeniable for the survival and growth of mankind. This new book throws light on new and recent research on and development of effective strategies for sustainable utilization of bioresources using modern tools and techniques to help meet this challenge. This volume addresses the utilization of bioresources in therapeutics, in biofuel, in agriculture, and in environmental protection. Beginning with the diverse potential applications of bioresources in food, medicine, and cosmetics, the volume goes on to address the various different underutilized bioresources and their sustainable uses. It discusses important advances in biofuel and patents that highlight recent developments that address the energy crises and the continuously fluctuating cost of petroleum. It explores new renewable energy sources from bioresources and their sustainable utilization in the bioenergy and biofuel industry. Several chapters focus on the sustainable utilization of bioresources in the agricultural sector. The volume considers that developing countries have huge agricultural resources that could be employed for production of value-added byproducts for the sustainable development of a bio-based economy. The book discusses efficient use of underexploited natural bioresources, new chemical approaches for the generation of novel biochemicals, and the applications of genetics approaches for bioresource conservation and production of value-added products. Further, strategies for the production of biopesticides utilizing bioresources are also discussed.
Nanoparticle therapeutics: Production Technologies, Types of Nanoparticles, and Regulatory Aspects employs unique principles for applications in cell-based therapeutics, diagnostics and mechanistics for the study of organ physiology, disease etiology and drug screening of advanced nanoparticles and nanomaterials. The book focuses on the extrapolation of bioengineering tools in the domain of nanotechnology and nanoparticles therapeutics, fabrication, characterization and drug delivery aspects. It acquaints scientists and researchers on the experiential and experimental aspects of nanoparticles and nanotechnology to equip their rational application in various fields, especially in differential diagnoses and in the treatment of diverse diseased states. This complete resource provides a holistic understanding of the principle behind formation, characterization, applications, regulations and toxicity of nanoparticles employing myriad principles of nanotechnology. Investigators, pharmaceutical researchers, and advanced students working on technology advancement in the areas of designing targeted therapies, nanoscale imaging systems and diagnostic modalities in human diseases where nanoparticles can be used as a critical tool for technology advancement in drug delivery systems will find this book useful.
This work presents an authoritative examination of the inter-relationships between the law, intellectual property rights, biodiversity protection, biotechnology and the protection of traditional knowledge. It includes twenty-eight chapters from dozens of international legal and scientific experts containing a comprehensive assessment of the issues complete with thorough references; and an essential references for all legal libraries, legal practitioners, science libraries, corporations involved in pharmaceuticals or biotechnology and conservationists and other NGOs. How do we promote global economic development, while simultaneously preserving local biological and cultural diversity? This authoritative volume, written by leading legal experts and biological and social scientists from around the world, aims to address this question in all of its complexity.
This book provides new information relating recent advances made in the field of plant secondary products. Besides the updation of chapters this edition also includes chapters on secondary metabolites of microorganisms (fungi and lichen).
World-wide there are more overweight and obese people (1 billion) than there are malnourished (0.8 billion). Today the challenge lies not just in meeting basic nutritional needs, but providing additional protective ingredients to help prevent the major chronic diseases associated with obesity. Biotechnology has become an important tool in recent years and scientists are now investigating advanced and novel strategies for the improvement of the functional aspects of food and food ingredients in an effort to manage the current and emerging health care challenges. Functional Foods and Biotechnology focuses the information from the recently published Food Biotechnology to illuminate the role of biochemical processing in the improvement of functional foods with targeted health benefits and increased nutrient value. Applying molecular, biochemical, cellular, and bioprocessing concepts, the text explores the design of functional food ingredients; the bio-mobilization of major nutrients such as starch, lipids, vitamins, and minerals; and the use of specific phenolic metabolites from common botanical species that have been found effective in disease prevention. Many chapters are concerned with the role of ingredients in oxidation-linked disease, which is the core basis for the major chronic diseases. Specialty topics include non-nutritive sweeteners, immune factors from eggs, phytochemicals as antimicrobials, and passive immune improvement with pro- and pre-biotics. The text provides conceptual insights to key emerging techniques for improving food production and processing, enhancing food safety and quality, and increasing nutritional values and functional aspects of food for better human health. Introducing key concepts in biotechnology and the improvement of functional foods and nutrient sources, Functional Foods and Biotechnology addresses specific strategies and potential solutions to poor nutrition, be it caloric excess or deficiency, and the related health challenges facing the world today.
Although numerous studies have been made of the Western educated political elite of colonial Nigeria in particular, and of Africa in general, very few have approached the study from a perspective that analyzes the impacts of indigenous institutions on the lives, values, and ideas of these individuals. This book is about the diachronic impact of indigenous and Western agencies in the upbringing, socialization, and careers of the colonial Igbo political elite of southeastern Nigeria. The thesis argues that the new elite manifests the continuity of traditions and culture and therefore their leadership values and the impact they brought on African society cannot be fully understood without looking closely at their lived experiences in those indigenous institutions where African life coheres. The key has been to explore this question at the level of biography, set in the context of a carefully reconstructed social history of the particular local communities surrounding the elite figures. It starts from an understanding of their family and village life, and moves forward striving to balance the familiar account of these individuals in public life, with an account of the ongoing influences from family, kinship, age grades, marriage and gender roles, secret societies, the church, local leaders and others. The result is not only a model of a new approach to African elite history, but also an argument about how to understand these emergent leaders and their peers as individuals who shared with their fellow Africans a dynamic and complex set of values that evolved over the six decades of colonialism.
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