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The overarching aim of Finance, Innovation and Geography: Harnessing Knowledge Dynamics in German Biotechnology is to explore linkages between geographies of finance and relational geographies of innovation. This is achieved by questioning how investment activities affect the unfolding of innovations and in turn are affected by it. This book focuses on biotechnology innovation processes from the perspective of relational economic geography. It reconstructs the unfolding in time and space of eight innovations in German biotechnology. Each one is represented in a qualitative case study. The analysis focuses on the relational work of building, transforming, ending and replacing of collaborative relationships and organizational arrangements surrounding emergent innovations including investment relations and relational work by investors. In this way, the contribution of investors to unfolding innovations is studied with sensitivity to context and situated interactions. The geography of these dynamics is conceptualized by drawing on the recent literature on relational proximity and distance as well as ideas of materiality and space. This book provides a unique perspective, and shows that innovation paths are strongly interwoven with local and temporary opportunities as well as crises, and that investment is embedded in these dynamics. This is essential reading for students and academics of both economics and innovation.
Published since 1959, "Advances in Applied Microbiology" continues to be one of the most widely read and authoritative review sources in microbiology. The series contains comprehensive reviews of the most current research in applied microbiology. Recent areas covered include bacterial diversity in the human gut, protozoan grazing of freshwater biofilms, metals in yeast fermentation processes and the interpretation of host-pathogen dialogue through microarrays. Eclectic volumes are supplemented by thematic volumes on various topics, including Archaea and sick building syndrome. Impact factor for 2011: 5.233.
* Contributions from leading authorities * Informs and updates on all the latest developments in the field
Advances in Phytonanotechnology: From Synthesis to Application guides readers through various applications of nanomaterials on plants by presenting the latest research related to nanotechnology and nanomaterials on plant systems. The book focuses on the effects of these applications on plant morphology, physiology, biochemistry, ecology and genetics. Sections cover the impact on plant yield, techniques, a review of positive and negative impacts, and an overview of current policies regarding the use of nanotechnology on plants. Additionally, the book offers insights into the appropriate application of nanoscience to plants and crops for improved outcome and an exploration of their bioavailability and toxicity in the environment.
Carbon is light-weight, strong, conductive and able to mimic
natural materials within the body, making it ideal for many uses
within biomedicine. Consequently a great deal of research and
funding is being put into this interesting material with a view to
increasing the variety of medical applications for which it is
suitable. Diamond-based materials for biomedical applications
presents readers with the fundamental principles and novel
applications of this versatile material.
Gallstone and other diseases of the biliary tract affect more than around 20% of the adult population. The complications of gallstones, acute pancreatitis and obstructive jaundice, can be lethal. This is the first book to systematically treat biliary tract and gallbladder modelling with physiological and clinical information in a biomechanical context. The book provides readers with detailed biomechanical modelling procedures for the biliary tract and gallbladder based on physiological information, clinical observations and experimental data and with the results properly interpreted in terms of clinical diagnosis and with biomechanical mechanisms for biliary diseases. The text can be used as a reference book for university undergraduates, postgraduates and professional researchers in applied mathematics, biomechanics, biomechanical engineering and biomedical engineering, as well as related surgeons.
From Waste to Value investigates how streams of organic waste and residues can be transformed into valuable products, to foster a transition towards a sustainable and circular bioeconomy. The studies are carried out within a cross-disciplinary framework, drawing on a diverse set of theoretical approaches and defining different valorisation pathways. Organic waste streams from households and industry are becoming a valuable resource in today's economies. Substances that have long represented a cost to companies and a burden for society are now becoming an asset. Waste products, such as leftover food, forest residues and animal carcasses, can be turned into valuable products such as biomaterials, biochemicals and biopharmaceuticals. Exploiting these waste resources is challenging, however. It requires that companies develop new technologies and that public authorities introduce new regulation and governance models. This book helps policy-makers govern and regulate bio-based industries, and helps industry actors to identify and exploit new opportunities in the circular bioeconomy. Moreover, it provides important insights for all students and scholars concerned with renewable energy, sustainable development and climate change.
The book provides data on all the species of the two genera Genera Brachystelma Sims and Ceropegia L. in India for their bioprospection and conservation. The other objectives are to promote the beauty and uniqueness of the species of these two genera and also to provide medicinal and edible uses for bioprospection.
This third volume of the handbook presents a representative sample of the population papers in the field of petrodiesel fuels. Following the substantial public concerns on the adverse impact of the emissions from petrodiesel fuels on the environment and human health, the research has intensified in the areas related to the reduction of these adverse effects. Thus, bioremediation of spills from crude oils and petrodiesel fuels at sea and soils as well as desulfurization of petrodiesel fuels have emerged as publicly important research areas. Similarly, the emissions from diesel fuel exhausts, due to their adverse effects on both human health and environment, have been researched more in recent years. These emissions cover particulate emissions, aerosol emissions, and NOx emissions. Research on the adverse impact of petrodiesel fuel exhaust emissions on human health has primarily progressed along the lines of respiratory illnesses, cancer, and other illnesses, such as cardiovascular illnesses, brain illnesses, and reproductive system illnesses, through human, animal, and in vitro studies. It is clear that these illnesses caused by the petrodiesel fuel exhaust emissions have been one of the most significant reasons to develop alternative biodiesel fuels. Part IX presents a representative sample of the population papers in the field of crude oils covering major research fronts. It covers crude oil spills in general, crude oil spills and their cleanup, properties and removal of crude oils, biodegradation of crude oil-contaminated soils, and crude oil recovery besides an overview paper. Part X presents a representative sample of the population papers in the field of petrodiesel fuels in general covering major research fronts. It covers combustion of biodiesel fuels in diesel engines, bioremediation of biodiesel fuel-contaminated soils, biodiesel power generation, and desulfurization of diesel fuels besides an overview paper. Part XI presents a representative sample of the population papers in the field of emissions from petrodiesel fuels covering major research fronts. It covers diesel emission mitigation, diesel particulate emissions, and diesel NOx emissions, besides an overview paper. Part XII presents a representative sample of the population papers in the field of the health impact of the emissions from petrodiesel fuels covering major research fronts. It covers respiratory illnesses, cancer, cardiovascular, brain, and reproductive system illnesses, besides an overview paper. This book will be useful to academics and professionals in the fields of Energy Fuels, Public Environmental Occupational Health, Pharmacology, Pharmacy, Immunology, Respiratory System, Allergy, and Oncology. Ozcan Konur is both a materials scientist and social scientist by training. He has published around 200 journal papers, book chapters, and conference papers. He has focused on the bioenergy and biofuels in recent years. In 2018, he edited Bioenergy and Biofuels, which brought together the work of over 30 experts in their respective field. He also edited the Handbook of Algal Science, Technology, and Medicine with a strong section on the algal biofuels in 2020.
Introductory text for students of genetics is general and the students of agronomy as the book gives numerous agronomic applications.
Protein folding is a process by which a protein structure assumes
its functional shape of conformation, and has been the subject of
research since the publication of the first software tool for
protein structure prediction. Protein folding in silico approaches
this issue by introducing an ab initio model that attempts to
simulate as far as possible the folding process as it takes place
in vivo, and attempts to construct a mechanistic model on the basis
of the predictions made. The opening chapters discuss the early
stage intermediate and late stage intermediate models, followed by
a discussion of structural information that affects the
interpretation of the folding process. The second half of the book
covers a variety of topics including ligand binding site
recognition, the "fuzzy oil drop" model and its use in simulation
of the polypeptide chain, and misfolded proteins. The book ends
with an overview of a number of other ab initio methods for protein
structure predictions and some concluding remarks.
This comprehensive book focuses on multimodality imaging technology, including overviews of the instruments and methods followed by practical case studies that highlight use in the detection and treatment of cardiovascular diseases. Chapters cover PET-CT, SPECT-CT, SPECT-MRI, PET-MRI, PET-optical imaging, SPECT-optical imaging, photoacoustic Imaging, and hybrid intravascular imaging. It also addresses the important issues of multimodality imaging probes and image quantification. Readers from radiology and cardiology as well as medical imaging and biomedical engineering will learn essentials of the field. They will be shown how the field has advanced quantitative analysis of molecularly targeted imaging through improvements in the reliability and reproducibility of imaging data. Moreover, they will be presented with quantification algorithms and case illustrations, including coverage of such topics such as multimodality image fusion and kinetic modeling. Yi-Hwa Liu, PhD is Senior Research Scientist in Cardiovascular Medicine at Yale University School of Medicine and Technical Director of Nuclear Cardiology at Yale New Haven Hospital. He is also an Associate Professor (Adjunct) of Biomedical Imaging and Radiological Sciences at National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan, and Professor (Adjunct) of Biomedical Engineering at Chung Yuan Christian University, Taoyuan, Taiwan. He is an elected senior member of Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE) and a full member of Sigma Xi of The Scientific Research Society of North America. Albert J. Sinusas, M.D., FACC, FAHA is Professor of Medicine (Section of Cardiovascular Medicine) and Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, at Yale University School of Medicine, and Director of the Yale Translational Research Imaging Center (Y-TRIC), and Director of Advanced Cardiovascular Imaging at Yale New Haven Hospital. He is a recipient of the Society of Nuclear Medicine's Hermann Blumgart Award.
"The chapters in this book survey the progress in simulating biomolecular dynamics.... The images conjured up by this work are not yet universally loved, but are beginning to bring new insights into the study of biological structure and function. The future will decide whether this scientific movement can bring forth its Picasso or Modigliani." -from the Foreword by Peter G. Wolynes, Bullard-Welch Foundation Professor of Science, Rice University This book highlights the state-of-art in coarse-grained modeling of biomolecules, covering both fundamentals as well as various cutting edge applications. Coarse-graining of biomolecules is an area of rapid advances, with numerous new force fields having appeared recently and significant progress made in developing a systematic theory of coarse-graining. The contents start with first fundamental principles based on physics, then survey specific state-of-art coarse-grained force fields of proteins and nucleic acids, and provide examples of exciting biological problems that are at large scale, and hence, only amenable to coarse-grained modeling. Introduces coarse-grained models of proteins and nucleic acids. Showcases applications such as genome packaging in nuclei and understanding ribosome dynamics Gives the physical foundations of coarse-graining Demonstrates use of models for large-scale assemblies in modern studies Garegin A. Papoian is the first Monroe Martin Associate Professor with appointments in the Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry and the Institute for Physical Science and Technology at the University of Maryland.
Engineering the physical, chemical, and energy properties of lignocellulosic biomass is important to produce high-quality consistent feedstocks with reduced variability for biofuels production. The emphasis of this book will be the beneficial impacts that mechanical, chemical, and thermal preprocessing methods can have on lignocellulosic biomass quality attributes or specifications for solid and liquid biofuels and biopower production technologies. "Preprocessing" refers to treatments that can occur at a distance from conversion and result in an intermediate with added value, with improved conversion performance and efficiency. This book explores the effects of mechanical, chemical, and thermal preprocessing methods on lignocellulosic biomass physical properties and chemical composition and their suitability for biofuels production. For example, biomass mechanical preprocessing methods like size reduction (which impacts the particle size and distribution) and densification (density and size and shape) are important for feedstocks to meet the quality requirements for both biochemical and thermochemical conversion methods like enzymatic conversion, gasification, and pyrolysis process. Thermal preprocessing methods like drying, deep drying, torrefaction, steam explosion, hydrothermal carbonization, and hydrothermal liquefaction effect feedstock's proximate, ultimate and energy property, making biomass suitable for both solid and liquid fuel production. Chemical preprocessing which includes washing, leaching, acid, alkali, and ammonia fiber explosion that can enable biochemical composition, such as modification of lignin and hemicellulose, and impacts the enzymatic conversion application for liquid fuels production. This book also explores the integration of these preprocessing technologies to achieve desired lignocellulosic biomass quality attributes for biofuels production.
This book gives a comprehensive overview on the use of image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT) in the treatment of lung cancer, covering step-by-step guidelines for clinical implementations, fundamental principles and key technical advances. It covers benefits and limitations of techniques as well as quality and safety issues related to IGRT practice. Addresses imaging simulation, treatment planning, verification, and delivery Discusses important quality assurance issues Describes current methods using specialized machines and technologies Jing Cai, PhD, is an Associate Professor of Radiation Oncology at Duke University Medical Center. Joe Y. Chang, MD, PhD, is Professor in the Department of Radiation Oncology at The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center in Houston. Fang-Fang Yin, PhD, is Chief of the Division of Radiation Physics, Professor of Radiation Oncology, and Director of the Medical Physics program at Duke University.
Microbial Cell Factories is a conceptual, reference-based source including chapters covering microbial cell factories for industrial developments, microbial biotechnology, sustainable environmental solutions, agriculture practices, microorganisms in food processing, metabolites as next generation food additives/food processing, and microbial cell factories in alternative energy fuel generation. The book highlights trends and developments in the field of microbial products, written by an international team of leading academic and research scholars. Key Selling Features: Highlights trends and developments in microbial biotechnology Systematically reviews microbial cell factories Explores the potential of microbial cell derived industrial production Synthesizes information on environmental and agricultural uses of microbial biotechnology Contributions from an international team of leading scholars
Advances in Macrofungi: Diversity, Ecology and Biotechnology discusses the diversity and ecology of edible, toxic, medicinal and mycorrhizal macrofungi; the impact of ectomycorrhizal fungi in terrestrial ecosystems, ectomycorrhizal complex in Boreal forests and commercial application of Pseudotsuga in silviculture; the nutritional evaluation and cultivation of edible wild mushrooms; the diversity of novel metabolites of macrofungi useful in food, pharmaceutical and cosmeceutical industries; mushrooms as tool for eco-friendly synthesis of nanoparticles and proteomics of edible and medicinal mushrooms. In addition, it covers experimental designs, methodological approaches, biogeochemical cycles, conceptual/hypothetical models and life history strategies, linking mycorrhizal diversity to plant performance, chemotaxonomy, role of mycorrhizae in forestry and macrofungi in nanotechnology. It provides a valuable resource to graduate, post-graduate and researchers (in botany, microbiology, ecology, biotechnology, forestry, life sciences and environmental sciences) to understand the diversity, ecology, therapeutic value, mutualistic associations and biotechnological potential of macrofungi.
New Technologies for Reclamation of Industrial Wastewater provides information on several types of industrial wastewaters containing a variety of toxic and recalcitrant compounds. It also focuses on the ecotoxicological and health hazards posed by the chemicals released along with industrial effluents. It covers various conventional as well as modern wastewater-treatment technologies and their advantages and disadvantages. Features: Elucidates various types of industrial wastewaters generated, their fate and consequences Describes the ecotoxicological and health implications of industrial contaminants Provides details on conventional treatment technologies along with modern and emerging wastewater-treatment methods Discusses the merits and demerits of both conventional and emerging treatment technologies
Biotechnology refers to the use or manipulation of an organism or parts of an organism. While the early applications were certainly simpler (though still relevant), modern plant biotechnology is primarily associated with molecular biology, cloning and genetic engineering. Over the last 50 years, several key discoveries have revolutionized the biological sciences and enabled the rapid growth of the biotechnology industry. This book gathers handpicked articles presented by national and international scientists at the International Conference on Biotechnology and Biological Sciences, BIOSPECTRUM 2017. It highlights the works of researchers and students in India and abroad on plant biotechnology and its applications in addressing various agricultural and food production-related issues. The respective papers explore a range of advances in plant biotechnology, e.g.: the cytotoxic potential of Moringaoleifera lam; the use of the entomo-pathogenic fungi Cordyceps sp. as unique and valuable sources of bioactive compounds; and strain improvement strategies for Cordyceps sp. In addition, they discuss the use of low-cost blue green algal biofertilizer comprising four blue green algal strains in rice fields; and the use of lignocellulosic materials as potential renewable energy resources for the production of fuels. This book will be extremely useful for researchers and students of biotechnology and plant science, providing an essential update on the latest findings and trends.
This important new book covers recent advancements, innovations, and technologies in industrial biotechnology, specifically addressing the application of various biomolecules in industrial production and in cleaning and environmental remediation sectors. The goal of industrial biotechnology is to develop new techniques and technologies to transform renewable raw materials into chemicals, materials, and fuels by the substitution of fossil fuels. With the increase in the world's population and the resultant growing energy demand, the need for more energy can be successfully met with the advancements in industrial biotechnology. Currently across the globe significant research has been undertaken in the production of cleaner fuels, materials, and semi-synthetic chemicals, with environmental benefits. Developing countries have huge agricultural resources that could be utilized for production of value-added byproducts for the sustainable development of bio-based economy. The book opens with the chapter on the production of exopolysaccharides from halophilic microorganisms, a polymer that is normally very useful in various production sectors of the food, pharmaceutical, and petroleum industries. The book goes on to cover: The production of antimicrobial compounds from alkaliphilic bacteria Thermophilic actinomycetes Food, agro, and pharmaceutical potential and biotechnological applications of biosurfactants, halophiles, cyclodextrin glycosyl transferease, fungal chitinase, proteases, yeasts and yeast products Also covered in the book are the environmental aspects of industrial biotechnology such as the genetic enhancement for biofuel production, the production of biodegradable thermoplastics, advancements in the synthesis of bio-oil, ecofriendly treatment of agro-based lignocelluloses, and anaerobic bio reactors for hydrocarbon remediation. The international roster of chapter authors have been chosen for their renowned expertise and contribution to the various fields of industrial biotechnology. This book is suitable to chemists, biotechnologists from research institutes, academia, and students as well as for industry professionals
Microbiota are a promising and fascinating subject in biology because they integrate the microbial communities in humans, animals, plants, and the environment. In humans, microbiota are associated with the gut, skin, and genital, oral, and respiratory organs. The plant microbial community is referred to as "holobiont," and it is influential in the maintenance and health of plants, which themselves play a role in animal health and the environment. The contents of Microbiome-Host Interactions cover all areas as well as new research trends in the fields of plant, animal, human, and environmental microbiome interactions. The book covers microbiota in polar soil environments, in health and disease, in Caenorhabditis elegans, and in agroecosystems, as well as in rice root and actinorhizal root nodules, speleothems, and marine shallow-water hydrothermal vents. Moreover, this book provides comprehensive accounts of advanced next-generation DNA sequencing, metagenomic techniques, high-throughput 16S rRNA sequencing, and understanding nucleic acid sequence data from fungal, algal, viral, bacterial, cyanobacterial, actinobacterial, and archaeal communities using QIIME software (Quantitative Insights into Microbial Ecology). FEATURES Summarizes recent insight in microbiota and host interactions in distinct habitats, including Antarctic, hydrothermal vents, speleothems, oral, skin, gut, feces, reproductive tract, soil, root, root nodules, forests, and mangroves Illustrates the high-throughput amplicon sequencing, computational techniques involved in the microbiota analysis, downstream analysis and visualization, and multivariate analysis commonly used for microbiome analysis Describes probiotics and prebiotics in the composition of the gut microbiota, skin microbiome impact in dermatologic disease prevention, and microbial communities in the reproductive tract of humans and animals Presents information in a reachable way for students, teachers, researchers, microbiologists, computational biologists, and other professionals who are interested in strengthening or enlarging their knowledge about microbiome analysis with next-generation DNA sequencing in the different branches of the sciences
Miniaturization in the fields of chemistry and molecular biology has resulted in the "lab-on-a-chip." Such systems are micro-fabricated devices capable of handling extremely small fluid volumes facilitating the scaling of single or multiple lab processes down to a microchip-sized format. The convergence of lab-on-a-chip technology with the field of cell biology facilitated the development of "organ-on-a-chip" systems. Such systems simulate the function of tissues and organs, having the potential to bypass some cell and animal testing methods. These technologies have generated high interest as applications for disease modeling and drug discovery. This book, edited by Drs. Sean Murphy and Anthony Atala, provides a comprehensive coverage of the technologies that have been used to develop organ-on-a-chip systems. Known leaders cover the basics to the most relevant and novel topics in the field, including micro-fabrication, 3D bio-printing, 3D cell culture techniques, biosensor design and microelectronics, micro-fluidics, data collection, and predictive analysis. The book describes specific tissue types amenable for disease modeling and drug discovery applications. Lung, liver, heart, skin and kidney "on-a-chip" technologies are included as well as a progress report on designing an entire "body-on-a-chip" system. Additionally, the book covers applications of various systems for modeling tissue-specific cancers, metastasis, and tumor microenvironments; and provides an overview of current and potential applications of these systems to disease modeling, toxicity testing, and individualized medicine.
Radiomics and Radiogenomics: Technical Basis and Clinical Applications provides a first summary of the overlapping fields of radiomics and radiogenomics, showcasing how they are being used to evaluate disease characteristics and correlate with treatment response and patient prognosis. It explains the fundamental principles, technical bases, and clinical applications with a focus on oncology. The book's expert authors present computational approaches for extracting imaging features that help to detect and characterize disease tissues for improving diagnosis, prognosis, and evaluation of therapy response. This book is intended for audiences including imaging scientists, medical physicists, as well as medical professionals and specialists such as diagnostic radiologists, radiation oncologists, and medical oncologists. Features Provides a first complete overview of the technical underpinnings and clinical applications of radiomics and radiogenomics Shows how they are improving diagnostic and prognostic decisions with greater efficacy Discusses the image informatics, quantitative imaging, feature extraction, predictive modeling, software tools, and other key areas Covers applications in oncology and beyond, covering all major disease sites in separate chapters Includes an introduction to basic principles and discussion of emerging research directions with a roadmap to clinical translation
PET and SPECT imaging has improved to such a level that they are opening up exciting new horizons in medical diagnosis and treatment. This book provides a complete introduction to fundamentals and the latest progress in the field, including an overview of new scintillator materials and innovations in photodetector development, as well as the latest system designs and image reconstruction algorithms. It begins with basics of PET and SPECT physics, followed by technology advances and computing methods, quantitative techniques, multimodality imaging, instrumentation, pre-clinical and clinical imaging applications.
We have previously described the syntheses of both magnetic and nonmagnetic polymeric microspheres, and we have reported their application in removal of neuroblastoma cells from normal cells in bone marrow, in the separation of red blood cells, and the separation of human B and T lymphocytes. In the present study, we describe a series of hydrophilic microspheres consisting of (1) poly-HEMA and (2) a copolymer sequence of HEMA-acrolein microspheres.
A review of the nation's new coverages serves as a ready reminder that drinking water safety is more than regional of local concern. In recent times, the print media alone has drawn attention to barium, bacteria, heavy metals, and increasingly organic contaminants, in public water supplies located in Florida, Rhode Island, Texas, Oregon, Illinois, Minnesota, North Carolina, Michigan, and California, to name a few. In an effort to address one of the major issues confronting the future of the nation's drinking water supplies, chemical contamination, the Drinking Water Research Foundation and the American Chemical Society presented the symposium, "Safe Drinking Water: the Impact of Chemicals on a Limited Resource." To add balance to the total presentation, two papers were included that were not part of the symposium.
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