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Aging is a major risk factor for chronic diseases, which in turn can provide information about the aging of a biological system. This publication serves as an introduction to systems biology and its application to biological aging. Key pathways and processes that impinge on aging are reviewed, and how they contribute to health and disease during aging is discussed. The evolution of this situation is analyzed, and the consequences for the study of genetic effects on aging are presented. Epigenetic programming of aging, as a continuation of development, creates an interface between the genome and the environment. New research into the gut microbiome describes how this interface may operate in practice with marked consequences for a variety of disorders. This analysis is bolstered by a view of the aging organism as a whole, with conclusions about the mechanisms underlying resilience of the organism to change, and is expanded with a discussion of circadian rhythms in aging. Finally, the book presents an outlook for the development of interventions to delay or to reverse the features of aging. The publication is recommended to students, researchers as well as professionals dealing with public health and public policy related to an aging society.
Human Ageing: A Unique Experience explores the biology of human ageing focusing on the individual. The book begins with the premature ageing disorder Hutchinson-Gilford Progeria syndrome and spins a web of interconnected biological domains involving lamins, telomeres, alternative splicing, genetics, epigenetics, and molecular clocks. The profound influence of culture is explored since cultural inheritance and genetic inheritance are the two intertwined processes driving human evolution. An empirical framework is developed to describe human ageing at the individual level and the implications of this framework on the whole concept of diseases are discussed.
The healthy human brain contains tens of billions of neurons, specialized cells that process and transmit information via electrical and chemical signals. While the brain may shrink to some degree in healthy aging, it does not lose neurons in large numbers. In Alzheimer's disease, however, damage is widespread as many neurons stop functioning, lose connections with other neurons, and die. Alzheimer's disrupts processes vital to neurons and their networks, including communication, metabolism, and repair. At first, the disease typically destroys neurons and their connections in parts of the brain involved in memory, including the entorhinal cortex and the hippocampus. It later affects areas in the cerebral cortex responsible for language, reasoning, and social behavior. Eventually, many other areas of the brain are damaged, and a person with Alzheimer's becomes helpless and unresponsive to the outside world. This book provides a comparison of international approached to dealing with Alzheimer's disease and dementia, as well as discusses the effect this disease has on the brain and its function.
A practical and clarifying approach to aging and aging-related diseases Providing a thorough and extensive theoretical framework, The Biostatistics of Aging: From Gompertzian Mortality to an Index of Aging-Relatedness addresses the surprisingly subtlenotion with consequential biomedical and public health relevance of what it means for acondition to be related to aging. In this pursuit, the book presents a new quantitative methodto examine the relative contributions of genetic and environmental factors to mortality anddisease incidence in a population. With input from evolutionary biology, population genetics, demography, and epidemiology, this medically motivated book describes an index of aging-relatedness and also features: * Original results on the asymptotic behavior of the minimum of time-to-event random variables, which extends those of the classical statistical theory of extreme values * A comprehensive and satisfactory explanation based on biological principles of the Gompertz pattern of mortality in human populations * The development of an evolution-based model of causation relevant to mortality and aging-related diseases of complex etiology * An explanation of how and why the description of human mortality by the Gompertz distribution can be improved upon from first principles * The amply illustrated analysis of real-world data, including a program for conducting the analysis written in the freely available R statistical software * Technical appendices including mathematical material as well as an extensive and multidisciplinary bibliography on aging and aging-related diseases The Biostatistics of Aging: From Gompertzian Mortality to an Index of Aging-Relatedness is an excellent resource for practitioners and researchers with an interest in aging and aging-related diseases from the fields of medicine, biology, gerontology, biostatistics, epidemiology, demography, and public health.
This acclaimed text promotes healthy aging by demonstrating how health practitioners, program developers, and policymakers can prevent or manage disease and make large-scale improvements toward health and wellness in the older adult population. The eighth edition encompasses major new research that substantially updates previous recommendations. It provides important new content on Medicare, Medicaid, Social Security and the ACA; clinical preventive services; global aging; sexual health; saving for retirement; long-term care alternatives; and much more.Accessible and comprehensive, this text is supported by abundant tables, figures, and illustrations. It describes practical strategies-including model community and government initiatives-that have proven markedly successful, as well as health-promotion tools, resource lists, assessment tools, and checklists. New trends such as green burials, LGBT aging, yoga, and dancing exercise regimens are also covered. Additionally, each chapter features key terms, learning objectives, summary, and thought-provoking questions. An improved instructor package includes upgraded PowerPoints, a new test bank, sample syllabi, chapter summaries, discussion questions, chapter exams, and more. Purchase includes access to the ebook for use on most mobile devices or computers. New to the Eighth Edition: Updated research findings, demographics, figures, and statistics regarding health/social/medical trends/exercise/weight management New content on global aging, sexual health, and substance abuse New information on medical screening recommendations, cancer treatments, complementary and alternative medicine, and more New findings regarding mental health and older adults Significant updates to Medicare, Medicaid, Social Security, and the ACA Expanded section on global health and older adults Upgraded instructor support package Key Features: Provides an interdisciplinary view of how practitioners, program developers, and policymakers can improve health and wellness in older adults Describes successful community and government model programs and initiatives Delivers health-promoting tools, resource lists, checklists, and assessment tools Offers key terms, learning objectives, critical-thinking questions and reflection boxes Includes a robust instructor package
This Third Edition of the bestselling Psychotherapy with Older Adults continues to offer students and professionals a thorough overview of psychotherapy with older adults. Using the contextual, cohort-based, maturity, specific challenge (CCMSC) model, it draws upon findings from scientific gerontology and life-span developmental psychology to describe how psychotherapy needs to be adapted for work with older adults, as well as when it is similar to therapeutic work with younger adults. Sensitively linking both research and experience, author Bob G. Knight provides a practical account of the knowledge, technique, and skills necessary to work with older adults in a therapeutic relationship. This volume considers the essentials of gerontology as well as the nature of therapy in depth, focusing on special content areas and common themes. Psychotherapy with Older Adults includes a comprehensive discussion of assessment and options for intervention. Numerous case examples illustrate the dynamics of the therapeutic task and issues covered in therapy and stress the human element in working with older adults. A concluding chapter considers ethical questions and the future of psychotherapy with older adults. The author has updated the Third Edition to reflect new research findings and has written two entirely new chapters covering psychotherapy with persons with dementia and psychotherapy with caregivers of frail older adults. Since its initial publication in 1986, the book has been used as a course text and a professional reference around the world, including translations into French, Dutch, Chinese, and Japanese. It is a vital resource for practicing therapists and counselors who work with older adults and is also ideally suited as a text for advanced students in psychology, social work, gerontology, and nursing. Praise for Previous Editions: "Bob G. Knight's largest contribution is his excellent discussion of therapy. The book is clearly
Anthroposophical medicine recognizes the individuality of each human being. This philosophy is central to care for the elderly where it is important to see beyond the outer ageing body, and to ensure dignity for all. This book describes particular approaches for professional nurses and carers, as well as offering practical care plans. While care cannot itself heal, it can provide the basis for the healing process to work. This book will help those who work with the elderly with invaluable guidance and advice.
Get all the information you need to successfully practice in the rapidly growing field of gerontological occupational therapy! Occupational Therapy with Aging Adults is a brand new text written by OT experts Karen Frank Barney and Margaret Perkinson that takes a unique interdisciplinary and collaborative approach in covering every aspect of geriatric occupational therapy practice. Readers will explore the entire continuum of care for the aging population along with special considerations for this rapidly growing demographic. This innovative text also covers topical issues spanning the areas of ethical approaches to treatment; nutrition and oral health concerns; pharmacological issues; low vision interventions; assistive technology supports; and more to ensure readers are well versed in every aspect of this key practice area. UNIQUE! Intraprofessional and interprofessional approach to intervention emphasizes working holistically and collaboratively in serving older adults. Case examples help you learn to apply new information to actual patient situations. Questions at the end of each chapter can be used for discussion or other learning applications. Chapter on evidence-based practice discusses how to incorporate evidence into the clinical setting. Chapter on ethics provides a deeper understanding of how to address challenging ethical dilemmas. UNIQUE! Chapter on the wide range of physiological changes among the aging patient population highlights related occupational performance issues. UNIQUE! Chapter on oral health explores the challenges faced by older adults.
Most of the DNA in the human genome does not encode proteins but is involved in regulatory functions. In addition, the human genome is characterized by an extensive array of structural DNA variants arising from de novo mutations plus accumulated structural variants transmitted through an individual's lineage. The result is that each person has a unique genome which is expressed as that person's unique phenotype. Ageing can be understood on both the species and individual level. Each species has a programmed ageing and mortality pattern, but within those broad species-specific boundaries there is considerable individual variation. At the individual level, ageing reflects the integrated effects of that individual's unique mix of DNA structural variants, unique experience-specific epigenetic marks and imperfectly repaired genomic and cellular damage. This book examines human "chronic degenerative" diseases which are not diseases, but rather variations of the ageing process across individuals.
With the ever-increasing rise in life expectancy, there is an urgent need to improve our understanding of the relationship between ageing and the pathogenesis of age-related diseases in order to identify more effective means of prevention, amelioration and management of such diseases. In addition, there is a need to reduce the social and economic impact of the ageing population. Age-related morbidity and mortality vary dramatically among individuals; this book focusses on individual differences in susceptibility to age-related disorders.
It contains contributions from leading experts in the field on
topics such as:
The development of 'ageless' mental health services means that an increasing number of clinicians are now required to work with older people. Cognitive Behavioural Therapy is recognised by all recent meta-analyses as the most effective therapy, yet few clinicians are trained specifically in its usage with the elderly. This book is a detailed guide to using CBT with older people both with and without cognitive difficulties. Reviewing its use in different settings, it covers both conceptual and practical perspectives, and details everything from causes and initial assessment to case formulation and change techniques. Case studies in both depression and dementia are used to illustrate how CBT should work and how positive effects can manifest themselves. Suitable both for trainees and experienced therapists, this book will be essential for anybody using cognitive behavioural therapy in their work with older people, regardless of their clients' levels of cognitive ability.
This book is an attempt to advance the discussion and improve our understanding about the effects of aging and movement disorders on motor control during walking and postural tasks. Despite these activities are performed daily, there is a high requirement of motor and neural systems in order to perform both tasks efficiently. Both walking and posture require a complex interaction of musculoskeletal and neural systems. However, the mechanisms used to control these tasks, as well as how they are planned and coordinated, are still a question of discussion among health professionals and researchers. In addition, this discussion is more interesting when the effects of aging are included in the context of locomotion and the postural control. The number of older individuals is 841 million in 2015, which is four times higher than the 202 million that lived in 1950. Aging causes many motor, sensorial and neural deficits, which impair locomotion and postural control in the elderly. The severity of this framework is worsened when the aging goes along with a movement disorder, such as Parkinson disease, Chorea, Dystonia, Huntington disease, etc. Therefore, the aim of this book is to highlight the influence of different aspects on planning, controlling and performing locomotion and posture tasks. In attempting to improve current knowledge in this field, invited authors present and discuss how environmental, sensorial, motor, cognitive and individual aspects influence the planning and performance of locomotor and postural activities. The major thrust of the book is to address the mechanisms involved in controlling and planning motor action in neurological healthy individuals, as well as in those who suffer from movement disorders or face the effects of aging, indicating the aspects that impair locomotion and postural control. In addition, new technologies, tools and interventions designed to manage the effects of aging and movement disorders are presented in the book.
Depression affects between 10-15% of older people, making it the most frequently encountered mental health condition in later life. Despite this, the condition is easily missed in clinical practice or not adequately treated. Part of the Oxford Psychiatry Library, this second edition of Depression in Later Life highlights areas of depression which are of special relevance to later life, how to diagnose depression in an older person, the overlap with dementia and various other physical illnesses, and important pharmacological and psychological considerations. All chapters have been updated with new data where relevant, and case vignettes are included to ensure the book is relatable and easy to read.
Aging in the Right Place is the most up-to-date and comprehensive resource covering the impact of residential and care settings in older adults. Providing a complete overview of current living arrangements and residential options for older adults, this text also offers a unique perspective on the often overlooked emotional challenges aging adults face when their residential needs must be evaluated. Placing particular value on the experiences and opinions of older adults while also covering the objective recommendations of aging experts, author Stephen Golant, Ph.D. introduces a new framework of "residential normalcy" to assist an aging population in identifying their best housing and care options. Covering virtually every aspect of residential environments in elder care through an expansive range of topics (from government healthcare policies and programs to case studies, opinions, stories, and quotes that illustrate the diverse experiences of today's older adults), Aging in the Right Place also points out housing and care topics that need further research, reform, support, and public awareness. Written by a gerontologist with over 30 years in the field (and personal experience as a family caregiver) this cohesive text is essential for gerontology, long-term care, and healthcare professionals, practitioners, and academics.
Comprising a single repository of knowledge and scientific evidence in the field, this book provides strategies to mitigate fall risk by providing information on the complex interactions between aging processes, co-morbid conditions and prescribed medications in older patients. Geriatric health is becoming a more prominent issue as the population ages, and balancing the beneficial effects of medication against the potential and real side-effects in these patients involves a deliberate and thoughtful task: physiologic aging, the accumulation of co-morbidities, and the use of drugs to manage various conditions and symptoms generates a unique set of problems for each patient. Falls are a dreaded event in older people. The event can affect a person in a physical, and psychological manner, resulting in soft tissue and bony injury, fear of falling, and depression. The identification of and reduction in fall risks in older people is a worldwide concern, and reducing the incidence of falls is a ubiquitous quality measure of health care delivery. Heterogeneity amongst older people precludes a single solution. However, physicians and others involved in the care of geriatric patients will benefit from the presented insights into how medication use can be modified to limit its impact as a contributing factor.
While modern Americans strive to control nearly every aspect of their lives, many of us abandon control of life's final passage. But the realities of twenty-first-century medicine will allow most of us to have a say in how, when, and where we die, so we need to make decisions here, too. Through compelling real-life stories and practical guidance, this book helps readers navigate end-of-life care for themselves and their loved ones.
"The Better End" is about hope, empowerment, and inspiration. What we choose for our end-of-life care depends on accurate information and on our personal values. We need not only to understand new medical advances but also to appreciate the wisdom of humanity's past and present.
Dan Morhaim, a practicing physician and Maryland state legislator, guides readers through the medical and legal maze of end-of-life care. He details the care choices available to patients and explains why living wills and advance directives are a necessity for every American. He tells readers where to find free and readily available living wills and advance directives and why it is so important for everyone--young and old--to complete them.
Dr. Morhaim helps readers keep decisions in their own hands and spare their families the uncertainty and trauma of guessing about their end-of-life wishes. With this book, he breaks down the barriers to a difficult but essential topic, helping readers to open this often avoided discussion with their loved ones and providing the information and guidance needed to ensure that deeply held values are reflected and honored.
This issue of Clinics in Geriatric Medicine, guest edited by Dr. Daniel E. Forman, is devoted to Cardiac Rehabilitation. Articles in this outstanding issue include: Cardiac Rehabilitation: No Such Thing As 'Too Old'; Evaluating and Treating Frailty in Cardiac Rehabilitation; Utility of Home-based Cardiac Rehabilitation for Older Adults; Benefits of Smart devices, Wearables, and Other Telehealth Options to Enhance Cardiac Rehab; Resistance Training in Cardiac Rehabilitation for Older Adults; High Intensity Interval Training (HIIT) in Cardiac Rehabilitation for Older Adults; Pre-habilitation: The right medicine for older frail adults anticipating TAVR, CABG, and other cardiovascular care; Using Cardiac Rehabilitation to Adjust Medications in Older Adults: Aggressive Prevention and Deprescribing as 2 Sides of the Same Coin; Gender Disparities in Cardiac Rehabilitation Among Older Women: Key opportunities to improve care; Cardiac Rehabilitation for TAVR; Cardiac Rehabilitation for Heart Failure in Older Adults; Cardiac Rehabilitation for Peripheral Arterial Disease (PAD) in Older Adults; Cardiac Rehabilitation as Part of Management in Post-acute Care (PAC): Opportunities for improving care; and Tailoring Assessments in Cardiac Rehabilitation for Older Adults: The relevance of geriatric domains.
This open access book takes a multidisciplinary approach to provide a holistic understanding of late old age, and situates the aged person within the context of family, caregivers, clinical and other institutions. All through the book, the author discusses preparedness for an aging individual as well as the society in the Indian context. The book highlights inevitable but mostly neglected health issues like depression, dementia, fall, and frailty and provides detailed analyses of solutions that are practicable in low resource settings. It also brings up intergenerational differences and harmony in the context of holistic care of older Indians. Alongside clinical perspectives, the book uses narratives of elderly patients to dwell on the myriad of problems and issues that constitute old age healthcare. Demonstrating cases that range from the most influential to the most underprivileged elderly in India, the book enlightens multiple caregivers-doctors, nurses, and professional caregivers as well as family members-about the dynamic approach required in dealing with complex issues related to late old age. The narratives make the book relatable and interesting to non-academic readers, with important lessons for gerontological and geriatric caregiving. It is also of use to older adults in preparing for active aging.
This book discusses the state of the research and cutting-edge practice with regard to chronic illnesses and rehabilitation in older adults. It emphasizes biopsychosocial and culturally appropriate rehabilitation approaches to reduce the degree of disability and maximize independence in the activities of daily living among the burgeoning aging population. Organized in four sections-Introduction and Overview, Major Illnesses and Problems in Aging Populations, Evaluation of Functional Rehabilitation Approaches for Aging Populations, and Future Clinical Research Needs-the book includes chapters on the "graying" of the West with implications for increased chronic illnesses and disabilities; a review of biopsychosocial rehabilitation approaches; important "aging" issues such as slips-and-falls, musculoskeletal pain, chronic disabling conditions such as cancer and cardiovascular disease, and work-related factors to maintain work engagement in older workers. The US Census Bureau projects that by the year 2030, about 20% of the U.S. population will be 65 or older, contributing to the increased concern about healthcare and rehabilitation issues among older adults. This work will be of interest to healthcare, rehabilitation, vocational, human resource and disability management professionals, policy makers as well as researchers in areas of aging, gerontology, chronic illness, disability, rehabilitation, social work, medicine and psychology.
This encyclopedia brings together key established and emerging research findings in geropsychology. It is a comprehensive coverage of the entire breadth of the field, giving readers access to all major subareas and illustrating their interconnections with other disciplines. Entries delve deep into key areas of geropsychology such as perception, cognition, clinical, organizational, health, social, experimental and neuropsychology. In addition to that, the encyclopedia covers related disciplines such as neuroscience, social science, population health, public policy issues pertaining to retirement, epidemiology and demography and medicine. Paying careful attention to research internationally, it cites English and non-English empirical literature from around the globe. This encyclopedia is relevant to a wide audience that include researchers, clinicians, students, policy makers and nongovernmental agencies.
Sparking controversy in medical, social and professional circles, the nation's most respected medical ethicist strikes at the heart of America's growing health care crisis--the care of the aged. The New York Times Book Review calls Setting Limits "A pivotal work . . . the benchmark for future moral, medical and policy discussions of aging".
In recent years, the literature on the topic of ethnic and racial issues in Alzheimer's disease and other dementias has increased dramatically. At the same time, the need for cultural competence in all of geriatric care, including dementia care, is increasingly being acknowledged. Dementia is a large societal problem affecting all communities, regardless of race or ethnicity, and understanding dementia for specific groups is tremendously important for both clinical knowledge and for health planning as a nation. This third edition of Ethnicity and the Dementias offers invaluable background information in this area, while also examining how those suffering from dementia and their family members respond or adapt to the challenges that follow. Thoroughly updated and revised throughout, the book features contributions from leading clinicians and researchers in the field, with particular attention given to genetic and cultural factors related to dementia, effective prevention and treatment strategies, and issues in caregiving and family support. Chapters offer specific recommendations for dementia care in eleven ethnic/racial groups, as well as suggestions for working effectively with LGBTQ families. Providing a truly comprehensive resource on ethnicity and dementia, and including reflections on emerging trends and the future of caregiving, this new edition is ideal reading for clinicians, educators, researchers, policy makers, and families, in search of the most current ethnogeriatric findings.
Today, approximately 1.6 million American children live in what social scientists call "grandfamilies"-households in which children are being raised by their grandparents. In You've Always Been There for Me, Rachel Dunifon uses data gathered from grandfamilies in New York to analyze their unique strengths and distinct needs. Though grandfamilies can benefit from the accumulated wisdom of mature adults raising children for a second time, Dunifon notes, such families also face high rates of health problems as well as parenting challenges related to a large generation gap. Grandfamilies are also largely hidden in American society, flying under the radar of social service agencies, policymakers, and family researchers. This book gives family researchers a greater understanding of a unique family form, and also offers service providers, policymakers and the general public important information about the lives of an important group of American families.
In this new color handbook, the authors deal systematically with
those skin conditions that are particular to or more common in the
elderly covering testing, diagnosis and treatment options. Given
ageing populations the need for such a book is urgent.
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