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Why do elephants have sturdier thigh bones than humans? Why can't ostriches fly? How do bacteria swim through fluids? With each chapter structured around relevant biological case studies and examples, this engaging, full-colour book introduces fundamental physical concepts essential in the study of biological phenomena. Optics is introduced within the context of butterfly wing colouration, electricity is explained through the propagation of nerve signals, and accelerated motion is conveniently illustrated using the example of the jumping armadillo. Other key physical concepts covered include waves, mechanical forces, thermodynamics and magnetism, and important biological techniques are also discussed within this context, such as gel electrophoresis and fluorescence microscopy. A detailed appendix provides further discussion of the mathematical concepts utilised within the book, and numerous exercises and quizzes allow readers to test their understanding of key concepts. This book is invaluable to students aiming to improve their quantitative and analytical skills and understand the deeper nature of biological phenomena.
As the amount of information in biology expands dramatically, it becomes increasingly important for textbooks to distill the vast amount of scientific knowledge into concise principles and enduring concepts.As with previous editions, Molecular Biology of the Cell, Sixth Edition accomplishes this goal with clear writing and beautiful illustrations. The Sixth Edition has been extensively revised and updated with the latest research in the field of cell biology, and it provides an exceptional framework for teaching and learning. The entire illustration program has been greatly enhanced.Protein structures better illustrate structure-function relationships, icons are simpler and more consistent within and between chapters, and micrographs have been refreshed and updated with newer, clearer, or better images. As a new feature, each chapter now contains intriguing openended questions highlighting "What We Don't Know," introducing students to challenging areas of future research. Updated end-of-chapter problems reflect new research discussed in the text, and these problems have been expanded to all chapters by adding questions on developmental biology, tissues and stem cells, pathogens, and the immune system.
Bringing this best-selling textbook right up to date, the new edition uniquely integrates the theories and methods that drive the fields of biology, biotechnology and medicine, comprehensively covering both the techniques students will encounter in lab classes and those that underpin current key advances and discoveries. The contents have been updated to include both traditional and cutting-edge techniques most commonly used in current life science research. Emphasis is placed on understanding the theory behind the techniques, as well as analysis of the resulting data. New chapters cover proteomics, genomics, metabolomics, and bioinformatics, as well as data analysis and visualisation. Using accessible language to describe concepts and methods, and with a wealth of new in-text worked examples to challenge students' understanding, this textbook provides an essential guide to the key techniques used in current bioscience research.
DNA can be extracted and sequenced from a diverse range of biological samples, providing a vast amount of information about evolution and ecology. The analysis of DNA sequences contributes to evolutionary biology at all levels, from dating the origin of the biological kingdoms to untangling family relationships. An Introduction to Molecular Evolution and Phylogenetics presents the fundamental concepts and intellectual tools you need to understand how the genome records information about evolutionary past and processes, how that information can be "read", and what kinds of questions we can use that information to answer. Starting with evolutionary principles, and illustrated throughout with biological examples, it is the perfect starting point on the journey to an understanding of the way molecular data is used in modern biology. Online Resource Centre The Online Resource Centre features: For registered adopters of the book: - Class plans for one-hour hands-on sessions associated with each chapter - Figures from the textbook to view and download
This new edition of a foundational text presents a contemporary review of cladistics, as applied to biological classification. It provides a comprehensive account of the past fifty years of discussion on the relationship between classification, phylogeny and evolution. It covers cladistics in the era of molecular data, detailing new advances and ideas that have emerged over the last twenty-five years. Written in an accessible style by internationally renowned authors in the field, readers are straightforwardly guided through fundamental principles and terminology. Simple worked examples and easy-to-understand diagrams also help readers navigate complex problems that have perplexed scientists for centuries. This practical guide is an essential addition for advanced undergraduates, postgraduates and researchers in taxonomy, systematics, comparative biology, evolutionary biology and molecular biology.
This is the only book available for studies of the mouse brain before birth. It presents a complete mapping of the developing mouse brain that features imaging of whole brain sections. Users will be able to compare structure shown in the Atlas to what they see in the microscope. This new, greatly expanded edition provides an easily accessible tool for researchers in the fields of normal and abnormal brain development.
AMINO ACIDS AND PROTEINS IN FOSSIL BIOMINERALS An essential cross-disciplinary guide to the proteins that form biominerals and that are preserved in the fossil record Amino Acids and Proteins in Fossil Biominerals is an authoritative guide to the patterns of survival and degradation of ancient biomolecules in the fossil record. The author brings together new research in biomineralization and ancient proteins to describe mechanisms of protein diagenesis. The book draws on the author's experiences as well as current information from three research fields: geochemistry, archaeology and Quaternary sciences. The author examines the history of the study of ancient proteins, from the dating of Quaternary biominerals to the present advances in shotgun proteomics, and discusses their applications across archaeology, geology and evolutionary biology. This important guide: Explores the main components of biominerals Describes the breakdown of proteins in fossils Reviews the applications of ancient protein studies Written for students and researchers of biomolecular archaeology and palaeontology, Amino Acids and Proteins in Fossil Biominerals provides a cross-disciplinary guide to the proteins responsible for the formation of biominerals and to the survival of biomolecules in the archaeological and palaeontological record. This book forms one volume of the popular New Analytical Methods in Earth and Environmental Science Series.
A clear introduction to the complex and fast moving field of
"Human Molecular Genetics"; recommended for""students studying the
subject as part of a general biology, genetics or medical
New to the third edition:
The following online resources support the text:
This comprehensive book presents a modern concept in biophysics based on recently published research. It highlights various aspects of the biophysical fundamentals and techniques that are currently used to study different physical properties of biomolecules, and relates the biological phenomenon with the underlying physical concepts. The content is divided into nine chapters summarizing the structural details of proteins, including recently discovered novel folds, higher order structures of nucleic acids, as well as lipids and the physical forces governing the macromolecular interactions which are essential for the various biological processes. It also provides insights into the recent advances in biophysical techniques including Hydrogen Deuterium Exchange with Mass Spectrometry (HDX-MS), Small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and Cryo Electron Microscopy (cryo EM), supplemented with interesting experimental data. It is a valuable reference resource for anyone with a desire to gain a better understanding of the fundamentals of biophysical concepts and techniques of important biomolecules.
This book describes the structures of Metallothionein (MT) family members and the cellular functions of MT-1, MT-2 and MT-4 isoforms, as well as provides insights into divergent biological roles of MT-3. The authors explain the involvement of MT molecules in various processes related to carcinogenesis, including an organ-specific presentation of current data concerning their potential impact on the progression of various tumors and the regulatory role of MT family members in the function of the immune system.
This second volume expands upon the previous edition with new research and objectives in immunoregulation and immune tolerance. Chapters cover topics ranging from new molecular and cellular mechanisms of tolerance; generation and characterization of mice regulatory macrophages; recent advances in the treatment of immune-mediated inflammatory disorders; and novel mechanisms and therapeutic perspectives on food allergies. Written in the highly successful Methods in Molecular Biology series format, chapters include introductions to their respective topics, lists of the necessary materials and reagents, step-by-step, readily reproducible laboratory protocols, and tips on troubleshooting and avoiding known pitfalls. Authoritative and cutting-edge, Suppression and Regulation of Immune Responses: Methods and Protocols, Volume II is a great resource for current research and inspiration for new studies in immune tolerance.
Current techniques for studying biological macromolecules and their interactions are based on the application of physical methods, ranging from classical thermodynamics to more recently developed techniques for the detection and manipulation of single molecules. Reflecting the advances made in biophysics research over the past decade, and now including a new section on medical imaging, this new edition describes the physical methods used in modern biology. All key techniques are covered, including mass spectrometry, hydrodynamics, microscopy and imaging, diffraction and spectroscopy, electron microscopy, molecular dynamics simulations and nuclear magnetic resonance. Each method is explained in detail using examples of real-world applications. Short asides are provided throughout to ensure that explanations are accessible to life scientists, physicists and those with medical backgrounds. The book remains an unparalleled and comprehensive resource for graduate students of biophysics and medical physics in science and medical schools, as well as for research scientists looking for an introduction to techniques from across this interdisciplinary field.
This book provides an overview on the basics in insect molecular biology and presents the most recent developments in several fields such as insect genomics and proteomics, insect pathology and applications of insect derived compounds in modern research. The book aims to provide a common platform for the molecular entomologist to stimulate further research in insect molecular biology and biotechnology. Insects are one of the most versatile groups of the animal kingdom. Due to their large population sizes and adaptability since long they attract researchers' interest as efficient resource for agricultural and biotechnological purposes. Several economically important insects such as Silkworms, Honey Bee, Lac and Drosophila or Termites were established as invertebrate model organisms. Starting with the era of genetic engineering, a broad range of molecular and genetic tools have been developed to study the molecular biology of these insects in detail and thus opened up a new horizon for multidisciplinary research. Nowadays, insect derived products are widely used in biomedical and biotechnology industries. The book targets researchers from both academia and industry, professors and graduate students working in molecular biology, biotechnology and entomology.
Viruses interact with host cells in ways that uniquely reveal a great deal about general aspects of molecular and cellular structure and function. Molecular and Cellular Biology of Viruses leads students on an exploration of viruses by supporting engaging and interactive learning. All the major classes of viruses are covered, with separate chapters for their replication and expression strategies, and chapters for mechanisms such as attachment that are independent of the virus genome type. Specific cases drawn from primary literature foster student engagement. End-of-chapter questions focus on analysis and interpretation with answers being given at the back of the book. Examples come from the most-studied and medically important viruses such as HIV, influenza, and poliovirus. Plant viruses and bacteriophages are also included. There are chapters on the overall effect of viral infection on the host cell. Coverage of the immune system is focused on the interplay between host defenses and viruses, with a separate chapter on medical applications such as anti-viral drugs and vaccine development. The final chapter is on virus diversity and evolution, incorporating contemporary insights from metagenomic research. Key selling feature: Readable but rigorous coverage of the molecular and cellular biology of viruses Molecular mechanisms of all major groups, including plant viruses and bacteriophages, illustrated by example Host-pathogen interactions at the cellular and molecular level emphasized throughout Medical implications and consequences included Quality illustrations available to instructors Extensive questions and answers for each chapter
The volume is designed to provide an integrated overview of the results from the last fifteen years of research on Chromogranins in relation to cell biology, physiology and biomedicine. The different chapters highlight novel activities of these proteins, including their role in granule biogenesis, hormone co-storage, stimulus-processing-secretion coupling, autonomic sympathetic/parasympathetic balance, immune and cardiocirculatory function, and the response to stress. Biomedical aspects are also illustrated with focus on the prognostic and diagnostic significance of Chromogranin in the presence of tumors, cardiovascular diseases and inflammatory conditions. The volume is of interest for laboratory and clinical scientists, PhD and Post-doc students that will be inspired to go deep inside the molecular, biochemical, physiological, pharmacological and clinical aspects of these fascinating multifaceted proteins.
From breakfast toast to evening wine, yeast is the microscopic thing that we cannot live without. We knew what yeast did as an invisible brewer and baker long before we had a clue about the existence of microorganisms. Ten thousand years ago, our ancestors abandoned bush meat and wild fruit in favor of farming animals and cultivating grain. Leaving the forests and grasslands, our desire for beer and wine produced by the fungus was a major stimulus for agricultural settlement. It takes a village to run a brewery or tend a vineyard. We domesticated wild yeast and yeast domesticated us. With the inevitable escape of the fungus from beer vats into bread dough, our marriage with yeast was secured by an appetite for fresh loaves of leavened bread. Over the millennia, we have adapted the technologies of brewing, winemaking, and baking and have come to rely on yeast more and more. Yeast produces corn ethanol and other biofuels and has become the genetically-modified darling of the pharmaceutical business as a source of human insulin and a range of life-saving medicines. These practical uses of yeast have been made possible by advances in our understanding of its biology, and the power of genetic engineering has been used to modify the fungus to do just about anything we wish. We know more about yeast than any other organism built from complex cells like our own. To understand yeast is to understand life. In this book Nicholas P. Money offers a celebration of our favorite microorganism.
This concise overview of the fundamental concepts of cancer biology is ideal for those with little or no background in the field. A summary of global cancer patterns introduces students to the general principles of how cancers arise and the risk factors involved. By focusing on fundamental examples of the signalling pathways within cells, the functional effects of DNA damage are explained. Later chapters then build on this foundation to provide a comprehensive summary of the major signalling pathways that affect tumour development. Current therapeutic strategies are reviewed, along with a discussion of methods for tumour detection and biomarker identification. Finally, the impact of whole genome sequencing is discussed, bringing students up to date with key recent developments in the field. From basic principles to insights into cutting-edge research, this book will enable the reader to move into the cancer field with confidence.
Now in its sixth edition, Biochemistry and Molecular Biology provides the perfect balance between detail and conceptual understanding. Maintaining the much-praised clarity of previous editions, this edition incorporates both new techniques and pivotal discoveries in a succinct, easy-to-digest way, using updated figures and diagrams to help explain complex processes. Updated content on the manipulation of DNA and genes reflects the rapid introduction of new methods in contemporary research, and incorporates up-to-date discussions of recent developments such as gene editing. Chapter summaries are logically laid out, forming bulleted lists which provide students with a consolidation of difficult concepts and progressively guide them through the specifics whilst keeping the big picture in mind. Additional 'find out more' sections provide helpful problem-solving support and the further reading is divided into types to cater for broader learning needs. With an integrated approach covering both biochemistry and molecular biology, complemented by frequent diagrams and clear explanations, and all presented in a wider cellular context, this text is the perfect introduction for any student new to the subject. Online Resources: The online resources to accompany this text include: For registered adopters of the book: * Figures from the book available to download For students: * Further reading organised by chapter * An extensive bank of multiple-choice questions to support self-directed learning * Links to 3D molecular structures in Protein Data Bank
The mysterious world of fungi is once again unearthed in this expansive second edition. This textbook provides readers with an all-embracing view of the kingdom fungi, ranging in scope from ecology and evolution, diversity and taxonomy, cell biology and biochemistry, to genetics and genomics, biotechnology and bioinformatics. Adopting a unique systems biology approach - and using explanatory figures and colour illustrations - the authors emphasise the diverse interactions between fungi and other organisms. They outline how recent advances in molecular techniques and computational biology have fundamentally changed our understanding of fungal biology, and have updated chapters and references throughout the book in light of this. This is a fascinating and accessible guide, which will appeal to a broad readership - from aspiring mycologists at undergraduate and graduate level to those studying related disciplines. Online resources are hosted on a complementary website.
A signature feature of living organisms is their ability to carry out purposeful actions by taking stock of the world around them. To that end, cells have an arsenal of signaling molecules linked together in signaling pathways, which switch between inactive and active conformations. The Molecular Switch articulates a biophysical perspective on signaling, showing how allostery-a powerful explanation of how molecules function across all biological domains-can be reformulated using equilibrium statistical mechanics, applied to diverse biological systems exhibiting switching behaviors, and successfully unify seemingly unrelated phenomena. Rob Phillips weaves together allostery and statistical mechanics via a series of biological vignettes, each of which showcases an important biological question and accompanying physical analysis. Beginning with the study of ligand-gated ion channels and their role in problems ranging from muscle action to vision, Phillips then undertakes increasingly sophisticated case studies, from bacterial chemotaxis and quorum sensing to hemoglobin and its role in mammalian physiology. He looks at G-protein coupled receptors as well as the role of allosteric molecules in gene regulation. Phillips concludes by surveying problems in biological fidelity and offering a speculative chapter on the relationship between allostery and biological Maxwell demons. Appropriate for graduate students and researchers in biophysics, physics, engineering, biology, and neuroscience, The Molecular Switch presents a unified, quantitative model for describing biological signaling phenomena.
An essential guide to biomolecular and bioanalytical techniques and their applications Biomolecular and Bioanalytical Techniques offers an introduction to, and a basic understanding of, a wide range of biophysical techniques. The text takes an interdisciplinary approach with contributions from a panel of distinguished experts. With a focus on research, the text comprehensively covers a broad selection of topics drawn from contemporary research in the fields of chemistry and biology. Each of the internationally reputed authors has contributed a single chapter on a specific technique. The chapters cover the specific technique's background, theory, principles, technique, methodology, protocol and applications. The text explores the use of a variety of analytical tools to characterise biological samples. The contributors explain how to identify and quantify biochemically important molecules, including small molecules as well as biological macromolecules such as enzymes, antibodies, proteins, peptides and nucleic acids. This book is filled with essential knowledge and explores the skills needed to carry out the research and development roles in academic and industrial laboratories. A technique-focused book that bridges the gap between an introductory text and a book on advanced research methods Provides the necessary background and skills needed to advance the research methods Features a structured approach within each chapter Demonstrates an interdisciplinary approach that serves to develop independent thinking Written for students in chemistry, biological, medical, pharmaceutical, forensic and biophysical sciences, Biomolecular and Bioanalytical Techniques is an in-depth review of the most current biomolecular and bioanalytical techniques in the field.
This book develops a new approach called parameter advising for finding a parameter setting for a sequence aligner that yields a quality alignment of a given set of input sequences. In this framework, a parameter advisor is a procedure that automatically chooses a parameter setting for the input, and has two main ingredients: (a) the set of parameter choices considered by the advisor, and (b) an estimator of alignment accuracy used to rank alignments produced by the aligner. On coupling a parameter advisor with an aligner, once the advisor is trained in a learning phase, the user simply inputs sequences to align, and receives an output alignment from the aligner, where the advisor has automatically selected the parameter setting. The chapters first lay out the foundations of parameter advising, and then cover applications and extensions of advising. The content * examines formulations of parameter advising and their computational complexity, * develops methods for learning good accuracy estimators, * presents approximation algorithms for finding good sets of parameter choices, and * assesses software implementations of advising that perform well on real biological data. Also explored are applications of parameter advising to * adaptive local realignment, where advising is performed on local regions of the sequences to automatically adapt to varying mutation rates, and * ensemble alignment, where advising is applied to an ensemble of aligners to effectively yield a new aligner of higher quality than the individual aligners in the ensemble. The book concludes by offering future directions in advising research.
A. W. F. Edwards is one of the most influential mathematical geneticists in the history of the discipline. One of the last students of R. A. Fisher, Edwards pioneered the statistical analysis of phylogeny in collaboration with L. L. Cavalli-Sforza, and helped establish Fisher's concept of likelihood as a standard of statistical and scientific inference. In this book, edited by philosopher of science Rasmus Gronfeldt Winther, Edwards's key papers are assembled alongside commentaries by leading scientists, discussing Edwards's influence on their own research and on thinking in their field overall. In an extensive interview with Winther, Edwards offers his thoughts on his contributions, their legacy, and the context in which they emerged. This book is a resource both for anyone interested in the history and philosophy of genetics, statistics, and science, and for scientists seeking to develop new algorithmic and statistical methods for understanding the genetic relationships between and among species both extant and extinct.
Cancer, which has become the second-most prevalent health issue globally, is essentially a malfunction of cell signaling. Understanding how the intricate signaling networks of cells and tissues allow cancer to thrive - and how they can be turned into potent weapons against it - is the key to managing cancer in the clinic and improving the outcome of cancer therapies. In their ground-breaking textbook, the authors provide a compelling story of how cancer works on the molecular level, and how targeted therapies using kinase inhibitors and other modulators of signaling pathways can contain and eventually cure it. The first part of the book gives an introduction into the cell and molecular biology of cancer, focusing on the key mechanisms of cancer formation. The second part of the book introduces the main signaling transduction mechanisms responsible for carcinogenesis and compares their function in healthy versus cancer cells. In contrast to the complexity of its topic, the text is easy to read. 32 specially prepared teaching videos on key concepts and pathways in cancer signaling are available online.
This volume provides a comprehensive collection of protocols on new technology across various model organisms. Chapters describe species-specific methods to generate new mutants the content is completed by chapters on natural TAL effectors, TAL element DNA binding principles, TALEN target site prediction, and methods for the efficient construction of TALEN coding regions. While addition chapter focus on the application of TALEN as sequence-specific nucleases and TAL based gene activators or inhibitors and the visualization of chromatin dynamics in live cells. Written in the highly successful Methods in Molecular Biology series format, chapters include introductions to their respective topics, lists of the necessary materials and reagents, step-by-step, readily reproducible laboratory protocols, and tips on troubleshooting and avoiding known pitfalls. Authoritative and cutting-edge, TALENs: Methods and Protocols aims to ensure successful results in the further study of this vital field.
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