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A groundbreaking biography of Milton's formative years that provides a new account of the poet's political radicalization John Milton (1608-1674) has a unique claim on literary and intellectual history as the author of both Paradise Lost, the greatest narrative poem in English, and prose defences of the execution of Charles I that influenced the French and American revolutions. Tracing Milton's literary, intellectual, and political development with unprecedented depth and understanding, Poet of Revolution is an unmatched biographical account of the formation of the mind that would go on to create Paradise Lost-but would first justify the killing of a king. Biographers of Milton have always struggled to explain how the young poet became a notorious defender of regicide and other radical ideas such as freedom of the press, religious toleration, and republicanism. In this groundbreaking intellectual biography of Milton's formative years, Nicholas McDowell draws on recent archival discoveries to reconcile at last the poet and polemicist. He charts Milton's development from his earliest days as a London schoolboy, through his university life and travels in Italy, to his emergence as a public writer during the English Civil War. At the same time, McDowell presents fresh, richly contextual readings of Milton's best-known works from this period, including the "Nativity Ode," "L'Allegro" and "Il Penseroso," Comus, and "Lycidas." Challenging biographers who claim that Milton was always a secret radical, Poet of Revolution shows how the events that provoked civil war in England combined with Milton's astonishing programme of self-education to instil the beliefs that would shape not only his political prose but also his later epic masterpiece.
Intelligent, authoritative, and often surprising, a biography of the most famous of French monarchs, by an acclaimed biographer and historian. Louis XIV's story has all the ingredients of a Dumas classic: legendary beginnings, beguiling women, court intrigue, a mysterious prisoner in an iron mask, lavish court entertainments, the scandal of a mistress who was immersed in the dark arts, and a central character who is handsome and romantic, but with a frighteningly dark side to his character. Louis believed himself to be semidivine. His self-identification as the Sun King, which was reflected in iconography of the sun god, Apollo, influenced every aspect of Louis's life: his political philosophy, his wars, and his relationships with courtiers and subjects. As a military strategist, Louis's capacity was debatable, but he was an astute politician who led his country to the heights of sophistication and power - and then had the misfortune to live long enough to see it all crumble away. As the sun began to set upon this most glorious of reigns, it brought a gathering darkness filled with the anguish of dead heirs, threatened borders, and a populace that was dangerously dependent upon - but greatly distanced from - its king.
Retaining well-loved features from the previous editions, Religious Conflict and the Church in England has been approved by AQA and matched to the 2015 specifications. This textbook covers AS and A Level content together and explores in depth a period of major change in the English Church and government, and the issues which led England to break with Rome. It focuses on key concepts such as humanism, Protestantism and the relationship between Church and state, and covers events and developments with precision. Students can further develop vital skills such as historical interpretations and source analyses via specially selected sources and extracts. Practice questions and study tips provide additional support to help familiarize students with the new exam style questions, and help them achieve their best in the exam.
Please note this title is suitable for any student studying: Exam Board: AQA Level: A Level Subject: History First teaching: September 2015 First exams: June 2017 Retaining all the well-loved features from the previous editions, The Tudors has been approved by AQA and matched to the 2015 specifications. With a strong focus on skills building and exam practice, this book covers in breadth issues of change, continuity, and cause and consequence in this period of English history through key questions such as how effectively did the Tudors develop the powers of the monarchy, and how did English society and economy change. Its aim is to enable students to understand and make connections between the six key themes covered in the specification. Students can further develop vital skills such as historical interpretations and source analyses via specially selected sources and extracts. Practice questions and study tips provide additional support to help familiarize students with the new exam style questions, and help them achieve their best in the exam.
Ddie vierde van vyf boeke oor vroeŽ blanke vestiging aan die Kaap. Hier word die vestigingsjare van die Nederlandse kolonie aan die Kaap beskryf. Die kommandeurs wat op Jan van Riebeeck gevolg het, staan in sy skadu en kry gewoonlik nie baie aandag in die geskiedenisboeke nie.
In die eerste hoofstukke van hierdie boek val die kollig egter op Zacharias Wagenaer, Cornelius van Quaelberg, Isband Goske en Joan Bax en hulle span VOC-amptenare. In die laaste deel van die boek kom die uitbreiding van die blanke nedersetting na die binneland en die totstandkoming van ’n klas gegoede en gevestigde vryburgers, onder die aandag. Die eerste vryburgers het mense ingesluit soos Steven Jansz Botma, W.C. Mostaert en die Duitser Jacob Cloete, wie se nasate vandag bekende Afrikaanse families vorm. Schoeman beskryf hoe hierdie vryburgers naas hulle boerderybedrywighede ook ander klein ondernemings begin het, soos taphuise, steenmakery en kleremakery.
Aan die hand van boedelinventarisse word nagegaan hoe party van die eens arm vryburgers geleidelik meer grond, vee, implemente en meubels kon bekom, ’n aanduiding van die toenemende welvaart van wat sou uitgroei tot ’n Kaapse elite.
Divorced, beheaded, died; divorced, beheaded, survived. For over four centuries, popular imagination has been gripped by the story of King Henry VIII and his six wives - and by the tangled web of passion and intrigue that lies behind it. Henry's desperate hope for a son, a male heir for the throne of England, drove him until his death. This attractive guide looks at the King, each of his wives and the background of religious change that surrounds their stories. From Henry's first marriage to his brother's widow Catherine of Aragon until the end of his life with Catherine Parr and three heirs, this guide tells these stories with fascinating facts, artworks, illustrations and colour photographs. Perfect for students of history and anyone with an interest in one of England's most famous monarchs and his six wives. Look out for more Pitkin Guides on the very best of British history, heritage and travel.
Retaining well-loved features from the previous editions, Stuart Britain and the Crisis of Monarchy has been approved by AQA and matched to the 2015 specifications. This textbook covers AS and A Level content together and covers in breadth issues of change, continuity, and cause and consequence in in this period of British history through key themes such as how far did the monarchy change during Stuart Britain, why were there disputes over religion, how effective was opposition, and how important were ideologies and individuals. Its aim is to enable you to understand and make connections between the six key thematic questions covered in the specification. Students can further develop vital skills such as historical interpretations and source analyses via specially selected sources and extracts. Practice questions and study tips provide additional support to help familiarize students with the new exam style questions, and help them achieve their best in the exam.
Retaining all the well-loved features from the previous editions, The English Revolution has been approved by AQA and matched to the 2015 specification. With a strong focus on skills building and exam practice, this book covers a period of major change in-depth, focusing on key ideas, events and developments with precision. Students can further develop vital skills such as historical interpretations and source analyses via specially selected sources and extracts. Practice questions and study tips provide additional support to help familiarise students with the new exam style questions, and help them achieve their best in the exam.
Portrays Elizabeth I's turbulent life and times and the achievements of the talented men of the time, among them Sir Francis Drake, Sir Walter Raleigh and William Shakespeare. Look out for more Pitkin Guides on the very best of British history, heritage and travel.
What constituted a secret or a scandal in times gone by? This entertaining title in this new series gives an overview of the times and attitudes to `secrets', and what was meant by a `scandal'. The series uncovers revelations of spies and plots, financial scandals, secrets of the royal bedchambers, dynastic tangles, and the exploits of both villains and so-called saints. Noble lords and ladies sampled the same pleasures and sometimes met the same ghastly fate as common criminals. Enemies of the state plotted and were plotted against, while a horrible fate awaited those found guilty of treason, hanged, drawn and quartered to the jeers of the mob. Assassins lurked in alleys, ghoulish body snatchers opened graves in the dead of night... This highly illustrated guide includes places associated with the stories.
In 1517, a certain Dr Beale, rector of St Mary Spitall in London, had roused the capital's mob by laying the blame for an increase in poverty squarely upon the shoulders of grasping foreigners. 'God has given England to Englishmen,' he fumed, and 'as birds would defend their nest, so ought Englishmen to cherish and defend themselves and to hurt and grieve aliens for the common weal.' But migration was not the only factor influencing Tudor attitudes to Europe. War, religion, commerce and dynastic security were all critical in linking England to developments abroad, and in ways that remain strikingly relevant today. What were the forces that shaped the shifting perspectives of Tudor men and women and their rulers towards a continent at the crossroads? And what, in turn, were the responses of sixteenth-century Europeans to their counterparts across the Channel? The Tudors and Europe looks at a time when the very survival of England hung critically in the balance and asks if it has lessons for the present.
A study of the Civil War for AS Level History students. It is designed to fulfil the specifications in place from September 2000. It provides two sections featuring narrative and explanation of the topic. There are notes, biography boxes and definitions in the margin, and summary boxes to help students assimilate the information. There are also practice questions and hints and tips on what makes a good answer.
If you drive through Mpumalanga with an eye on the landscape flashing by, you may see, near the sides of the road and further away on the hills above and in the valleys below, fragments of building in stone as well as sections of stone-walling breaking the grass cover. Endless stone circles, set in bewildering mazes and linked by long stone passages, cover the landscape stretching from Ohrigstad to Carolina, connecting over 10 000 square kilometres of the escarpment into a complex web of stone-walled homesteads, terraced fields and linking roads. Oral traditions recorded in the early twentieth century named the area Bokoni - the country of the Koni people. Few South Africans or visitors to the country know much about these settlements, and why today they are deserted and largely ignored. A long tradition of archaeological work which might provide some of the answers remains cloistered in universities and the knowledge vacuum has been filled by a variety of exotic explanations - invoking ancient settlers from India or even visitors from outer space - that share a common assumption that Africans were too primitive to have created such elaborate stone structures. Forgotten World defies the usual stereotypes about backward African farming methods and shows that these settlements were at their peak between 1500 and 1820, that they housed a substantial population, organised vast amounts of labour for infrastructural development, and displayed extraordinary levels of agricultural innovation and productivity. The Koni were part of a trading system linked to the coast of Mozambique and the wider world of Indian Ocean trade beyond. Forgotten World tells the story of Bokoni through rigorous historical and archaeological research, and lavishly illustrates it with stunning photographic images.
The Tudor age was a pivotal period of English history. In little more than a century, the nation was transformed from a medieval kingdom to a modern state, from an insignificant offshore island to a major world power. Life in Tudor England sparkles with colourful illustrations and a lively text. Discover what life was really like during more than 100 years of Tudor rule in this pivotal period of English history: how industry became an alternative to agriculture as a means of employment; the lavish fads, fashions and fun enjoyed by the rich; the hardships suffered by the poor as inflation spiralled. All is revealed in this enticing taste of days gone by. Look out for more Pitkin Guides on the very best of British history, heritage and travel, particularly the other books in the 'Life in ' series: Medieval England, in a Monastery and Victorian Britain.
Scandalous Liaisons tells the story of the most hedonistic, loose-living court in English history, from Charles II's youthful years and mistresses in France, to his tempestuous relationship with the hot-tempered, sexually and financially voracious Barbara Villiers. Of Charles's mistresses, everybody's favourite was the perky Cockney actress, Nell Gwyn. Nell and the French aristocrat (and not-so-very secret agent) Louise de Keroualle were the two women he would remember on his deathbed. The court, a world of extravagant displays of wealth, was also a sexual merry-go-round of flirtation, cuckoldry and betrayals, occasional unwanted pregnancies and fierce duels, as ordinary people looked on, fascinated and appalled. Filled with flamboyant men and women and astonishing incidents, this book draws on a wealth of writing by contemporary observers, such as diaries and memoirs (from Pepys and the French Comte de Gramont), letters, gossip, biting satires and bawdy lampoons directed at everyone from bishops to promiscuous court beauties and poxed swaggerers. All this is set in the context of Restoration libertinism and political events such as Charles's secret deals with Louis XIV, the wars with the Dutch, court political intrigues and popular anti-Catholic feeling. Based on contemporary sources and modern historical studies, Scandalous Liaisons provides a richly varied and entertaining picture of a most extraordinary time.
Our nation is a treasury of outstanding palaces and fine merchant houses from this rich period in our past. The Tudor period is one that feels familiar to many of us with famous monarchs such as Henry VIII and Elizabeth I, but we perhaps are not as familiar with the everyday life of the era. Here we uncover what these remarkable buildings can tell us about Tudor lives and times. Alison Sim's guide explores noble to ordinary households, how Tudors cared for their homes, and their daily routines including diet, health and entertainment. This is an informative and entertaining look at the daily reality of life in the Tudor period, from the wealthiest families to the humblest of households. Colour photographs of palaces and homes, accompanied by contemporary portraits and woodcuts give a fascinating insight into the everyday life of the Tudors. Contains a list of related places to visit, including many National Trust properties, and a glossary of key terms used within the guide.
Although the Montaukett were among the first tribes to establish relations with the English in the seventeenth century, until now very little has been written about the evolution of their interaction with the settlers. John A. Strong, a noted authority on the Indians of Long Island, has written a concise history that focuses on the issues of land tenure in the relations between the English and the Montaukett. Strong also explores issues of cultural assimilation, political and social tensions, and patterns of economic dependency among the Montaukett.
How Enlightenment Europe rediscovered its identity by measuring itself against the great civilizations of Asia During the long eighteenth century, Europe's travelers, scholars, and intellectuals looked to Asia in a spirit of puzzlement, irony, and openness. In this panoramic and colorful book, Jurgen Osterhammel tells the story of the European Enlightenment's nuanced encounter with the great civilizations of the East, from the Ottoman Empire and India to China and Japan. Here is the acclaimed book that challenges the notion that Europe's formative engagement with the non-European world was invariably marred by an imperial gaze and presumptions of Western superiority. Osterhammel shows how major figures such as Leibniz, Voltaire, Gibbon, and Hegel took a keen interest in Asian culture and history, and introduces lesser-known scientific travelers, colonial administrators, Jesuit missionaries, and adventurers who returned home from Asia bearing manuscripts in many exotic languages, huge collections of ethnographic data, and stories that sometimes defied belief. Osterhammel brings the sights and sounds of this tumultuous age vividly to life, from the salons of Paris and the lecture halls of Edinburgh to the deserts of Arabia, the steppes of Siberia, and the sumptuous courts of Asian princes. He demonstrates how Europe discovered its own identity anew by measuring itself against its more senior continent, and how it was only toward the end of this period that cruder forms of Eurocentrism--and condescension toward Asia-prevailed. A momentous work by one of Europe's most eminent historians, Unfabling the East takes readers on a thrilling voyage to the farthest shores, bringing back vital insights for our own multicultural age.
"This comprehensively researched, well-written book represents the definitive account of Robert E. Lee's triumph over Union leader John Pope in the summer of 1862. . . . Lee's strategic skills, and the capabilities of his principal subordinates James Longstreet and Stonewall Jackson, brought the Confederates onto the field of Second Manassas at the right places and times against a Union army that knew how to fight, but not yet how to win."-"Publishers Weekly"
"The deepest, most comprehensive, and most definitive work on this Civil War campaign, by the unchallenged authority."-James I. Robertson Jr., author of "Stonewall Jackson"
The true story of the White Queen and more, this is a thrilling history of the extraordinary noblewomen who lived through the Wars of the Roses. The events of the Wars of the Roses are usually described in terms of the men involved: Richard Duke of York, Henry VI, Edward IV, Richard III and Henry VII. But these years were also packed with women's drama and - in the tales of conflicted maternity and monstrous births - alive with female energy. In this completely original book, Sarah Gristwood sheds light on a neglected dimension of English history: the impact of Tudor women on the Wars of the Roses. She examines, among others, Cecily Neville, who was deprived of being queen when her husband died at the Battle of Wakefield; Elizabeth Woodville, the commoner who married Edward IV in secret; Margaret Beaufort, mother of Henry VII, whose love and ambition for her son knew no bounds. Until now, the lives of these women have remained little known to the general public. Sarah Gristwood tells their stories in detail for the first time. Captivating and original, this is historical writing of the most important kind.
Within the stunning eighteenth-century park of Studley Royal in Yorkshire, lie the ruinous remains of Fountains Abbey - one of the finest examples of Cistercian architecture in Europe. Drawing on contemporary historical evidence, the results of excavations, and his English Heritage conservation work from the past 30 years, Glyn Coppack outlines the history of this fascinating site from its use as an early mission centre in 1132 through its subsequent growth over the centuries. Glyn Coppack works for English Heritage and is one of Britain's foremost monastic scholars. He lives in north Lincolnshire.
During the early part of the sixteenth century England should have been ruled by King Arthur Tudor, not Henry VIII. Had the first-born son of Henry VII lived into adulthood, his younger brother Henry would never have become King Henry VIII. The subsequent history of England would have been very different; the massive religious, social and political changes of Henry VIII's reign might not have been necessary at all. In naming his eldest son Arthur, Henry VII was making an impressive statement about what the Tudors hoped to achieve as rulers within Britain. Since the story of Arthur as a British hero was very well known to all ranks of the Crown's subjects, the name alone gave the young prince a great deal to live up to. Arthur's education and exposure to power and responsibility, not to mention his marriage to a Spanish princess in Catherine of Aragon, all indicate that the young prince was being shaped into a paragon of kingship that all of Britain could admire. This book explores all of these aspects of Prince Arthur's life, together with his relationship with his brother, and assesses what type of king he would have been.
The most thorough account ever written of southwestern life in the early seventeenth century, this engaging book was first published in 1630 as an official report to the king of Spain by Fray Alonso de Benavides, a Portuguese Franciscan who was the third head of the mission churches of New Mexico. In 1625, Father Benavides and his party traveled north from Mexico City to New Mexico, a strange land of frozen rivers, Indian citadels, and mines full of silver and garnets. Benavides and his Franciscan brothers built schools, erected churches, engineered peace treaties, and were said to perform miracles. Benavides's riveting exploration narrative provides portraits of the Pueblo Indians, the Apaches, and the Navajos at a time of fundamental change. It also gives us the first full picture of European colonial life in the southern Rockies, the southwestern deserts, and the Great Plains, along with an account of mission architecture and mission life and a unique evocation of faith in the wilderness.
Between the end of the Middle Ages and the early nineteenth century, the long-established structures and practices of European trade, agriculture, and industry were disparately but profoundly transformed. Revised, updated, and expanded, this second edition of Transitions to Capitalism in Early Modern Europe narrates and analyses the diverse trends that greatly enlarged European commerce, permanently modified rural and urban production, gave birth to new social classes, remade consumer habits, and altered global economic geographies, culminating in capitalist industrial revolution. Broad in chronological and geographical scope and explicitly comparative, Robert S. DuPlessis' book introduces readers to a wealth of information drawn from throughout Eastern, Western and Mediterranean Europe, as well as to classic interpretations, current debates, new scholarship, and suggestions for further reading.
This The Tudors: England 1485-1603 Revision Guide is part of the bestselling Oxford AQA History for A Level series. Written to match the new AQA specification, this series helps you deepen your historical knowledge and develop vital analytical and evaluation skills. This revision guide offers the clearly structured revision approach of Recap, Apply, and Review to prepare you for exam success. Step-by-step exam practice strategies for all AQA question types are provided (including Extract Analysis and essays linked to Key Questions), as well as well-researched, targeted guidance based on what we now know from the new AQA examiner's reports on The Tudors England. Our original author team is back, offering expert advice, AS and A Level exam-style questions and Examiner Tips. Contents checklists help monitor revision progress; example student answers and suggested activity answers help you review your own work. This guide is perfect for use alongside the Student Books or as a stand-alone resource for independent revision.
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