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As he traveled across Germany and the Netherlands and sailed on Dutch and Brandenburg slave ships to the Caribbean and Africa from 1682 to 1696, the young German barber-surgeon Johann Peter Oettinger (1666-1746) recorded his experiences in a detailed journal, discovered by Roberto Zaugg and Craig Koslofsky in a Berlin archive. Oettinger's journal describes shipboard life, trade in Africa, the horrors of the Middle Passage, and the sale of enslaved captives in the Caribbean. Translated here for the first time, A German Barber-Surgeon in the Atlantic Slave Trade documents Oettinger's journeys across the Atlantic, his work as a surgeon, his role in the purchase and branding of enslaved Africans, and his experiences in France and the Netherlands. His descriptions of Amsterdam, Curacao, St. Thomas, and Suriname, as well as his account of societies along the coast of West Africa, from Mauritania to Gabon, contain rare insights into all aspects of Europeans' burgeoning trade in African captives in the late seventeenth century. This journeyman's eyewitness account of all three routes of the triangle trade will be invaluable to scholars of the early modern world on both sides of the Atlantic.
Although commonly regarded as a prejudice against Roman Catholics and their religion, anti-popery is both more complex and far more historically significant than this common conception would suggest. As the essays collected in this volume demonstrate, anti-popery is a powerful lens through which to interpret the culture and politics of the British-American world. In early modern England, opposition to tyranny and corruption associated with the papacy could spark violent conflicts not only between Protestants and Catholics but among Protestants themselves. Yet anti-popery had a capacity for inclusion as well and contributed to the growth and stability of the first British Empire. Combining the religious and political concerns of the Protestant Empire into a powerful (if occasionally unpredictable) ideology, anti-popery affords an effective framework for analyzing and explaining Anglo-American politics, especially since it figured prominently in the American Revolution as well as others. Taking an interdisciplinary approach, written by scholars from both sides of the Atlantic working in history, literature, art history, and political science, the essays in Against Popery cover three centuries of English, Scottish, Irish, early American, and imperial history between the early sixteenth and early nineteenth centuries. More comprehensive, inclusive, and far-reaching than earlier studies, this volume represents a major turning point, summing up earlier work and laying a broad foundation for future scholarship across disciplinary lines. Contributors: Craig Gallagher, Boston College * Tim Harris, Brown University * Clare Haynes, University of East Anglia * Susan P. Liebell, St. Joseph's University * Brendan McConville, Boston University * Anthony Milton, Sheffield University* Andrew Murphy, Rutgers University * Laura M. Stevens, University of Tulsa * Cynthia J. Van Zandt, University of New Hampshire * Peter Walker, University of Wyoming * Gregory Zucker, Rutgers University
Retaining well-loved features from the previous editions, Religious Conflict and the Church in England has been approved by AQA and matched to the 2015 specifications. This textbook covers AS and A Level content together and explores in depth a period of major change in the English Church and government, and the issues which led England to break with Rome. It focuses on key concepts such as humanism, Protestantism and the relationship between Church and state, and covers events and developments with precision. Students can further develop vital skills such as historical interpretations and source analyses via specially selected sources and extracts. Practice questions and study tips provide additional support to help familiarize students with the new exam style questions, and help them achieve their best in the exam.
Please note this title is suitable for any student studying: Exam Board: AQA Level: A Level Subject: History First teaching: September 2015 First exams: June 2017 Retaining all the well-loved features from the previous editions, The Tudors has been approved by AQA and matched to the 2015 specifications. With a strong focus on skills building and exam practice, this book covers in breadth issues of change, continuity, and cause and consequence in this period of English history through key questions such as how effectively did the Tudors develop the powers of the monarchy, and how did English society and economy change. Its aim is to enable students to understand and make connections between the six key themes covered in the specification. Students can further develop vital skills such as historical interpretations and source analyses via specially selected sources and extracts. Practice questions and study tips provide additional support to help familiarize students with the new exam style questions, and help them achieve their best in the exam.
A study of the Civil War for AS Level History students. It is designed to fulfil the specifications in place from September 2000. It provides two sections featuring narrative and explanation of the topic. There are notes, biography boxes and definitions in the margin, and summary boxes to help students assimilate the information. There are also practice questions and hints and tips on what makes a good answer.
Ddie vierde van vyf boeke oor vroeŽ blanke vestiging aan die Kaap. Hier word die vestigingsjare van die Nederlandse kolonie aan die Kaap beskryf. Die kommandeurs wat op Jan van Riebeeck gevolg het, staan in sy skadu en kry gewoonlik nie baie aandag in die geskiedenisboeke nie.
In die eerste hoofstukke van hierdie boek val die kollig egter op Zacharias Wagenaer, Cornelius van Quaelberg, Isband Goske en Joan Bax en hulle span VOC-amptenare. In die laaste deel van die boek kom die uitbreiding van die blanke nedersetting na die binneland en die totstandkoming van ’n klas gegoede en gevestigde vryburgers, onder die aandag. Die eerste vryburgers het mense ingesluit soos Steven Jansz Botma, W.C. Mostaert en die Duitser Jacob Cloete, wie se nasate vandag bekende Afrikaanse families vorm. Schoeman beskryf hoe hierdie vryburgers naas hulle boerderybedrywighede ook ander klein ondernemings begin het, soos taphuise, steenmakery en kleremakery.
Aan die hand van boedelinventarisse word nagegaan hoe party van die eens arm vryburgers geleidelik meer grond, vee, implemente en meubels kon bekom, ’n aanduiding van die toenemende welvaart van wat sou uitgroei tot ’n Kaapse elite.
Divorced, beheaded, died; divorced, beheaded, survived. For over four centuries, popular imagination has been gripped by the story of King Henry VIII and his six wives - and by the tangled web of passion and intrigue that lies behind it. Henry's desperate hope for a son, a male heir for the throne of England, drove him until his death. This attractive guide looks at the King, each of his wives and the background of religious change that surrounds their stories. From Henry's first marriage to his brother's widow Catherine of Aragon until the end of his life with Catherine Parr and three heirs, this guide tells these stories with fascinating facts, artworks, illustrations and colour photographs. Perfect for students of history and anyone with an interest in one of England's most famous monarchs and his six wives. Look out for more Pitkin Guides on the very best of British history, heritage and travel.
Retaining well-loved features from the previous editions, Stuart Britain and the Crisis of Monarchy has been approved by AQA and matched to the 2015 specifications. This textbook covers AS and A Level content together and covers in breadth issues of change, continuity, and cause and consequence in in this period of British history through key themes such as how far did the monarchy change during Stuart Britain, why were there disputes over religion, how effective was opposition, and how important were ideologies and individuals. Its aim is to enable you to understand and make connections between the six key thematic questions covered in the specification. Students can further develop vital skills such as historical interpretations and source analyses via specially selected sources and extracts. Practice questions and study tips provide additional support to help familiarize students with the new exam style questions, and help them achieve their best in the exam.
Portrays Elizabeth I's turbulent life and times and the achievements of the talented men of the time, among them Sir Francis Drake, Sir Walter Raleigh and William Shakespeare. Look out for more Pitkin Guides on the very best of British history, heritage and travel.
Retaining all the well-loved features from the previous editions, The English Revolution has been approved by AQA and matched to the 2015 specification. With a strong focus on skills building and exam practice, this book covers a period of major change in-depth, focusing on key ideas, events and developments with precision. Students can further develop vital skills such as historical interpretations and source analyses via specially selected sources and extracts. Practice questions and study tips provide additional support to help familiarise students with the new exam style questions, and help them achieve their best in the exam.
A groundbreaking biography of Milton's formative years that provides a new account of the poet's political radicalization John Milton (1608-1674) has a unique claim on literary and intellectual history as the author of both Paradise Lost, the greatest narrative poem in English, and prose defences of the execution of Charles I that influenced the French and American revolutions. Tracing Milton's literary, intellectual, and political development with unprecedented depth and understanding, Poet of Revolution is an unmatched biographical account of the formation of the mind that would go on to create Paradise Lost-but would first justify the killing of a king. Biographers of Milton have always struggled to explain how the young poet became a notorious defender of regicide and other radical ideas such as freedom of the press, religious toleration, and republicanism. In this groundbreaking intellectual biography of Milton's formative years, Nicholas McDowell draws on recent archival discoveries to reconcile at last the poet and polemicist. He charts Milton's development from his earliest days as a London schoolboy, through his university life and travels in Italy, to his emergence as a public writer during the English Civil War. At the same time, McDowell presents fresh, richly contextual readings of Milton's best-known works from this period, including the "Nativity Ode," "L'Allegro" and "Il Penseroso," Comus, and "Lycidas." Challenging biographers who claim that Milton was always a secret radical, Poet of Revolution shows how the events that provoked civil war in England combined with Milton's astonishing programme of self-education to instil the beliefs that would shape not only his political prose but also his later epic masterpiece.
Interweaving social, political, environmental, economic, and popular history, John Alexander Williams chronicles four and a half centuries of the Appalachian past. Along the way, he explores Appalachia's long-contested boundaries and the numerous, often contradictory images that have shaped perceptions of the region as both the essence of America and a place apart.
Williams begins his story in the colonial era and describes the half-century of bloody warfare as migrants from Europe and their American-born offspring fought and eventually displaced Appalachia's Native American inhabitants. He depicts the evolution of a backwoods farm-and-forest society, its divided and unhappy fate during the Civil War, and the emergence of a new industrial order as railroads, towns, and extractive industries penetrated deeper and deeper into the mountains. Finally, he considers Appalachia's fate in the twentieth century, when it became the first American region to suffer widespread deindustrialization, and examines the partial renewal created by federal intervention and a small but significant wave of in-migration.
Throughout the book, a wide range of Appalachian voices enlivens the analysis and reminds us of the importance of storytelling in the ways the people of Appalachia define themselves and their region.
This provocative examination of Aztec marriage practices offers a powerful analysis of the dynamics of society and politics in Mexico before and after the Spanish conquest. The author surveys what it means to be polygynous by comparing the practice in other cultures, past and present, and he uses its demographic consequences to flesh out this understudied topic in Aztec history. Polygyny provided Aztec women with opportunities for upward social mobility. It also led to increased migration to Tenochtitlan and influenced royal succession as well as united the empire. Surprisingly, the shift to monogamy that the Aztecs experienced in a single generation took over a millennium to occur in Europe. Hassig's analysis sheds new light on the conquest, showing that the imposition of monogamy - rather than military might, as earlier scholars have assumed - was largely responsible for the strong and rapid Spanish influence on Aztec society.
Guns had an enormous impact on the social, economic, cultural, and political lives of civilian men, women and children of all social strata in early modern England. In this study, Lois Schwoerer identifies and analyzes England's domestic gun culture from 1500 to 1740, uncovering how guns became available, what effects they had on society, and how different sectors of the population contributed to gun culture. The rise of guns made for recreational use followed the development of a robust gun industry intended by King Henry VIII to produce artillery and military handguns for war. Located first in London, the gun industry brought the city new sounds, smells, street names, shops, sights, and communities of gun workers, many of whom were immigrants. Elite men used guns for hunting, target shooting, and protection. They collected beautifully decorated guns, gave them as gifts, and included them in portraits and coats-of-arms, regarding firearms as a mark of status, power, and sophistication. With statutes and proclamations, the government legally denied firearms to subjects with an annual income under GBP100?about 98 percent of the population?whose reactions ranged from grudging acceptance to willful disobedience. Schwoerer shows how this domestic gun culture influenced England's Bill of Rights in 1689, a document often cited to support the claim that the Second Amendment to the United States Constitution conveys the right to have arms as an Anglo-American legacy. Schwoerer shows that the Bill of Rights did not grant a universal right to have arms, but rather a right restricted by religion, law, and economic standing, terms that reflected the nation's gun culture. Examining everything from gunmakers' records to wills, and from period portraits to toy guns, Gun Culture in Early Modern England offers new data and fresh insights on the place of the gun in English society.
What constituted a secret or a scandal in times gone by? This entertaining title in this new series gives an overview of the times and attitudes to `secrets', and what was meant by a `scandal'. The series uncovers revelations of spies and plots, financial scandals, secrets of the royal bedchambers, dynastic tangles, and the exploits of both villains and so-called saints. Noble lords and ladies sampled the same pleasures and sometimes met the same ghastly fate as common criminals. Enemies of the state plotted and were plotted against, while a horrible fate awaited those found guilty of treason, hanged, drawn and quartered to the jeers of the mob. Assassins lurked in alleys, ghoulish body snatchers opened graves in the dead of night... This highly illustrated guide includes places associated with the stories.
If you drive through Mpumalanga with an eye on the landscape flashing by, you may see, near the sides of the road and further away on the hills above and in the valleys below, fragments of building in stone as well as sections of stone-walling breaking the grass cover. Endless stone circles, set in bewildering mazes and linked by long stone passages, cover the landscape stretching from Ohrigstad to Carolina, connecting over 10 000 square kilometres of the escarpment into a complex web of stone-walled homesteads, terraced fields and linking roads. Oral traditions recorded in the early twentieth century named the area Bokoni - the country of the Koni people. Few South Africans or visitors to the country know much about these settlements, and why today they are deserted and largely ignored. A long tradition of archaeological work which might provide some of the answers remains cloistered in universities and the knowledge vacuum has been filled by a variety of exotic explanations - invoking ancient settlers from India or even visitors from outer space - that share a common assumption that Africans were too primitive to have created such elaborate stone structures. Forgotten World defies the usual stereotypes about backward African farming methods and shows that these settlements were at their peak between 1500 and 1820, that they housed a substantial population, organised vast amounts of labour for infrastructural development, and displayed extraordinary levels of agricultural innovation and productivity. The Koni were part of a trading system linked to the coast of Mozambique and the wider world of Indian Ocean trade beyond. Forgotten World tells the story of Bokoni through rigorous historical and archaeological research, and lavishly illustrates it with stunning photographic images.
The Tudor age was a pivotal period of English history. In little more than a century, the nation was transformed from a medieval kingdom to a modern state, from an insignificant offshore island to a major world power. Life in Tudor England sparkles with colourful illustrations and a lively text. Discover what life was really like during more than 100 years of Tudor rule in this pivotal period of English history: how industry became an alternative to agriculture as a means of employment; the lavish fads, fashions and fun enjoyed by the rich; the hardships suffered by the poor as inflation spiralled. All is revealed in this enticing taste of days gone by. Look out for more Pitkin Guides on the very best of British history, heritage and travel, particularly the other books in the 'Life in ' series: Medieval England, in a Monastery and Victorian Britain.
The decline of the native population following the Spanish conquest of New Spain in 1521, among other factors, led to an increased demand for African slaves to add to the labor force and bolster the colonial economy. Approximately two hundred thousand Africans were imported into Mexico from Spain and from West and West Central Africa during the course of the slave trade.
These "Afro-Mexicans" encompassed a great variety of individuals and experiences whose ritual lives differed as much as their backgrounds. Some were Christians who took communion, confessed, and celebrated Mass. Some were blasphemers who were denounced to the Inquisition. Still others were practitioners of mystical rites meant to cure illness, attract lovers, or control owners.
Focusing on the time period from the intensification of slave importation in 1580 to approximately 1700, Joan Bristol presents information from Mexican Inquisition documents. "Christians, Blasphemers, and Witches" explores how Afro-Mexicans worked within the limitations imposed on them by the Church and the Spanish Crown in order to develop relationships with peers and superiors, defend themselves against unjust treatment, make money, and gain prestige on the local level.
Although the Montaukett were among the first tribes to establish relations with the English in the seventeenth century, until now very little has been written about the evolution of their interaction with the settlers. John A. Strong, a noted authority on the Indians of Long Island, has written a concise history that focuses on the issues of land tenure in the relations between the English and the Montaukett. Strong also explores issues of cultural assimilation, political and social tensions, and patterns of economic dependency among the Montaukett.
Our nation is a treasury of outstanding palaces and fine merchant houses from this rich period in our past. The Tudor period is one that feels familiar to many of us with famous monarchs such as Henry VIII and Elizabeth I, but we perhaps are not as familiar with the everyday life of the era. Here we uncover what these remarkable buildings can tell us about Tudor lives and times. Alison Sim's guide explores noble to ordinary households, how Tudors cared for their homes, and their daily routines including diet, health and entertainment. This is an informative and entertaining look at the daily reality of life in the Tudor period, from the wealthiest families to the humblest of households. Colour photographs of palaces and homes, accompanied by contemporary portraits and woodcuts give a fascinating insight into the everyday life of the Tudors. Contains a list of related places to visit, including many National Trust properties, and a glossary of key terms used within the guide.
In 1631, at the epicenter of the worst excesses of the European witch-hunts, Friedrich Spee, a Jesuit priest, published the Cautio Criminalis, a book speaking out against the trials that were sending thousands of innocent people to gruesome deaths. Spee, who had himself ministered to women accused of witchcraft in Germany, had witnessed firsthand the twisted logic and brutal torture used by judges and inquisitors. Combined, these harsh prosecutorial measures led inevitably not only to a confession but to denunciations of supposed accomplices, spreading the circle of torture and execution ever wider.
Driven by his priestly charge of enacting Christian charity, or love, Spee sought to expose the flawed arguments and methods used by the witch-hunters. His logic is relentless as he reveals the contradictions inherent in their arguments, showing there is no way for an innocent person to prove her innocence. And, he questions, if the condemned witches truly are guilty, how could the testimony of these servants and allies of Satan be reliable? Spee's insistence that suspects, no matter how heinous the crimes of which they are accused, possess certain inalienable rights is a timeless reminder for the present day.
The Cautio Criminalis is one of the most important and moving works in the history of witch trials and a revealing documentation of one man's unexpected humanity in a brutal age. Marcus Hellyer's accessible translation from the Latin makes it available to English-speaking audiences for the first time.
Studies in Early Modern German History
"This comprehensively researched, well-written book represents the definitive account of Robert E. Lee's triumph over Union leader John Pope in the summer of 1862. . . . Lee's strategic skills, and the capabilities of his principal subordinates James Longstreet and Stonewall Jackson, brought the Confederates onto the field of Second Manassas at the right places and times against a Union army that knew how to fight, but not yet how to win."-"Publishers Weekly"
"The deepest, most comprehensive, and most definitive work on this Civil War campaign, by the unchallenged authority."-James I. Robertson Jr., author of "Stonewall Jackson"
Loyal Protestants and Dangerous Papists analyzes the vibrant and often violent political culture of seventeenth-century America, exploring the relationship between early American and early modern British politics through a detailed study of colonial Maryland. Seventeenth-century Maryland was repeatedly wracked by disputes over the legitimacy of the colony's Catholic proprietorship. The proprietors' strange policy of religious liberty was part of the controversy, but colonists also voiced fears of proprietary conspiracies with Native Americans and claimed the colony's ruling circle aimed to crush their liberties as English subjects. Conflicts like these became wrapped up in disputes less obviously political, such as disagreements over how to manage the tobacco trade, without which Maryland's economy would falter. Antoinette Sutto contends that the turbulent political history of early Maryland makes most sense when seen in an imperial as well as an American context. Such an understanding of political culture and conflict in this colony offers a window not only into the processes of seventeenth-century American politics but also into the construction of the early modern state. Examining the dramatic rise and fall of Maryland's Catholic proprietorship through this lens, Loyal Protestants and Dangerous Papists offers a unique glimpse into the ambiguities and possibilities of the early English colonial world.
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