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This book provides fundamental information on various techniques for the detection of SARS-CoV-2 including reverse transcriptase (RT) PCR, loop-mediated isothermal amplification, immunodiagnostic tests, and CRISPR-Cas. It reviews various testing kits and detection methodologies that are currently being used for the detection of SARS-CoV-2 and examines strategies for the post-treatment detection and monitoring of SARS-CoV-2. Further, it assesses the diagnostic potential of several SARS-CoV-2 proteins; and analyzes their structural determinants and immunogenicity. In turn, the book evaluates the potential of CRISPR-Cas 12-based assays for the detection of SARS-CoV-2 using RNA extracted from patients. Lastly, it discusses the use of miniaturized biosensors for the detection of other types of coronavirus.
The renowned Oxford Chemistry Primer series, which provides focused introductions to a range of important topics in chemistry, has been refreshed and updated to suit the needs of today's students, lecturers, and postgraduate researchers. The rigorous, yet accessible, treatment of each subject area is ideal for those wanting a primer in a given topic to prepare them for more advanced study or research. Moreover, cutting-edge examples and applications throughout the texts show the relevance of the chemistry being described to current research and industry. The learning features provided, including questions at the end of every chapter and online multiple-choice questions, encourage active learning and promote understanding. Furthermore, frequent diagrams, margin notes, further reading, and glossary definitions all help to enhance a student's understanding of these essential areas of chemistry. Foundations of Molecular Structure Determination covers a range of common spectroscopic and diffraction methods alongside frequent worked examples and problem questions to assist beginning undergraduates in developing their skills in structure analysis. Furthermore, the practical application of these techniques is emphasized, especially to biological and medical systems. Online Resource Centre The Online Resource Centre to accompany Foundations of Molecular Structure Determination features: For registered adopters of the text: * Figures from the book available to download For students: * Downloadable CIF data files * Multiple-choice questions for self-directed learning * Full worked solutions to the end-of-chapter exercises
The renowned Oxford Chemistry Primer series, which provides focused introductions to a range of important topics in chemistry, has been refreshed and updated to suit the needs of today's students, lecturers, and postgraduate researchers. The rigorous, yet accessible, treatment of each subject area is ideal for those wanting a primer in a given topic to prepare them for more advanced study or research. The learning features provided, including questions at the end of every chapter and online multiple-choice questions, encourage active learning and promote understanding. Moreover, cutting-edge examples and applications throughout the texts show the relevance to current research and industry of the chemistry being described. Electronic Paramagnetic Resonance provides a user-friendly introduction to this powerful tool for characterizing paramagnetic molecules. A versatile technique, EPR is becoming increasingly used across fields as diverse as biology, materials science, chemistry, and physics. This primer provides the perfect introduction to the subject by taking the reader through from basic principles to how spectra can be interpreted in practice, with frequent examples demonstrating the diverse ways in which the technique can be applied. Online Resource Centre The Online Resource Centre to accompany Electron Paramagnetic Resonance features: For registered adopters of the text: * Figures from the book available to download For students: * Full worked solutions to the end-of-chapter exercises * Multiple-choice questions for self-directed learning
Combines clear and concise discussions of key NMR concepts with succinct and illustrative examples Designed to cover a full course in Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) Spectroscopy, this text offers complete coverage of classic (one-dimensional) NMR as well as up-to-date coverage of two-dimensional NMR and other modern methods. It contains practical advice, theory, illustrated applications, and classroom-tested problems; looks at such important ideas as relaxation, NOEs, phase cycling, and processing parameters; and provides brief, yet fully comprehensible, examples. It also uniquely lists all of the general parameters for many experiments including mixing times, number of scans, relaxation times, and more. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: An Introduction to Principles, Applications, and Experimental Methods, 2nd Edition begins by introducing readers to NMR spectroscopy - an analytical technique used in modern chemistry, biochemistry, and biology that allows identification and characterization of organic, and some inorganic, compounds. It offers chapters covering: Experimental Methods; The Chemical Shift; The Coupling Constant; Further Topics in One-Dimensional NMR Spectroscopy; Two-Dimensional NMR Spectroscopy; Advanced Experimental Methods; and Structural Elucidation. Features classical analysis of chemical shifts and coupling constants for both protons and other nuclei, as well as modern multi?pulse and multi-dimensional methods Contains experimental procedures and practical advice relative to the execution of NMR experiments Includes a chapter-long, worked-out problem that illustrates the application of nearly all current methods Offers appendices containing the theoretical basis of NMR, including the most modern approach that uses product operators and coherence-level diagrams By offering a balance between volumes aimed at NMR specialists and the structure-determination-only books that focus on synthetic organic chemists, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: An Introduction to Principles, Applications, and Experimental Methods, 2nd Edition is an excellent text for students and post-graduate students working in analytical and bio-sciences, as well as scientists who use NMR spectroscopy as a primary tool in their work.
Characterisation Methods in Inorganic Chemistry provides a fresh alternative to the existing theoretical and descriptive inorganic chemistry texts by adopting a techniques-based approach and providing problem-solving opportunities to show how analytical methods are used to help us characterise inorganic compounds. The text covers the full range of analytical techniques employed by inorganic chemists, emphasizing those in most frequent use: NMR, diffraction, UV-Vis spectroscopy, and IR. The additional coverage on other techniques allows readers to study these less widely used methods when relevant to their specific course material. Each chapter follows a clear, structured format, which begins with a brief introduction to the technique and basic theory behind it before moving on to data collection and analysis, typical data and interpretation, with numerous worked examples, self- tests and problems. Online Resource Centre For registered adopters of the book: - Figures and tables of data from the book, ready to download - Additional problems and exercises For students: - Answers to self-test questions - Additional problems and data sets
One of the first texts to offer a simple presentation of the
theoretical foundations of steady-state laser spectroscopy, this
volume is geared toward beginning theorists and experimentalists.
It assists students in applying theoretical ideas to actual
calculations in laser spectroscopy with a systematic series of
examples and exercises. Starting at an elementary level, students
gradually build up their practical skills with demonstrations of
how simplified theoretical models relate to experimentally
observable quantities. Detailed derivations offer students the
opportunity to work out all results for themselves.
The chemical composition of any planetary atmosphere is of fundamental importance in determining its photochemistry and dynamics in addition to its thermal balance, climate, origin and evolution. Divided into two parts, this book begins with a set of introductory chapters, starting with a concise review of the Solar System and fundamental atmospheric physics. Chapters then describe the basic principles and methods of spectroscopy, the main tool for studying the chemical composition of planetary atmospheres, and of photochemical modeling and its use in the theoretical interpretation of observational data on chemical composition. The second part of the book provides a detailed review of the carbon dioxide atmospheres and ionospheres of Mars and Venus, and the nitrogen-methane atmospheres of Titan, Triton and Pluto. Written by an expert author, this comprehensive text will make a valuable reference for graduate students, researchers and professional scientists specializing in planetary atmospheres.
Analytical Chemistry: A Practical Approach takes a hands-on approach to analytical chemistry, directly reflecting how chemical analysis is carried out in a range of contexts. It provides students with a clear and easy-to-remember framework through which they can develop their understanding of the analytical process and and draws on a wide range of everyday examples to illustrate the practical application of analytical chemistry, including environmental analysis and food analysis. The authors present students with a range of worked examples, activities and problems to develop the skills of application and problem-solving they will need in the real world.
The author of this book won a Nobel Prize for his contributions to the knowledge of electronic structure and geometry of molecules. In this classic text, he offers a concise introduction to diatomic radicals and ions, linear and nonlinear polyatomic radicals and ions, dissociation, predissociation, and recombination. 106 illustrations. 1971 edition.
The book "Technology in Forensic Science" provides an integrated approach by reviewing the usage of modern forensic tools as well as the methods for interpretation of the results. Starting with best practices on sample taking, the book then reviews analytical methods such as high-resolution microscopy and chromatography, biometric approaches, and advanced sensor technology as well as emerging technologies such as nanotechnology and taggant technology. It concludes with an outlook to emerging methods such as AI-based approaches to forensic investigations.
With nearly 400 original illustrations, this NMR primer provides an introduction to solution NMR spectroscopy at a level appropriate for advanced undergraduates, graduate students and working scientists with backgrounds in chemistry or biochemistry. It presents the underlying physics and mathematics in a way that is both accessible and sufficiently complete to allow a real understanding of modern multi-dimensional experiments, thereby giving readers the tools they need to move to more advanced textbooks and articles. One special feature of this text is a thorough, but accessible, treatment of spin quantum mechanics, including scalar-coupled spins. A novel style of vector diagram is used to represent the quantum correlations between coupled spins and the manipulation of these correlations by pulses and time evolution. This will help to clarify what is arguably the most difficult aspect of NMR for students and practitioners to master. Key Features: - Hundreds of original illustrations show both traditional and non-traditional vector diagrams, that describe the correlations between scalar-coupled spins. The non-traditional vector diagrams are a unique highlight of this text, and are used to illustrate experiments based on scalar coupling and as an aid to product-operator calculations. - Numerical simulations are used to illustrate many important ideas, including standard data processing techniques and the random processes associated with NMR relaxation. - Important mathematical concepts and techniques, such as complex numbers and the Fourier transformation, are introduced where they are required in the text. - Each chapter includes chapter-ending problems and exercises as well as a summary of major points and references for further reading.
A richly illustrated undergraduate textbook on the physics and biology of light Students in the physical and life sciences, and in engineering, need to know about the physics and biology of light. Recently, it has become increasingly clear that an understanding of the quantum nature of light is essential, both for the latest imaging technologies and to advance our knowledge of fundamental life processes, such as photosynthesis and human vision. From Photon to Neuron provides undergraduates with an accessible introduction to the physics of light and offers a unified view of a broad range of optical and biological phenomena. Along the way, this richly illustrated textbook builds the necessary background in neuroscience, photochemistry, and other disciplines, with applications to optogenetics, superresolution microscopy, the single-photon response of individual photoreceptor cells, and more. With its integrated approach, From Photon to Neuron can be used as the basis for interdisciplinary courses in physics, biophysics, sensory neuroscience, biophotonics, bioengineering, or nanotechnology. The goal is always for students to gain the fluency needed to derive every result for themselves, so the book includes a wealth of exercises, including many that guide students to create computer-based solutions. Supplementary online materials include real experimental data to use with the exercises. * Assumes familiarity with first-year undergraduate physics and the corresponding math * Overlaps the goals of the MCAT, which now includes data-based and statistical reasoning * Advanced chapters and sections also make the book suitable for graduate courses * An Instructor's Guide and illustration package is available to professors
Unlike traditional NMR textbooks for chemists, this fresh look at the topic combines theory, technology and application in a wide range of fields, targeting biochemists, medicinal chemists, and structural biologists, as well as organic chemists. The text has been developed from a one-semester graduate-level course taught by the authors at the University of Zurich, and offers numerous intuitive illustrations, training exercises and plain-language explanations of complex theory. Divided into four major parts, the first introduces the theory, providing a profound understanding of why experiments work, without a rigorous mathematical treatment of all the physico-chemical computations and deliberately shorter than in most other NMR textbooks. Part two discusses current instrumentation and practical aspects, including sample preparation, processing of raw data and the use of databases, while the third part focuses on the main application of NMR, with examples and training spectra taken from a wide range of synthetic and natural compounds. Part four introduces a selection of modern NMR applications in chemistry, biochemistry, medicinal chemistry and molecular biology, explaining the protocols used and how to interpret the results. With its focus on practical aspects and applications, this text will prove useful long after leaving college, by helping users to select experimental methods and in setting up and running their own NMR experiments.
For more than five decades, scientists and researchers have relied on the Advances in Chromatography series for the most up-to-date information on a wide range of developments in chromatographic methods and applications. For Volume 55, established, well-known chemists offer cutting-edge reviews of chromatographic methods to pay tribute to the late Eli Grushka, beloved series editor, who inspired and mentored many in the field of separation science. The clear presentation of topics and vivid illustrations for which this series has become known makes the material accessible and engaging to analytical, biochemical, organic, polymer, and pharmaceutical chemists at all levels of technical skill.
The world's most comprehensive reference for clinical and forensic toxicologists has once more been extensively updated: 2,000 data sets have been added for a total of 10,430 spectra of potentially harmful substances, including 7,800 from metabolites. In two hardbound volumes, the printed atlas contains a comprehensive listing of full reference mass spectra in order or molecular mass with the structural formula, exact mass, GC retention times and other experimental data that are relevant to the analytical toxicologist. To aid in compound identification, all substances are classified according to their toxicological categories. In addition, volume 1 contains an overview on experimental methods, plus a compound index by name. An electronic database for use with all major mass spectrometers is also available. For details, please visit www.wiley.com/go/databases.
International Tables for Crystallography Volume F is an expert guide to macromolecular crystallography for the structural biologist. It was commissioned by the International Union of Crystallography in recognition of the extraordinary contributions that knowledge of macromolecular structure has made, and will make, to the analysis of biological systems, from enzyme catalysis to the workings of a whole cell. The volume covers all stages of a crystallographic analysis from the preparation of recombinant proteins, through crystallization, diffraction data collection, phase determination, structure validation and structure analysis. Although the volume is written for experienced scientists, it is recognized that the reader is more likely to be a biologist interested in structure than a classical crystallographer interested in biology. Thus, there are chapters on the fundamentals, history and current perspectives of macromolecular crystallography, as well as on useful programs and databases such as the Protein Data Bank. Each chapter is written by one or more internationally recognized experts. This second edition features 19 new articles and many articles from the first edition have been revised. The new articles cover topics such as standard definitions for quality indicators, expression of membrane proteins, protein engineering, high-throughput crystallography, radiation damage, merohedral twinning, low-resolution ab initio phasing, robotic crystal loading, whole-cell X-ray diffraction imaging and halogen interactions in biological crystal structures. There are also new articles on relevant software, including software for electron microscopy. These enhancements will ensure that Volume F continues to be a key reference for macromolecular crystallographers and structural biologists. More information on the series can be found at: http://it.iucr.org
This comprehensive handbook covers all fundamentals of electrochemistry for contemporary applications. It provides a rich presentation of related topics of electrochemistry with a clear focus on energy technologies. It covers all aspects of electrochemistry starting with theoretical concepts and basic laws of thermodynamics, non-equilibrium thermodynamics and multiscale modeling. It further gathers the basic experimental methods such as potentiometry, reference electrodes, ion-sensitive electrodes, voltammetry and amperometry. The contents cover subjects related to mass transport, the electric double layer, ohmic losses and experimentation affecting electrochemical reactions. These aspects of electrochemistry are especially examined in view of specific energy technologies including batteries, polymer electrolyte and biological fuel cells, electrochemical capacitors, electrochemical hydrogen production and photoelectrochemistry. Organized in six parts, the overall complexity of electrochemistry is presented and makes this handbook an authoritative reference and definitive source for advanced students, professionals and scientists particularly interested in industrial and energy applications.
This textbook offers an introduction to the foundations of spectroscopic methods and provides a bridge between basic concepts and experimental applications in fields as diverse as materials science, biology, solar energy conversion, and environmental science. The author emphasizes the use of time-dependent theory to link the spectral response in the frequency domain to the behavior of molecules in the time domain, strengthened by two brand new chapters on nonlinear optical spectroscopy and time-resolved spectroscopy. Theoretical underpinnings are presented to the extent necessary for readers to understand how to apply spectroscopic tools to their own interests.
The third edition of this popular work is revised to include the latest developments in this fast-changing field. Its interdisciplinary approach elegantly combines the chemistry and engineering to explore the fundamentals and optimization processes involved.
The definitive textbook on the chemical analysis of pharmaceutical drugs - fully revised and updated Introduction to Pharmaceutical Analytical Chemistry enables students to gain fundamental knowledge of the vital concepts, techniques and applications of the chemical analysis of pharmaceutical ingredients, final pharmaceutical products and drug substances in biological fluids. A unique emphasis on pharmaceutical laboratory practices, such as sample preparation and separation techniques, provides an efficient and practical educational framework for undergraduate studies in areas such as pharmaceutical sciences, analytical chemistry and forensic analysis. Suitable for foundational courses, this essential undergraduate text introduces the common analytical methods used in quantitative and qualitative chemical analysis of pharmaceuticals. This extensively revised second edition includes a new chapter on chemical analysis of biopharmaceuticals, which includes discussions on identification, purity testing and assay of peptide and protein-based formulations. Also new to this edition are improved colour illustrations and tables, a streamlined chapter structure and text revised for increased clarity and comprehension. Introduces the fundamental concepts of pharmaceutical analytical chemistry and statistics Presents a systematic investigation of pharmaceutical applications absent from other textbooks on the subject Examines various analytical techniques commonly used in pharmaceutical laboratories Provides practice problems, up-to-date practical examples and detailed illustrations Includes updated content aligned with the current European and United States Pharmacopeia regulations and guidelines Covering the analytical techniques and concepts necessary for pharmaceutical analytical chemistry, Introduction to Pharmaceutical Analytical Chemistry is ideally suited for students of chemical and pharmaceutical sciences as well as analytical chemists transitioning into the field of pharmaceutical analytical chemistry.
Fundamentals of Analytical Toxicology is an integrated introduction to the analysis of drugs, poisons, and other foreign compounds in biological and related specimens. Assuming only basic knowledge of analytical chemistry, this invaluable guide helps trainee analytical toxicologists understand the principles and practical skills involved in detecting, identifying, and measuring a broad range of compounds in various biological samples. Clear, easy-to-read chapters provide detailed information on topics including sample collection and preparation, spectrophotometric and luminescence techniques, liquid and gas-liquid chromatography, and mass spectrometry including hyphenated techniques. This new edition contains thoroughly revised content that reflects contemporary practices and advances in analytical methods. Expanding the scope of the 1995 World Health Organization (WHO) basic analytical toxicology manual, the text includes coverage of separation science, essential pharmacokinetics, xenobiotic absorption, distribution and metabolism, clinical toxicological and substance misuse testing, therapeutic drug monitoring, trace elements and toxic metals analysis, and importantly the clinical interpretation of analytical results. Written by a prominent team of experienced practitioners, this volume: Focuses on analytical, statistical, and pharmacokinetic principles Describes basic methodology, including colour tests and immunoassay and enzyme-based assays Outlines laboratory operations, such as method validation, quality assessment, staff training, and laboratory accreditation Follows IUPAC nomenclature for chemical names and recommended International Non-proprietary Name (rINN) for drugs and pesticides Includes discussion of 'designer drugs' (novel pharmaceutical substances NPS) Fundamentals of Analytical Toxicology: Clinical and Forensic, 2nd Edition is an indispensable resource for advanced students and trainee analytical toxicologists across disciplines, such as clinical science, analytical chemistry, forensic science, pathology, applied biology, food safety, and pharmaceutical and pesticide development.
Planar Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry focuses on a relatively new approach to chemical analysis in general, and to separation science in particular. It is the first book to systemically cover the theoretical background, techniques, instrumentation, and practical applications of planar chromatography-mass spectrometry as a hyphenated tool of analytical chemistry. It also examines the high and as-yet unexploited potential of planar chromatography-mass spectrometry for analytical use in scientific investigations. This book overviews the combination of planar chromatography, a relatively simple and cost-effective separation step for determining complex mixtures of compounds, with mass spectrometry, an efficient, highly instrumental, and relatively expensive technique that enables rapid identification of separated chemical species. It covers electrophoretic-mass spectrometry methods and applications, which are considered planar chromatographic techniques and are increasingly being exploited in proteomic and molecular biology studies as well as for medical diagnostic purposes. It also provides a selection of applications, such as drug control and forensic and food analysis, including more difficult substances such as carbohydrates and lipids. The book advocates growth in using planar chromatography-mass spectrometry in laboratories that have appropriate equipment but have not yet employed the techniques in combination. It also describes the use of a relatively inexpensive commercial system that can be adopted by laboratories currently working without the coupled methodology. Aiming to improve power and efficiency when other analytical methods are inadequate, Planar Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry encourages separation science practitioners in academia and industry to combine the two methods for enhanced results.
This book reviews adsorption techniques to clean wastewater, with focus on pollution by dyes and heavy metals. Advanced adsorbents include carbon nanomaterials, biomass, cellulose, polymers, clay, composites and chelating materials.
Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is one of the most
powerful and widely used techniques in chemical research for
investigating structures and dynamics of molecules. Advanced
methods can even be utilized for structure determinations of
biopolymers, for example proteins or nucleic acids. NMR is also
used in medicine for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The method
is based on spectral lines of different atomic nuclei that are
excited when a strong magnetic field and a radiofrequency
transmitter are applied. The method is very sensitive to the
features of molecular structure because also the neighboring atoms
influence the signals from individual nuclei and this is
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