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The renowned Oxford Chemistry Primer series, which provides focused introductions to a range of important topics in chemistry, has been refreshed and updated to suit the needs of today's students, lecturers, and postgraduate researchers. The rigorous, yet accessible, treatment of each subject area is ideal for those wanting a primer in a given topic to prepare them for more advanced study or research. Moreover, cutting-edge examples and applications throughout the texts show the relevance of the chemistry being described to current research and industry. The learning features provided, including questions at the end of every chapter and online multiple-choice questions, encourage active learning and promote understanding. Furthermore, frequent diagrams, margin notes, further reading, and glossary definitions all help to enhance a student's understanding of these essential areas of chemistry. Foundations of Molecular Structure Determination covers a range of common spectroscopic and diffraction methods alongside frequent worked examples and problem questions to assist beginning undergraduates in developing their skills in structure analysis. Furthermore, the practical application of these techniques is emphasized, especially to biological and medical systems. Online Resource Centre The Online Resource Centre to accompany Foundations of Molecular Structure Determination features: For registered adopters of the text: * Figures from the book available to download For students: * Downloadable CIF data files * Multiple-choice questions for self-directed learning * Full worked solutions to the end-of-chapter exercises
The renowned Oxford Chemistry Primer series, which provides focused introductions to a range of important topics in chemistry, has been refreshed and updated to suit the needs of today's students, lecturers, and postgraduate researchers. The rigorous, yet accessible, treatment of each subject area is ideal for those wanting a primer in a given topic to prepare them for more advanced study or research. The learning features provided, including questions at the end of every chapter and online multiple-choice questions, encourage active learning and promote understanding. Moreover, cutting-edge examples and applications throughout the texts show the relevance to current research and industry of the chemistry being described. Electronic Paramagnetic Resonance provides a user-friendly introduction to this powerful tool for characterizing paramagnetic molecules. A versatile technique, EPR is becoming increasingly used across fields as diverse as biology, materials science, chemistry, and physics. This primer provides the perfect introduction to the subject by taking the reader through from basic principles to how spectra can be interpreted in practice, with frequent examples demonstrating the diverse ways in which the technique can be applied. Online Resource Centre The Online Resource Centre to accompany Electron Paramagnetic Resonance features: For registered adopters of the text: * Figures from the book available to download For students: * Full worked solutions to the end-of-chapter exercises * Multiple-choice questions for self-directed learning
This comprehensive handbook covers all fundamentals of electrochemistry for contemporary applications. It provides a rich presentation of related topics of electrochemistry with a clear focus on energy technologies. It covers all aspects of electrochemistry starting with theoretical concepts and basic laws of thermodynamics, non-equilibrium thermodynamics and multiscale modeling. It further gathers the basic experimental methods such as potentiometry, reference electrodes, ion-sensitive electrodes, voltammetry and amperometry. The contents cover subjects related to mass transport, the electric double layer, ohmic losses and experimentation affecting electrochemical reactions. These aspects of electrochemistry are especially examined in view of specific energy technologies including batteries, polymer electrolyte and biological fuel cells, electrochemical capacitors, electrochemical hydrogen production and photoelectrochemistry. Organized in six parts, the overall complexity of electrochemistry is presented and makes this handbook an authoritative reference and definitive source for advanced students, professionals and scientists particularly interested in industrial and energy applications.
Fundamentals of Analytical Toxicology is an integrated introduction to the analysis of drugs, poisons, and other foreign compounds in biological and related specimens. Assuming only basic knowledge of analytical chemistry, this invaluable guide helps trainee analytical toxicologists understand the principles and practical skills involved in detecting, identifying, and measuring a broad range of compounds in various biological samples. Clear, easy-to-read chapters provide detailed information on topics including sample collection and preparation, spectrophotometric and luminescence techniques, liquid and gas-liquid chromatography, and mass spectrometry including hyphenated techniques. This new edition contains thoroughly revised content that reflects contemporary practices and advances in analytical methods. Expanding the scope of the 1995 World Health Organization (WHO) basic analytical toxicology manual, the text includes coverage of separation science, essential pharmacokinetics, xenobiotic absorption, distribution and metabolism, clinical toxicological and substance misuse testing, therapeutic drug monitoring, trace elements and toxic metals analysis, and importantly the clinical interpretation of analytical results. Written by a prominent team of experienced practitioners, this volume: Focuses on analytical, statistical, and pharmacokinetic principles Describes basic methodology, including colour tests and immunoassay and enzyme-based assays Outlines laboratory operations, such as method validation, quality assessment, staff training, and laboratory accreditation Follows IUPAC nomenclature for chemical names and recommended International Non-proprietary Name (rINN) for drugs and pesticides Includes discussion of 'designer drugs' (novel pharmaceutical substances NPS) Fundamentals of Analytical Toxicology: Clinical and Forensic, 2nd Edition is an indispensable resource for advanced students and trainee analytical toxicologists across disciplines, such as clinical science, analytical chemistry, forensic science, pathology, applied biology, food safety, and pharmaceutical and pesticide development.
A richly illustrated undergraduate textbook on the physics and biology of light Students in the physical and life sciences, and in engineering, need to know about the physics and biology of light. Recently, it has become increasingly clear that an understanding of the quantum nature of light is essential, both for the latest imaging technologies and to advance our knowledge of fundamental life processes, such as photosynthesis and human vision. From Photon to Neuron provides undergraduates with an accessible introduction to the physics of light and offers a unified view of a broad range of optical and biological phenomena. Along the way, this richly illustrated textbook builds the necessary background in neuroscience, photochemistry, and other disciplines, with applications to optogenetics, superresolution microscopy, the single-photon response of individual photoreceptor cells, and more. With its integrated approach, From Photon to Neuron can be used as the basis for interdisciplinary courses in physics, biophysics, sensory neuroscience, biophotonics, bioengineering, or nanotechnology. The goal is always for students to gain the fluency needed to derive every result for themselves, so the book includes a wealth of exercises, including many that guide students to create computer-based solutions. Supplementary online materials include real experimental data to use with the exercises. * Assumes familiarity with first-year undergraduate physics and the corresponding math * Overlaps the goals of the MCAT, which now includes data-based and statistical reasoning * Advanced chapters and sections also make the book suitable for graduate courses * An Instructor's Guide and illustration package is available to professors
Combines clear and concise discussions of key NMR concepts with succinct and illustrative examples Designed to cover a full course in Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) Spectroscopy, this text offers complete coverage of classic (one-dimensional) NMR as well as up-to-date coverage of two-dimensional NMR and other modern methods. It contains practical advice, theory, illustrated applications, and classroom-tested problems; looks at such important ideas as relaxation, NOEs, phase cycling, and processing parameters; and provides brief, yet fully comprehensible, examples. It also uniquely lists all of the general parameters for many experiments including mixing times, number of scans, relaxation times, and more. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: An Introduction to Principles, Applications, and Experimental Methods, 2nd Edition begins by introducing readers to NMR spectroscopy - an analytical technique used in modern chemistry, biochemistry, and biology that allows identification and characterization of organic, and some inorganic, compounds. It offers chapters covering: Experimental Methods; The Chemical Shift; The Coupling Constant; Further Topics in One-Dimensional NMR Spectroscopy; Two-Dimensional NMR Spectroscopy; Advanced Experimental Methods; and Structural Elucidation. Features classical analysis of chemical shifts and coupling constants for both protons and other nuclei, as well as modern multi?pulse and multi-dimensional methods Contains experimental procedures and practical advice relative to the execution of NMR experiments Includes a chapter-long, worked-out problem that illustrates the application of nearly all current methods Offers appendices containing the theoretical basis of NMR, including the most modern approach that uses product operators and coherence-level diagrams By offering a balance between volumes aimed at NMR specialists and the structure-determination-only books that focus on synthetic organic chemists, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: An Introduction to Principles, Applications, and Experimental Methods, 2nd Edition is an excellent text for students and post-graduate students working in analytical and bio-sciences, as well as scientists who use NMR spectroscopy as a primary tool in their work.
Characterisation Methods in Inorganic Chemistry provides a fresh alternative to the existing theoretical and descriptive inorganic chemistry texts by adopting a techniques-based approach and providing problem-solving opportunities to show how analytical methods are used to help us characterise inorganic compounds. The text covers the full range of analytical techniques employed by inorganic chemists, emphasizing those in most frequent use: NMR, diffraction, UV-Vis spectroscopy, and IR. The additional coverage on other techniques allows readers to study these less widely used methods when relevant to their specific course material. Each chapter follows a clear, structured format, which begins with a brief introduction to the technique and basic theory behind it before moving on to data collection and analysis, typical data and interpretation, with numerous worked examples, self- tests and problems. Online Resource Centre For registered adopters of the book: - Figures and tables of data from the book, ready to download - Additional problems and exercises For students: - Answers to self-test questions - Additional problems and data sets
Analytical Chemistry: A Practical Approach takes a hands-on approach to analytical chemistry, directly reflecting how chemical analysis is carried out in a range of contexts. It provides students with a clear and easy-to-remember framework through which they can develop their understanding of the analytical process and and draws on a wide range of everyday examples to illustrate the practical application of analytical chemistry, including environmental analysis and food analysis. The authors present students with a range of worked examples, activities and problems to develop the skills of application and problem-solving they will need in the real world.
One of the first texts to offer a simple presentation of the
theoretical foundations of steady-state laser spectroscopy, this
volume is geared toward beginning theorists and experimentalists.
It assists students in applying theoretical ideas to actual
calculations in laser spectroscopy with a systematic series of
examples and exercises. Starting at an elementary level, students
gradually build up their practical skills with demonstrations of
how simplified theoretical models relate to experimentally
observable quantities. Detailed derivations offer students the
opportunity to work out all results for themselves.
The chemical composition of any planetary atmosphere is of fundamental importance in determining its photochemistry and dynamics in addition to its thermal balance, climate, origin and evolution. Divided into two parts, this book begins with a set of introductory chapters, starting with a concise review of the Solar System and fundamental atmospheric physics. Chapters then describe the basic principles and methods of spectroscopy, the main tool for studying the chemical composition of planetary atmospheres, and of photochemical modeling and its use in the theoretical interpretation of observational data on chemical composition. The second part of the book provides a detailed review of the carbon dioxide atmospheres and ionospheres of Mars and Venus, and the nitrogen-methane atmospheres of Titan, Triton and Pluto. Written by an expert author, this comprehensive text will make a valuable reference for graduate students, researchers and professional scientists specializing in planetary atmospheres.
The author of this book won a Nobel Prize for his contributions to the knowledge of electronic structure and geometry of molecules. In this classic text, he offers a concise introduction to diatomic radicals and ions, linear and nonlinear polyatomic radicals and ions, dissociation, predissociation, and recombination. 106 illustrations. 1971 edition.
With nearly 400 original illustrations, this NMR primer provides an introduction to solution NMR spectroscopy at a level appropriate for advanced undergraduates, graduate students and working scientists with backgrounds in chemistry or biochemistry. It presents the underlying physics and mathematics in a way that is both accessible and sufficiently complete to allow a real understanding of modern multi-dimensional experiments, thereby giving readers the tools they need to move to more advanced textbooks and articles. One special feature of this text is a thorough, but accessible, treatment of spin quantum mechanics, including scalar-coupled spins. A novel style of vector diagram is used to represent the quantum correlations between coupled spins and the manipulation of these correlations by pulses and time evolution. This will help to clarify what is arguably the most difficult aspect of NMR for students and practitioners to master. Key Features: - Hundreds of original illustrations show both traditional and non-traditional vector diagrams, that describe the correlations between scalar-coupled spins. The non-traditional vector diagrams are a unique highlight of this text, and are used to illustrate experiments based on scalar coupling and as an aid to product-operator calculations. - Numerical simulations are used to illustrate many important ideas, including standard data processing techniques and the random processes associated with NMR relaxation. - Important mathematical concepts and techniques, such as complex numbers and the Fourier transformation, are introduced where they are required in the text. - Each chapter includes chapter-ending problems and exercises as well as a summary of major points and references for further reading.
This book presents the Einstein Relation(ER) in two-dimensional (2-D) Heavily Doped (HD) Quantized Structures. The materials considered are quantized structures of HD non-linear optical, III-V, II-VI, Ge, Te, Platinum Antimonide, stressed materials, GaP, Gallium Antimonide, II-V, Bismuth Telluride together with various types of HD superlattices and their Quantized counterparts respectively. The ER in HD opto-electronic materials and their nanostructures is studied in the presence of strong light waves and intense electric fields on the basis of newly formulated electron dispersion laws that control the studies of such quantum effect devices. The suggestion for the experimental determination of HD 2D and 3D ERs and the importance of measurement of band gap in HD optoelectronic materials under intense built-in electric field in nanodevices and strong external photo excitation (for measuring photon induced physical properties) are also discussed in this context. The influence of crossed electric and quantizing magnetic fields on the ER of the different 2D HD quantized structures (quantum wells, inversion and accumulation layers, quantum well HD superlattices and nipi structures) under different physical conditions is discussed in detail. This monograph contains 100 open research problems which form the integral part of the text and are useful for both Ph.D aspirants and researchers in the fields of condensed matter physics, solid-state sciences, materials science, nano-science and technology and allied fields.
Unlike traditional NMR textbooks for chemists, this fresh look at the topic combines theory, technology and application in a wide range of fields, targeting biochemists, medicinal chemists, and structural biologists, as well as organic chemists. The text has been developed from a one-semester graduate-level course taught by the authors at the University of Zurich, and offers numerous intuitive illustrations, training exercises and plain-language explanations of complex theory. Divided into four major parts, the first introduces the theory, providing a profound understanding of why experiments work, without a rigorous mathematical treatment of all the physico-chemical computations and deliberately shorter than in most other NMR textbooks. Part two discusses current instrumentation and practical aspects, including sample preparation, processing of raw data and the use of databases, while the third part focuses on the main application of NMR, with examples and training spectra taken from a wide range of synthetic and natural compounds. Part four introduces a selection of modern NMR applications in chemistry, biochemistry, medicinal chemistry and molecular biology, explaining the protocols used and how to interpret the results. With its focus on practical aspects and applications, this text will prove useful long after leaving college, by helping users to select experimental methods and in setting up and running their own NMR experiments.
The Springer Handbook of Odor is the definitive guide to all aspects related to the study of smell and their impact on human life. For the first time, this handbook aligns the senso-chemo-analytical characterization of everyday smells encountered by mankind, with the elucidation of perceptual, hedonic, behavioral and physiological responses of humans to such odors. From birth onwards we learn to interact with our environment using our sense of smell. Moreover, evolutionary processes have engendered a multi-faceted communication that is supported - even dominated - by olfaction. This compilation examines the responses of humans to odors at different stages of life, thereby building a foundation for a widely overseen area of research with broader ramifications for human life. The expert international authors and editor align aspects, concepts, methodologies and perspectives from a broad range of different disciplines related to the science of smell. These include chemistry, physiology, psychology, material sciences, technology but also disciplines related to linguistics, culture, art and design. This handbook, edited by an internationally renowned aroma scientist with the support of an outstanding team of over 60 authors, is an authoritative reference for researchers in the field of odors both in academia and in industry and is also a useful reference for newcomers to the area.
The world's most comprehensive reference for clinical and forensic toxicologists has once more been extensively updated: 2,000 data sets have been added for a total of 10,430 spectra of potentially harmful substances, including 7,800 from metabolites. In two hardbound volumes, the printed atlas contains a comprehensive listing of full reference mass spectra in order or molecular mass with the structural formula, exact mass, GC retention times and other experimental data that are relevant to the analytical toxicologist. To aid in compound identification, all substances are classified according to their toxicological categories. In addition, volume 1 contains an overview on experimental methods, plus a compound index by name. An electronic database for use with all major mass spectrometers is also available. For details, please visit www.wiley.com/go/databases.
In this book, the author deals mainly with two topics: (1) single-molecule visualization of switching behaviors in the DNA nanoframe system utilizing different kinds of molecular switches through the use of high-speed atomic force microscope (AFM); (2) construction of photocontrollable DNA nanostructures in programmed patterns and direct visualization of the dynamic assembling process. Here, high-speed AFM was employed to observe the dynamic movements of single molecules. Compared to a traditional single-molecule analysis method, such as fluorescence spectroscopy or electron microscopy, high-speed AFM makes possible the real-time observation of molecule behaviors. DNA nanostructures were designed and assembled as scaffolds to incorporate interested biomolecules. The observations were carried out under robust conditions without complicated pretreatment. Moreover, the photoresponsive molecules were successfully assembled into around 100 nm-sized DNA nanostructures. The assembly/disassembly of nanostructures can be regulated reversibly by photoirradiation. This book explains how DNA origami has gradually become a useful tool for the investigation of biochemical interactions in defined nanospace. It also shows the possibility of DNA nanostructures acting as nanodevices for application in biological systems, serving as a good introduction to basic DNA nanotechnology.
The third edition of this popular work is revised to include the latest developments in this fast-changing field. Its interdisciplinary approach elegantly combines the chemistry and engineering to explore the fundamentals and optimization processes involved.
For more than five decades, scientists and researchers have relied on the Advances in Chromatography series for the most up-to-date information on a wide range of developments in chromatographic methods and applications. For Volume 55, established, well-known chemists offer cutting-edge reviews of chromatographic methods to pay tribute to the late Eli Grushka, beloved series editor, who inspired and mentored many in the field of separation science. The clear presentation of topics and vivid illustrations for which this series has become known makes the material accessible and engaging to analytical, biochemical, organic, polymer, and pharmaceutical chemists at all levels of technical skill.
International Tables for Crystallography Volume F is an expert guide to macromolecular crystallography for the structural biologist. It was commissioned by the International Union of Crystallography in recognition of the extraordinary contributions that knowledge of macromolecular structure has made, and will make, to the analysis of biological systems, from enzyme catalysis to the workings of a whole cell. The volume covers all stages of a crystallographic analysis from the preparation of recombinant proteins, through crystallization, diffraction data collection, phase determination, structure validation and structure analysis. Although the volume is written for experienced scientists, it is recognized that the reader is more likely to be a biologist interested in structure than a classical crystallographer interested in biology. Thus, there are chapters on the fundamentals, history and current perspectives of macromolecular crystallography, as well as on useful programs and databases such as the Protein Data Bank. Each chapter is written by one or more internationally recognized experts. This second edition features 19 new articles and many articles from the first edition have been revised. The new articles cover topics such as standard definitions for quality indicators, expression of membrane proteins, protein engineering, high-throughput crystallography, radiation damage, merohedral twinning, low-resolution ab initio phasing, robotic crystal loading, whole-cell X-ray diffraction imaging and halogen interactions in biological crystal structures. There are also new articles on relevant software, including software for electron microscopy. These enhancements will ensure that Volume F continues to be a key reference for macromolecular crystallographers and structural biologists. More information on the series can be found at: http://it.iucr.org
Discusses the basic physical principles underlying Biomedical Photonics, spectroscopy and microscopy This volume discusses biomedical photonics, spectroscopy and microscopy, the basic physical principles underlying the technology and its applications. The topics discussed in this volume are: Biophotonics; Fluorescence and Phosphorescence; Medical Photonics; Microscopy; Nonlinear Optics; Ophthalmic Technology; Optical Tomography; Optofluidics; Photodynamic Therapy; Image Processing; Imaging Systems; Sensors; Single Molecule Detection; Futurology in Photonics. * Comprehensive and accessible coverage of the whole of modern photonics * Emphasizes processes and applications that specifically exploit photon attributes of light * Deals with the rapidly advancing area of modern optics * Chapters are written by top scientists in their field Written for the graduate level student in physical sciences; Industrial and academic researchers in photonics, graduate students in the area; College lecturers, educators, policymakers, consultants, Scientific and technical libraries, government laboratories, NIH.
A new edition of this practical approach to sampling, experimentation, and applications in the field of inductively coupled plasma spectrometry The second edition of Practical Inductively Coupled Plasma Spectrometry discusses many of the significant developments in the field which have expanded inductively coupled plasma (ICP) spectrometry from a useful optical emission spectroscopic technique for trace element analysis into a source for both atomic emission spectrometry and mass spectrometry, capable of detecting elements at sub-ppb (ng mL-1) levels with good accuracy and precision. Comprising nine chapters, this new edition has been fully revised and up-dated in each chapter. It contains information on everything you need to practically know about the different types of instrumentation as well as pre- and post-experimental aspects. Designed to be easily accessible, with a 'start-to-finish' approach, each chapter outlines the key practical aspects of a specific aspect of the topic. The author, a noted expert in the field, details specific applications of the techniques presented, including uses in environmental, food and industrial analysis. This edition: Emphasizes the importance of health and safety; Provides advanced information on sample preparation techniques; Presents an updated chapter on inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry; Features a new chapter on current and future development in ICP technology and one on practical trouble shooting and routine maintenance. Practical Inductively Coupled Plasma Spectrometry offers a practical guide that can be used for undergraduate and graduate students in the broad discipline of analytical chemistry, which includes biomedical science, environmental science, food science and forensic science, in both distance and open learning situations. It also provides an excellent reference for those in postgraduate training in these fields.
Martin Stein's thesis describes a novel methodology for natural product discovery. Due to its high degree of reproducibility, robustness and sensitivity, the technique can be utilized to detect even trace amounts of bioactive substances in heterogeneous matrices such as fermentation broths or crude organic extracts. This research is thus relevant for a large number of researchers working in natural product discovery. Applications of this novel NMR-based approach include suitable environmental triggers for the induction of biosynthetic machineries. The author demonstrates the extraordinary value of this approach by the successful isolation of two potent inhibitors of the pharmaceutically relevant proteasome core particle from the insect pathogen photorhabdus luminescens. This thesis has led to a number of publications in high-impact journals.
Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is one of the most
powerful and widely used techniques in chemical research for
investigating structures and dynamics of molecules. Advanced
methods can even be utilized for structure determinations of
biopolymers, for example proteins or nucleic acids. NMR is also
used in medicine for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The method
is based on spectral lines of different atomic nuclei that are
excited when a strong magnetic field and a radiofrequency
transmitter are applied. The method is very sensitive to the
features of molecular structure because also the neighboring atoms
influence the signals from individual nuclei and this is
This thesis presents the development of theranostic gold nanostars (GNS) for multimodality cancer imaging and therapy. Furthermore, it demonstrates that a novel two-pronged treatment, combining immune-checkpoint inhibition and GNS-mediated photothermal nanotherapy, can not only eradicate primary treated tumors but also trigger immune responses to treat distant untreated tumors in a mouse animal model. Cancer has become a significant threat to human health with more than eight million deaths each year, and novel methods for cancer management to improve patients' overall survival are urgently needed. The developed multifunctional GNS nanoprobe with tip-enhanced plasmonics in the near-infrared region can be combined with (1) surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS), (2) two-photon photoluminescence (TPL), (3) X-ray computed tomography (CT), (4) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), (5) positron emission tomography (PET), and (6) photothermal therapy (PTT) for cancer imaging and treatment. The ability of the GNS nanoprobe to detect submillimeter intracranial brain tumors was demonstrated using PET scan - a superior non-invasive imaging modality - in a mouse animal model. In addition, delayed rechallenge with repeated cancer cell injection in cured mice did not lead to new tumor formation, indicating generation of a memorized immune response to cancer. The biocompatible gold nanostars with superior capabilities for cancer imaging and treatment have great potential for translational medicine applications.
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