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This book presents the results of the most complete and updated assessment of cognitive resources of students in Latin America: the Study of Latin American Intelligence (SLATINT). During four years, top researchers of the region used a standardized set of cognitive measures to assess 4,000 students aged between 14 and 15 years from six countries: Brazil, Argentina, Mexico, Chile, Colombia and Peru. The data collected and now analyzed in this volume is a first step to understand the human cognitive capital of the region, a crucial resource for any country today. Intelligence research has shown that the cognitive skills of a population are strongly associated with the school performance of its students and the development of a nation. This makes Intelligence Measurement and School Performance in Latin America a valuable tool both for Latin American researchers and authorities engaged in the improvement of each country's human resources and for psychologists, educators and other social scientists dedicated to the study of the impact of intelligence in the development of nations.
This is a unique volume by a unique scientist, which combines conceptual, formal, and engineering approaches in a way that is rarely seen. Its core is the relation between ways of learning and knowing on the one hand and different modes of time on the other. Partial Boolean logic and the associated notion of complementarity are used to express this relation, and mathematical tools of fundamental physics are used to formalize it. Along the way many central philosophical problems are touched and addressed, above all the mind-body problem. Completed only shortly before the death of the author, the text has been edited and annotated by the author's close collaborator Harald Atmanspacher.
This book examines the impact of ubiquitous information technology, with discussions about what makes these technologies so addictive, and their effect on emotional well-being, memory, learning, driving, and cognitive reserves.
Humans use countless tools and are constantly creating new ones. We are so prone to materiality that the changes we implement in our environment could put our very survival at stake. It has therefore become necessary to question the cognitive origins of this materiality. The Tool Instinct examines this subject by diametrically setting aside the idea that tool use is limited to manual activity. It proposes an original perspective that surpasses a great number of false beliefs regarding the relationship between humans and tools. The author argues that the human tendency to create and use tools relies on our ability (one that may be unique to our species) to generate our own physical problems, thereby resulting in a reasoning that is directed towards our physical world.
In this accessible introduction, Mike Sharwood Smith provides a working model or 'map' of the mind, with language as its centrepiece. Drawing on cutting-edge research across linguistics, psychology and neuroscience, it allows students to quickly grasp how each separate aspect of the mind's operations can be related. This 'big picture' view includes the way the mind makes, stores and loses memories of all kinds as well how its various 'expert systems' combine and collaborate to solve, typically beyond our conscious awareness, the myriad of tasks we are faced with every minute and millisecond of our existence. The book also focuses on language, that is, the mind of monolingual, bilingual and multilingual speakers. It will be of interest to all students wishing to learn more about the complex relationship between language - one of the most important ways in which we define ourselves as human - and the mind.
Creativity is at the heart of successful research, yet researchers are rarely taught how to manage their creative process, and modern academic life is not structured to optimize creativity. Creativity in Research provides concrete guidance on developing creativity for anyone doing or mentoring research. Based on a curriculum developed at Stanford University's Hasso Plattner Institute of Design, this book presents key abilities that underlie creative research practice through a combination of scientific literature on creative confidence, experiential exercises, and guided reflection. By focusing attention on how research happens as well as its outputs, researchers increase their ability to address research challenges and produce the outputs they care about. Simultaneously, they may also transform their emotional relationship with their work, replacing stress and a harsh inner critic with a more open and emotionally empowered attitude.
This book presents the latest research in working memory from around the world. There are thirteen chapters which are ordered according to three main themes. Chapters concerned with developmental differences address the relationships between working memory and children's learning and school performance, the role of working memory in the development of planning, associations between working memory and implicit learning, and theoretical models that account for visuo-spatial working memory development. Chapters concerned with component processes address issues of visual feature binding, aspects of cognitive load theory, the processing of affective stimuli in working memory, and the role of working memory in spatial orientation and navigation. Finally, a section on improvement mechanisms is comprised of chapters related to improving working memory through the differential outcomes procedure, applying transcranial alternating stimulation to the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, and methods of cognitive remediation including working memory training both in participants with ADHD and other populations. The chapters provide comprehensive reviews as well as presenting new empirical data concerned with these topics. They aim to further the current understanding of working memory from developmental, cognitive, and educational perspectives. The book should therefore be of interest to all academics and researchers with an interest in working memory and related skills.
Many students who are intellectually capable of succeeding have difficulties with a variety of non-cognitive competencies such as time and stress management, establishing positive relationships, and making wise decisions. They often adopt dysfunctional coping styles that can cripple their academic efforts. Increasingly, one of the missing factors in student success seems to be emotional intelligence. Written specifically for students by recognized authorities in emotional intelligence, this book will help them understand and develop their emotional intelligence in order to enjoy a richer learning experience and superior academic achievement. "The Student EQ Edge" provides a thorough grounding in what emotional intelligence is, why it is different from one's intelligence quotient, and how emotional intelligence skills can make a student a "star performer."Grounded in the classic work of Dr. Reuven Bar-On, the book discusses each realm of emotional intelligence: The Intrapersonal Realm: self-awareness, assertiveness, and independence; The Interpersonal Realm: empathy and social responsibility; The Adaptability Realm: problem solving, flexibility, and decision making; The Stress Management Realm: stress tolerance and impulse control; and The General Mood Realm: happiness and optimism. The book helps students move from understanding of the concepts to action through reflection and discussion questions. A perfect companion is "The Student EQ Edge: Student Workbook."
The ASQ:SE-2 (TM) trade questionnaires are the most cost-effective, reliable way to screen young children for social-emotional issues in the first 6 years of life. Now in a NEW second edition, the 9 age-appropriate questionnaires (2, 6, 12, 18, 24, 30, 36, 48, and 60 months) effectively screen 7 key social-emotional areas: self-regulation, compliance, adaptive functioning, autonomy, affect, social-communication, and interaction with people. What's New in ASQ:SE-2: ASQ:SE-2 questionnaires are better than ever, with helpful new features like: New 2 month questionnaire: Reliably screen and start monitoring children as young as 1 month, so critical interventions can start earlier. Screen through kindergarten: Now you can screen children from 1 - 72 months with no gaps, so you can use ASQ:SE-2 through kindergarten and the transition to school. New behavior and communication items designed to elicit parent concerns that may point to autism and early communication issues. New data and cutoffs: ASQ:SE-2 is based on updated research and a large sample size of more than 14,000 diverse children. New monitoring zone that clearly identifies children who are close to the cutoff and should be monitored and rescreened. Questionnaire items revised and refined based on user feedback, to help parents provide the best responses. Sturdy, convenient new box with a handle for easy portability. How to Use ASQ:SE-2 Questionnaires Fast and easy to use, ASQ:SE-2 questionnaires take just 10 - 15 minutes for parents to complete. First, parents fill out the questionnaire, checking the response that best describes their child's behavior: often or always, sometimes, or rarely or never. Clear questions help parents complete the questionnaires quickly and accurately, and open-ended questions ask about any related parental concerns. Professionals score the questionnaire in just 2 - 3 minutes, and then transfer a total score to a simple summary sheet along with any concerns the parent has noted. The summary sheet, a visual indicator of social emotional development and parent concerns, indicates whether any followup should be considered. Total scores that fall in the graph's range of Risk (dark shaded zone) indicate the child may need further evaluation. NEW! A total score in the new monitoring zone (light shaded area) helps identify children that may require followup actions based on items of concern. Professionals can work with parents to address behaviors of concern and provide social-emotional development information sheets and activities to help their child make progress before the next screening. Scores outside the shaded zones mean the child's social-emotional development appears to be developing on schedule. Parents can monitor their child's development by rescreening at the next ASQ:SE-2 interval. When you purchase a box of ASQ:SE-2 questionnaires, you'll get photocopiable master copies on paper and printable PDF master copies on CD-ROM so you and your staff will always have the format you want, right at your fingertips.
Current theories about human memory have been shaped by clinical observations and animal experiments. This doctrine holds that the medial temporal lobe subserves one memory system for explicit or declarative memories, while the basal ganglia subserves a separate memory system for implicit or procedural memories, including habits. Cortical areas outside the medial temporal lobe are said to function in perception, motor control, attention, or other aspects of executive function, but not in memory. 'The Evolution of Memory Systems' advances dramatically different ideas on all counts. It proposes that several memory systems arose during evolution and that they did so for the same general reason: to transcend problems and exploit opportunities encountered by specific ancestors at particular times and places in the distant past. Instead of classifying cortical areas in terms of mutually exclusive perception, executive, or memory functions, the authors show that all cortical areas contribute to memory and that they do so in their own ways-using specialized neural representations. The book also presents a proposal on the evolution of explicit memory. According to this idea, explicit (declarative) memory depends on interactions between a phylogenetically ancient navigation system and a representational system that evolved in humans to represent one's self and others. As a result, people embed representations of themselves into the events they experience and the facts they learn, which leads to the perception of participating in events and knowing facts. 'The Evolution of Memory Systems' is an important new work for students and researchers in neuroscience, psychology, and biology.
A vital resource on speech and language processing in bilingual adults and children The Listening Bilingual brings together in one volume the various components of spoken language processing in bilingual adults, infants and children. The book includes a review of speech perception and word recognition; syntactic, semantic, and pragmatic aspects of speech processing; the perception and comprehension of bilingual mixed speech (code-switches, borrowings and interferences); and the assessment of bilingual speech perception and comprehension in adults and children in the clinical context. The two main authors as well as selected guest authors, Mark Antoniou, Theres Gruter, Robert J. Hartsuiker, Elizabeth D. Pena and Lisa M. Bedore, and Lu-Feng Shi, introduce the various approaches used in the study of spoken language perception and comprehension in bilingual individuals. The authors focus on experimentation that involves both well-established tasks and newer tasks, as well as techniques used in brain imaging. This important resource: Is the first of its kind to concentrate specifically on spoken language processing in bilingual adults and children. Offers a unique text that covers both fundamental and applied research in bilinguals. Covers a range of topics including speech perception, spoken word recognition, higher level processing, code-switching, and assessment. Presents information on the assessment of bilingual children's language development Written for advanced undergraduate students in linguistics, cognitive science, psychology, and speech/language pathology as well as researchers, The Listening Bilingual offers a state-of-the-art review of the recent developments and approaches in speech and language processing in bilingual people of all ages.
While the field of vision science has grown significantly in the past three decades, there have been few comprehensive books that showed readers how to adopt a computional approach to understanding visual perception, along with the underlying mechanisms in the brain. Understanding Vision explains the computational principles and models of biological visual processing, and in particular, of primate vision. The book is written in such a way that vision scientists, unfamiliar with mathematical details, should be able to conceptually follow the theoretical principles and their relationship with physiological, anatomical, and psychological observations, without going through the more mathematical pages. For those with a physical science background, especially those from machine vision, this book serves as an analytical introduction to biological vision. It can be used as a textbook or a reference book in a vision course, or a computational neuroscience course for graduate students or advanced undergraduate students. It is also suitable for self-learning by motivated readers. in addition, for those with a focused interest in just one of the topics in the book, it is feasible to read just the chapter on this topic without having read or fully comprehended the other chapters. In particular, Chapter 2 presents a brief overview of experimental observations on biological vision; Chapter 3 is on encoding of visual inputs, Chapter 5 is on visual attentional selection driven by sensory inputs, and Chapter 6 is on visual perception or decoding. Including many examples that clearly illustrate the application of computational principles to experimental observations, Understanding Vision is valuable for students and researchers in computational neuroscience, vision science, machine and computer vision, as well as physicists interested in visual processes.
In recent years, multimedia learning, or learning from words and images, has developed into a coherent discipline with a significant research base. The Cambridge Handbook of Multimedia Learning is unique in offering a comprehensive, up-to-date analysis of research and theory in the field, with a focus on computer-based learning. Since the first edition appeared in 2005, it has shaped the field and become the primary reference work for multimedia learning. Multimedia environments, including online presentations, e-courses, interactive lessons, simulation games, slideshows, and even textbooks, play a crucial role in education. This revised second edition incorporates the latest developments in multimedia learning and contains new chapters on topics such as drawing, video, feedback, working memory, learner control, and intelligent tutoring systems. It examines research-based principles to determine the most effective methods of multimedia instruction and considers research findings in the context of cognitive theory to explain how these methods work.
Religions and mythologies from around the world teach that God or gods created humans. Atheist, humanist, and materialist critics, meanwhile, have attempted to turn theology on its head, claiming that religion is a human invention. In this book, E. Fuller Torrey draws on cutting-edge neuroscience research to propose a startling answer to the ultimate question. Evolving Brains, Emerging Gods locates the origin of gods within the human brain, arguing that religious belief is a byproduct of evolution. Based on an idea originally proposed by Charles Darwin, Torrey marshals evidence that the emergence of gods was an incidental consequence of several evolutionary factors. Using data ranging from ancient skulls and artifacts to brain imaging, primatology, and child development studies, this book traces how new cognitive abilities gave rise to new behaviors. For instance, autobiographical memory, the ability to project ourselves backward and forward in time, gave Homo sapiens a competitive advantage. However, it also led to comprehension of mortality, spurring belief in an alternative to death. Torrey details the neurobiological sequence that explains why the gods appeared when they did, connecting archaeological findings including clothing, art, farming, and urbanization to cognitive developments. This book does not dismiss belief but rather presents religious belief as an inevitable outcome of brain evolution. Providing clear and accessible explanations of evolutionary neuroscience, Evolving Brains, Emerging Gods will shed new light on the mechanics of our deepest mysteries.
This innovative textbook is the first to integrate learning and memory, behaviour, and cognition. It focuses on fascinating human research in both memory and learning (while also bringing in important animal studies) and brings the reader up to date with the latest developments in the subject. Students are encouraged to think critically: key theories and issues are looked at in detail; descriptions of experiments include why they were done and how examining the method can help evaluate competing viewpoints. By looking at underlying cognitive processes, students come away with a sense of learning and memory being interrelated actions taken by the same human being, rather than two separate activities. Lively and engaging writing is supported by lots of examples of practical applications that show the relevance of lab-based research to everyday life. Examples include treatments for phobias and autism, ways to improve eyewitness testimony, and methods of enhancing study techniques.
This book provides a frequentist semantics for conditionalization on partially known events, which is given as a straightforward generalization of classical conditional probability via so-called probability testbeds. It analyzes the resulting partial conditionalization, called frequentist partial (F.P.) conditionalization, from different angles, i.e., with respect to partitions, segmentation, independence, and chaining. It turns out that F.P. conditionalization meets and generalizes Jeffrey conditionalization, i.e., from partitions to arbitrary collections of events, opening it for reassessment and a range of potential applications. A counterpart of Jeffrey's rule for the case of independence holds in our frequentist semantics. This result is compared to Jeffrey's commutative chaining of independent updates. The postulate of Jeffrey's probability kinematics, which is rooted in the subjectivism of Frank P. Ramsey, is found to be a consequence in our frequentist semantics. This way the book creates a link between the Kolmogorov system of probability and one of the important Bayesian frameworks. Furthermore, it shows a preservation result for conditional probabilities under the full update range and compares F.P. semantics with an operational semantics of classical conditional probability in terms of so-called conditional events. Lastly, it looks at the subjectivist notion of desirabilities and proposes a more fine-grained analysis of desirabilities a posteriori. This book appeals to researchers who are involved in any kind of knowledge processing systems. F.P. conditionalization is a straightforward, fundamental concept that fits human intuition, and is systematically linked to one of the important Bayesian frameworks. As such, the book is interesting for anybody investigating the semantics of reasoning systems.
Motivation is that which moves us to action. Human motivation is thus a complex issue, as people are moved to action by both their evolved natures and by myriad familial, social and cultural influences. The Oxford Handbook of Human Motivation collects the top theorists and researchers of human motivation into a single volume, capturing the current state-of-the-art in this fast developing field. The book includes theoretical overviews from some of the best-known thinkers in this area, including chapters on Social Learning Theory, Control Theory, Self-determination theory, Terror Management theory, and the Promotion and Prevention perspective. Topical chapters appear on phenomena such as ego-depletion, flow, curiosity, implicit motives, and personal interests. A section specifically highlights goal research, including chapters on goal regulation, achievement goals, the dynamics of choice, unconscious goals and process versus outcome focus. Still other chapters focus on evolutionary and biological underpinnings of motivation, including chapters on cardiovascular dynamics, mood, and neuropsychology. Finally, chapters bring motivation down to earth in reviewing its impact within relationships, and in applied areas such as psychotherapy, work, education, sport, and physical activity. By providing reviews of the most advanced work by the very best scholars in this field, The Oxford Handbook of Human Motivation represents an invaluable resource for both researchers and practitioners, as well as any student of human nature.
Why do people lie? Do gender and personality differences affect how people lie? How can lies be detected?
"Detecting Lies and Deceit" provides the most comprehensive
review of deception to date. This revised edition provides an
up-to-date account of deception research and discusses the working
and efficacy of the most commonly used lie detection tools,
All three aspects of deception are covered: nonverbal cues, speech and written statement analysis and (neuro)physiological responses. The most common errors in lie detection are discussed and practical guidelines are provided to help professionals improve their lie detection skills.
"Detecting Lies and Deceit" is a must-have resource for students, academics and professionals in psychology, criminology, policing and law.
Written by the foremost experts in human intelligence. It not only includes traditional topics, such as the nature, measurement, and development of intelligence, but also contemporary research into intelligence and video games, collective intelligence, emotional intelligence, and leadership intelligence. In an area of study that has been fraught with ideological differences, this Handbook provides scientifically balanced and objective chapters covering a wide range of topics. It does not shy away from material that historically has been emotionally charged and sometimes covered in biased ways, such as intellectual disability, race and intelligence, culture and intelligence, and intelligence testing. The overview provided by this two-volume set leaves virtually no area of intelligence research uncovered, making it an ideal resource for undergraduates, graduate students, and professionals looking for a refresher or a summary of the new developments.
This book presents a detailed analysis of what it means to be absorbed in playing music. Based on interviews with one of the world's leading classical ensembles, "The Danish String Quartet" (DSQ), it debunks the myth that experts cannot reflect while performing, but also shows that intense absorption is not something that can be achieved through will, intention, prediction or planning - it remains something individuals have to be receptive to. Based in the phenomenological tradition of Husserl and Merleau-Ponty as well as of Dan Zahavi and Shaun Gallagher, it lays out the conditions and essential structures of musical absorption. Employing the lived experience of the DSQ members, it also engages and challenges core ideas in phenomenology, philosophy of mind, enactivism, expertise studies, musical psychology, flow theory, aesthetics, dream and sleep studies, psychopathology and social ontology, and proposes a method that integrates phenomenology and cognitive science.
This book is an introduction to the emerging field of evolutionary cognitive neuroscience, a branch of neuroscience that combines the disciplines of evolutionary psychology and cognitive neuroscience. It outlines the application of cognitive neuroscientific methods (e.g., functional magnetic resonance imaging, transcranial magnetic stimulation, magneto- and electroencephalography, and the use of neuropsychiatric and neurosurgical patients) to answer empirical questions posed from an evolutionary meta-theoretical perspective. Chapters outline the basics of cognitive evolution and how the methods of cognitive neuroscience can be employed to answer questions about the presence of evolved cognitive adaptations. Written for graduate students and researchers, the book presents the major topics of study undertaken by evolutionary cognitive neuroscientists - such as language evolution, intelligence and face processing - and serves as a primer upon which to base further study in the discipline.
A comprehensive book supported by extensive research studies and data, Bjorklund's text presents the broadest coverage of topics in cognitive development. Unlike other books, Bjorklund shows readers how developmental function can help explain individual differences in cognition by covering both the typical pattern of change in thinking observed over time and the individual differences in children's thinking in infancy and childhood. A major theme of this book is the continuous transaction between the child embedded in a social world: although a child is born prepared to make some sense of the world, his or her mind is also shaped by forces in the physical and social environment.
What mediates between sensory input and motor output? This is probably the most basic question one can ask about the mind. There is stimulation on your retina, something happens in your skull and then you hand reaches out to grab the apple in front of you. What is it that happens in between? What representations make it possible for you to grab this apple? Bence Nanay calls these representations that make it possible for you to grab the apple 'pragmatic representations'. In Between Perception and Action he argues that pragmatic representations whose function is to mediate between sensory input and motor output play an immensely important role in our mental life. And they help us to explain why the vast majority of what goes on in our mind is very similar to the simple mental processes of animals. The human mind, like the mind of non-human animals, has been selected for allowing us to perform actions successfully. And the vast majority of our actions, like the actions of non-human animals, could not be performed without perceptual guidance. And what provides the perceptual guidance for performing actions are pragmatic representations. If we accept this framework, many classic questions in philosophy of perception and of action will look very different. The aim of this book is to trace the various consequences of this way of thinking about the mind in a number of branches of philosophy as well as in psychology and cognitive science.
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