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Developed countries must be incredibly innovative to secure incomes and welfare so that they may successfully compete against international rivals. This book focuses on two specific but interrelated aspects of innovation by incumbent firms and entrepreneurs, the role of geography and of open innovation. Geography, Open Innovation and Entrepreneurship discusses entrepreneurship from both theoretical and empirical viewpoints to provide readers with a wide range of cutting-edge and compelling studies. The authors highlight the critical importance of open innovation for performance and progress, putting forward determinants of economic growth and development rarely analysed in standard growth studies. Researchers and students will find this book useful for innovation and entrepreneurship studies. It is also a helpful tool for policymakers, planners and consultants involved in economic development and regional policies.
Global City Makers provides an in-depth account of the role of powerful economic actors in making and un-making global cities. Engaging critically and constructively with global urban studies from a relational economic geography perspective, the book outlines a renewed agenda for global cities research. This book conceptualizes global cities as places from where the world economy is managed and controlled, and discusses the significance of economic actors and their practices in the formation of the world city network. Focusing on financial services, management consultancy, real estate, commodity trading and maritime industries, the detailed case studies are located across the globe to incorporate major global cities such as London, New York and Tokyo as well as globalizing cities including Mexico City, Hamburg and Mumbai. This ground-breaking book will appeal to a broad audience including scholars in urban studies, economic geography and international management as well as urban policy-makers and practitioners in globalizing firms.
This insightful book provides an astute analysis of how resilient multiple regional economies across Europe were to the global economic crisis of 2008-9. Assessing the impact and geography of the crisis, this book offers a cross-comparative study of how regional economies were affected, as well as an exploration of the role of local and regional policy in influencing economic resilience. The different experiences seen across Europe throughout the economic crisis raise a number of important questions: Why were some regions more resilient to the crisis than others? What is meant when discussing a resilient economy? How might local and regional policy-makers help support the resilience of their economies? The expert contributors take these crucial questions into account, presenting detailed case studies using quantitative and qualitative research data to analyse how the crisis affected various European regions. Economic Crisis and the Resilience of Regions will be an essential read for academics, researchers and policymakers interested in the concept of regional economic resilience, its measurement and the factors influencing it, as well as for analysts interested in the geographical impact of the 2008-9 global economic crisis.
Processes of globalization have changed the world in many, often fundamental, ways. Increasingly these processes are being debated and contested. This Handbook offers a timely, rich and critical panorama of these multifaceted developments from a geographical perspective. This Handbook explores the myriad of ways in which differing cross-border flows - of people, goods, services, capital, information, pollution and cultures - have (re)shaped concrete places across the globe and how these places, in turn, shape those flows. With original contributions from worldwide leading scholars, the Handbook positions globalization in a broader historical perspective, presenting a variety of geographical examples so that readers can better understand these processes. Regional studies and economic and human geography scholars will find this an invaluable resource for exploring the key topics of the geographies of globalization. Lecturers and advanced students will also find the detailed case studies useful to help explain the fundamental concepts outlined in the book.
This well-researched book provides a concise contribution to a large-scale debate on economic globalisation. Martin Sokol introduces key theoretical approaches that help us to understand how economies work, why they suffer recessions and crises, and why economic inequalities at various levels are growing in the context of globalisation. He introduces key economic geography concepts and theories, demonstrating their application to our contemporary globalising world. The role that economic geography may play in informing policymaking is highlighted, and debates surrounding the recent global financial and economic crisis are expounded. This highly accessible book will prove an essential reference tool for academics, students and researchers focusing on geography, economics, planning and regional development, development studies, international politics and international business. Policymakers and practitioners in local, regional and national authorities, international bodies and non-governmental organisations will also find this book to be an invaluable resource.
In an increasingly globalised world, place and provenance matter like never before. The law relating to Geographical Indications (GIs) regulates designations which signal this provenance. While Champagne, Prosciutto di Parma, Cafe de Colombia and Darjeeling are familiar designations, the relevant legal regimes have existed at the margins for over a century. In recent years, a critical mass of scholarship has emerged and this book celebrates its coming of age. Its objective is to facilitate an interdisciplinary conversation, by providing sure-footed guidance across contested terrain as well as enabling future avenues of enquiry to emerge. The distinctive feature of this volume is that it reflects a multi-disciplinary conversation between legal scholars, policy makers, legal practitioners, historians, geographers, sociologists, economists and anthropologists. Experienced contributors from across these domains have thematically explored: (1) the history and conceptual underpinnings of the GI as a legal category; (2) the effectiveness of international protection regimes; (3) the practical operation of domestic protection systems; and (4) long-unresolved as well as emerging critical issues. Specific topics include a detailed interrogation of the history and functions of terroir; the present state as well as future potential of international GI protection, including the Lisbon Agreement, 2015; conflicts between trade marks and GIs; the potential for GIs to contribute to rural or territorial development as well as sustain traditional or Indigenous knowledge; and the vexed question of generic use. This book is therefore intended for all those with an interest in GIs across a range of disciplinary backgrounds. Students, scholars, policy makers and practitioners will find this Handbook to be an invaluable resource.
The field of regional development is subject to an ever-increasing multiplicity of concepts and theories seeking to explain uneven competitiveness. In particular, economic geographers and spatial economists have rapidly developed the theoretical tools by which to approach such analyses. The aim of this Handbook is to take stock of regional competitiveness and complementary concepts as a means of presenting a state-of-the-art discussion of the advanced theories, perspectives and empirical explanations that help make sense of the determinants of uneven development across regions. Drawing on an international field of leading scholars, the book is assembled and organized so that readers can first learn of the theoretical underpinnings of regional competitiveness and development theory, before moving on to deeper discussions of key factors and principal elements, the emergence of allied concepts, empirical applications, and the policy context. International in its scope, including global empirical analysis, the book is a definitive resource in terms of providing access to some of the seminal research and thinking on regional competitiveness. This contemporary Handbook is an ideal reference for students and academics in the fields of economic geography and spatial economics. It will also appeal to policymakers and other stakeholders involved in regional economic development.
As a consequence of globalization, news, ideas and knowledge are moving quickly across national borders and generating international spillovers. So too, however, are economic and financial crises. Combining a variety of methods, concepts and interdisciplinary approaches, this book provides an in-depth examination of these structural changes and their impact. Case studies from a range of countries including Japan, Turkey, Sweden, Germany and the USA offer insight into different national contexts and are used to explore a variety of theoretical and empirical issues relating to the geography of growth. Assessing the implications of globalization for businesses and sectors, the chapters focus on the interdependencies between different economic and political layers, and explore topics such as human capital, creativity, innovation, networks and collaboration. Researchers and policy-makers who are interested in regional growth at different spatial scales will find that this work addresses a number of existing knowledge gaps. Students of economics, economic geography, regional science and international industrial management will also find it to be a valuable interdisciplinary resource to help deepen their knowledge of the myriad processes induced by globalization.
European rural landscapes as we experience them today are the result of ongoing processes and interactions between nature and society. These are changing fast: the future landscapes will be different from those we know currently. Written for academics, policy-makers and practitioners, this book is the first to explore the complex histories of rural landscapes in Europe as a basis for their sound governance in future. Tensions between the needs of agricultural spaces driven by economic incentives and a variety of non-agricultural functions are explored to demonstrate current challenges and the shortfalls in the policies that address them. Using inspiring case studies that highlight the roles of regional agents and communities, the authors go further than the usual analyses to illustrate the importance of local context. Written by experts currently working to revitalise the rural landscapes of Europe, the text concludes with suggestions for improving landscape policy and planning practice.
Elgar Research Agendas outline the future of research in a given area. Leading scholars are given the space to explore their subject in provocative ways, and map out the potential directions of travel. They are relevant but also visionary. City-regions are regeneration economies, or in other words, places that are experiencing on-going processes of recovery, adaptation or transformation. This Research Agenda provides both a state-of-the-art review of existing research on city-regions, and expands on new research approaches. Expert contributors from across the globe explore key areas of research for reading city-regions, including: trade, services and people, regional differentiation, big data, global production networks, governance and policy, and regional development. The book focuses on developing a more integrated and systematic approach to reading city-regions as part of regeneration economies, by identifying conceptual and methodological developments in this field of study. Students in geography, urban studies and city and regional planning will greatly benefit from reading this, as it provides a wealth of stimuli for essays and dissertation topics. Advanced business and public policy students will also benefit from the focus on translating research into practice, an approach that this Research Agenda takes in several chapters.
: This comprehensive text explores contemporary geographic topics and perspectives relating to the world economy. The authors provide a strong theoretical and practical foundation for understanding the global economy in an era of shifting borders, restructuring economies, and regional realignments. Economic theory is combined with geography to address critical problems of growth, distribution, and development, along with their impact on international business. Recent geopolitical changes are vividly portrayed in a series of superb full-color maps and striking photographs. The Sixth Edition includes updated tables and data, color maps, 2009 economic statistics, a detailed analysis of the global shift in world trade and development, eleven new Case Studies, and a new Premium Website with videos, weblinks, RSS feeds, and quizzes.
This unique Handbook examines the impacts on, and responses to, economic geography explicitly from the perspective of the behaviour, mechanics, systems and experiences of different firms in various types of industries. The industry studies approach allows the authors to explain why the economic geography of these different industries exhibits such particular and diverse characteristics. The sectors and industries covered include: * traditional heavy industry and engineering * creative and cultural industries * knowledge sectors * natural resource-based and environmental sectors * knowledge, networks and communications issues. The Handbook of Industry Studies and Economic Geography will strongly appeal to students, scholars and researchers interested in all aspects of industrial location and economic geography.
This book advances discussions of values in fisheries by showing the rich theoretical insights and connections possible when value is grounded in a multi-dimensional social well being approach. Questions of value have long been a central, if often unacknowledged, concern in maritime studies and in research on fisheries. Social scientists have looked at changing perceptions of value as coastal regions and fisheries have industrialized, economic interconnections have deepened, ecosystems have been depleted, shifts in population have occurred, and governance arrangements have been transformed. With a focus on the diverse ways in which small-scale fisheries are valued, the contributions to this volume address these and other themes through cases from numerous countries in Asia, Europe, and Latin America. "This volume provides a timely contribution to the development of new approaches that seek to capture the complexity of how fisheries can be understood beyond standard mo no-dimensional, and often economic, interpretations. Each chapter makes a clear and stand-alone contribution to conceptual and methodological advancement, and collectively these works cover a wide range of frameworks and schools of thought." Dr Sarah Coulthard, Senior Lecturer in International Development, Northumbria University, UK "The list of contributing authors [is] impressive and covers a wide geographical range of illustrative examples, [which] helps to demonstrate the global value of small-scale fisheries." Professor J. Allister McGregor, Professor in Political Economy, the University of Sheffield, UK
The rise of Asia, as well as the future of regional cooperation and integration (RCI) the world over, will be profoundly influenced by the challenges of slowing productivity growth, increasing economic inequalities and systemic vulnerabilities. Such structural reform issues will require RCI policies that complement domestic policy reform. This unique book explains what drives the regional economic integration of nations and their contribution to national knowledge capital. It also lays out how such beneficial integration can generate broad-based, equitable wealth in Europe and Asia. Unique in the regional economic integration literature, this comprehensive book identifies the set of drivers of integration for productivity growth. Importantly, it describes and compares the experiences of the Baltic Sea Region with Asia's use of a set of institutionalized consensual knowledge and decision tools to drive inclusive and productive growth throughout a period dominated by the global economic crisis. Original and enlightening, Innovation Networks and the New Asian Regionalism will be vital reading for academics and researchers interested in regional integration and innovation. Policy makers and practitioners in regional development and economic geography will also find it to be an invaluable resource.
This comprehensive volume presents key contributions to the topic of regional economic advantage. The gathered literature helps the reader to understand how regions build advantage for industrial development through the use of endogenous and exogenous resources, how regional industrial development can be supported by place-based policy, and how the form and mechanisms of regional advantage change over time in a path dependent manner. Articles within each section are presented in chronological order, from research on industrial districts and new industrial spaces to regional clusters and innovation systems, along with more recent discussion of global development impulses and evolutionary perspectives on regional development. Together with an introductory chapter by the editors, this important collection is an essential resource for those studying, researching or practicing in this area.
This book aims to integrate and augment current state-of-the-art knowledge on graduate migration and its role in local economic development. Offering an international perspective, it is the first focused book of its kind on graduate migration, a recognised and critical component of the global pool of labour. Written by the key scholars working in the field, it draws together an international series of case studies. Each chapter describes empirically founded approaches to examining the role and characteristics of graduate migration in differing situational contexts, highlighting issues concerning government policy, data and methods. Crucially, it assesses the role highly educated individuals play in regional economic development and the determinants of graduate mobility, revealing the characteristics that attract and retain graduates. This unique book is an essential volume for scholars and researchers of geography, regional studies, labour and migration seeking an in-depth, international understanding of human-capital attraction and retention.
Timely in its assessment of the crisis and the transition in the foreign aid regime, this book provides a view from inside the policy process and imparts a researcher's perspective on the changing priorities of donors and recipients. The wide-ranging essays shed light on the evolving political, economic, and regional geographies of aid at the end of the twentieth century.
This book asserts that the albatross was the reason for the advance of the Japanese into the isolated islands in the Pacific after the abolition of the Japanese "closed-door" policy that had been in effect from the seventeenth century to the latter part of the nineteenth century. The birds' plumage was of high quality and sold at quite a good price in Europe. The Japanese realized the advantage of this global trade, and their desire to capture albatross motivated them to advance into the Pacific. The exploration of the uninhabited islands had become a fast-moving trend, defined by the author as the "Bird Rush". As a consequence, the advance into the Pacific by the Japanese resulted in the expansion of Japanese territory. The author has interpreted this Japanese movement into the Pacific by making use of the framework of three distinct shifts: in the aim of their actions from birds to guano / phosphate ore, in the agents of action from individual speculators to commercial capital and then to monopolistic capital, and from the sea near Japan to the wider Pacific. This concept can be termed "a view of history centered on the albatross".
The geography of innovation is changing. Firstly, it is increasingly understood that innovative firms and organizations exhibit a wide variety of strategies, each differently attuned to diverse geographic contexts. Secondly, and concomitantly, the idea that cities, clusters and physical proximity are essential for innovation is evolving under the weight of new theorizing and empirical evidence. The aim of this Handbook is to break with the many ideas and concepts that emerged during the course of the 1980s and 1990s, and to fully take into account the new reality of the internet, mobile communication technologies, personal mobility and globalization. The Handbook gathers a new generation of ideas and authors to contribute to the debate, providing an empirically grounded critical appraisal of the prevailing knowledge on the geography of innovation. The 28 original chapters, written by a diverse range of scholars with widely differing views, present fresh empirical evidence and new perspectives relating to how innovation plays out across space in an age where mobility has increased, information is ubiquitous and globalization has been realized. Overall, the dialogue between existing theory and new possibilities provides a unique and challenging appraisal of the connection between innovation, agglomeration and space. Offering cutting-edge ideas in an accessible format, this will be an ideal resource for students and scholars of economic geography and innovation studies. The empirical evidence and analysis will also be of great value for policymakers and government officials.
The problems of today's Europe can be traced directly to the rewriting of the "rules of the economic game" that has taken place over several decades under the strong influence of neoliberalism. If Europe is to return to the innovative and dynamic economy it once had-and if there is to be shared prosperity, social solidarity and justice across Europe-the rules must be rewritten once again. With the Foundation for European Progressive Studies (FEPS), Joseph E. Stiglitz lays out comprehensive programmes and policies designed to relieve the suffering of Europeans and restore a prosperous and equitable European Union.
Regions economically differ from each other - they compete in different products and geographical spaces, exhibit different strengths and weaknesses, and provide different possibilities for growth and development. What fosters growth in one region may hamper it in another. This highly original book presents an accessible methodology for identifying competitors and their particular circumstances in Europe, discusses regional competitiveness from a conceptual perspective and explores both past and future regional development policies in Europe. The authors illustrate that for the concept of regional competition to be valued correctly it should not solely be identified by the structural asset characteristics of cities and regions. They therefore present a unique applied analytic framework that takes into account economically valued network relations between places of (mobile) production factors and traded goods. Underpinned with thorough analysis and theory, the framework uses actual networks of competing and economically valued relations between regions to help develop smart specialization strategies that are central in the place-based policy initiatives of the new European cohesion policy. This path-breaking book presents a crucial contribution to the current academic discussion on regional competitiveness and the policy debate on smart specialization, place-based development and cohesion policy in the European Union. As such it will prove an invaluable read for academics, researchers, students and policy-makers with an interest in economics - particularly applied regional economics, European studies and regional studies.
What is creativity and who exactly is creative? In this insightful and highly readable book, Gunnar Toernqvist attempts to answer these questions by arguing that geographical millieux are hotbeds for creativity and renewal - places where pioneers in art, technology and science have gathered and developed their special abilities. In light of ongoing social and economic transformations, special attention is paid to the institutional settings in firms and universities. The goal is to identify those features which facilitate and those which impede the creative process. Individual lives are illustrated through the autobiographies of hundreds of Nobel Laureates. Their life paths reveal the importance of geographic mobility and contact patterns for the development of creativity and international prestige. From these biographies we can also see how local millieux and schools have influenced many scientists. The Geography of Creativity will be of great benefit to academics and students in regional science, economic geography and economics.
High Speed Rail and China's New Economic Geography presents an analytical approach to assessing the socioeconomic impact of high speed rail in China, with an emphasis on capturing the spatial spillover effects of rail infrastructure development on China's economic geography in terms of land use, housing market, tourism, regional disparity, modal competition, the economy and environment. The assessment involves a multilevel spatial analysis approach at both the national and the regional level. The methods include partial equilibrium analysis characterized by a spatial econometric modeling and the state-of-the-art computable general equilibrium modeling. It provides a basis for policy decision-making and operational considerations. Academic scholars and students who are specialized in regional economics, urban planning, public policy, and transportation will find this book useful. Practitioners and policy-makers will also find this book valuable as the empirical findings provide implications for future transportation planning and development.
Fewer than 100 people own and control more wealth than 50 per cent of the world's population. The Handbook on Wealth and the Super-Rich is a landmark multidisciplinary evaluation of both the lives and lifestyles of the super-rich, as well as the processes that underpin super-wealth generation and its unequal distribution. Drawing on international case studies, leading experts from across the social sciences offer 22 accessible and coherently organized chapters, which critically analyse a range of topics including: * the legitimacy of extreme wealth from a moral economic perspective * biographies of illicit super-wealth * London's housing markets * how the very wealthy fly * the environmental consequences of super-rich lives * crafting immigration policies to attract the rich. Students and scholars studying a host of topics such as development studies, economics, geography, history, political science and sociology will find this book eminently engaging. It will also be of great interest to public commentators, charitable organizations and NGOs concerned with wealth and income distributions.
"Hubbard and Kane synthesize economics, politics, and psychology to
develop a new audacious theory of why countries decline. Compulsory
reading for anyone who wants to understand the major issues that
America now faces" (James Robinson, coauthor of "Why Nations
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