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Many creatures use adhesive polymers and structures to attach to inert substrates, to each other, or to other organisms. This is the first major review that brings together research on many of the well-known biological adhesives dealing with bacteria, fungi, algae, and marine and terrestrial animals. As we learn more about their molecular and mechanical properties we begin to understand why they adhere so well and with this comes broad applications in areas such as medicine, dentistry, and biotechnology.
Extremophiles belong to members of all three domains of life, i.e., bacteria, archaea, and eukarya. However, a high proportion of extremophiles are archaea and bacteria. These microbes live under chemical and physical extremes that are usually lethal to cellular molecules, yet they not only manage to survive but even thrive in such conditions. Extremophiles have important practical and industrial uses. They are a valuable source of industrially important enzymes also known as extremozymes. Recent research has revealed that extremozymes have unique structural features essential for biocatalysis under extreme conditions. Extremozymes have great commercial values and are known for their potential use in biotechnology, biomining, and bioremediation. Extremozymes and their Industrial Applications highlights the current and topical areas of research in this rapidly growing field of extremophiles and their applications. Expert researchers from around the globe are trying to uncover the underlying mechanisms responsible for their specific adaptations under extreme environments. The topics covered include the ability of acidophiles to maintain a neutral intracellular pH, the way psychrophiles "loosen up" their proteins at low temperatures, and other equally ingenious adaptations and metabolic strategies that extremophiles use to survive and flourish under extreme conditions. Extremozymes and their Industrial Applications also covers the established biotechnological uses of extremophiles and the most recent and novel applications, including their exploitation for enzyme production. Potential use of extremophiles and their enzymes in the generation of sustainable energy, biomass conversion, agro-waste processing, and biocontrol of phytopathogens is also covered. The book will be very useful for researchers and students working in the area of industrial microbiology and biotechnology, and microbial ecologists. It is also recommended reference text for those interested in the biochemistry and microbiology of extremophiles, as well as for those interested in bioprospecting, biomining, biofuels, and biodegradation.
Geomicrobiology is the study of microbes and microbial processes and their role in driving environmental and geological processes at scales ranging from the nano, micron, to meter scale. This growing field has seen major advances in recent years, largely due to the development of new analytical tools and improvements to existing techniques, which allow us to better understand the complex interactions between microbes and their surroundings. In this comprehensive handbook, expert authors outline the state-of-the-art and emerging analytical techniques used in geomicrobiology. Readers are guided through each technique including background theory, sample preparation, standard methodology, data collection and analysis, best practices and common pitfalls, and examples of how and where the technique has been applied. The book provides a practical go-to reference for advanced students, researchers and professional scientists looking to employ techniques commonly used in geomicrobiology.
Rhizosphere Engineering is a guide to applying environmentally sound agronomic practices to improve crop yield while protecting the soil resource. Focusing on the potential positive impact of appropriate practices, the book includes the use of beneficial microbes, nanotechnology, and metagenomics. As the pursuit of sustainable agronomic practices continue to be balanced against the demand for increased yield and nutritional value, the optimal management of the rhizosphere remains key. Developing and applying techniques that not only enhance yield, but also restore the quality of soil and water using beneficial microbes such as Bacillus, Pseudomonas, vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhiza (VAM) fungi and others, as well as utilizing nanotechnology, quorum sensing, and other technologies further advance the science. As the science advances, however, there must be a corresponding understanding of the appropriate application based on the specific environment and challenge scenario. Designed to fill the gap between research and application, Rhizosphere Engineering is written for advanced students, researchers, and those seeking real-world insights for improving agricultural production.
Green Sustainable Process for Chemical and Environmental Engineering and Science: Biomedical Application of Biosurfactant in Medical Sector highlights the numerous applications of biosurfactants in the field of medicine, especially as a replacement to synthetic drugs which have developed several levels of resistance over the years. Special emphasis is laid on their application as non-pyrogenic and non-toxic immunological adjuvants and their inhibitory characteristics against H+, K+, -ATPase and defense against gastric ulcers, along with their practical application as anti-adhesive coating agents for medical insert materials. The book addresses issues by combining knowledge of their production with information on a range of medical applications. Drawing on the knowledge of its expert team of global contributors, this book provides useful insights for all those currently or potentially interested in developing or applying biosurfactants in their own work.
Petroleum Industry Wastewater: Advanced and Sustainable Treatment Methods discusses the status of different approaches and advanced processes involved in the treatment of petrochemical and petroleum industry wastewater. The book focuses on advanced, sustainable, and environmentally friendly technologies for removing toxic pollutants from contaminated waters. The book also explores the environmental aspects and impacts of the petroleum industry discharge wastewater, their effect on aquatic life, and possible ways to deal with these effects. Keeping the global water crisis and fast depletion of natural fresh water in mind, more immediate knowledge, information, implication, and effective utilization of available resources are required than we anticipated. The book brings a wide range of methodologies and perspectives under one roof in a comprehensive manner.
Myxomycetes: Biology, Systematics, Biogeography, and Ecology is a comprehensive overview of the body of accumulated knowledge that now exists on myxomycetes. Its broad scope takes an integrated approach to the knowledge of this organismal group, considering a number of important aspects of their genetics and molecular phylogeny. It also treats myxomycetes as a distinct group from fungi, and includes molecular information that discusses the systematics and evolutionary pathways of the group. Additionally, biomedical and engineering applicability is discussed, thus expanding the audience and use of the book in a multidisciplinary context. The book provides an authoritative resource for students, researchers and educators interested in the fields of protistology, microbial ecology, molecular microbiology, biogeography, mycology, biodiversity, and evolutionary biology, and will also interest the amateur naturalist and biologist.
Viral Proteases and Their Inhibitors provides a thorough examination of viral proteases from their molecular components, to therapeutic applications. As information on three dimensional structures and biological functions of these viral proteases become known, unexpected protein folds and unique mechanisms of proteolysis are realized. This book investigates how this facilitates the design and development of potent antiviral agents used against life-threatening viruses. Users will find descriptions of each virus that detail the structure and function of viral proteases, discuss the design and development of inhibitors, and analyze the structure-activity relationships of inhibitors. This book is ideal biochemists, virologists and those working on antiviral agents.
This book presents a state-of-the-art compilation of articles on the role of non-coding RNAs as pivotal molecules for establishing functional relationships between different organisms. It also describes how non-coding RNA molecules can act as dynamic communication devices and how they modulate the interaction between different kingdoms. It describes examples including viruses, bacteria, fungi, and higher organisms such as protozoa that are involved in pathogenic or symbiotic interactions, and the roles of different families of non-coding RNAs within these relationships. Each chapter provides readers molecular and functional insights, breaking down the subjacent mechanisms and exploring their functional implications and future applications. More than sixty years after the foundation of the "RNA tie club" by George Gamow, new roles for non-coding RNA molecules are starting to be revealed.
The Prokaryotes is a comprehensive, multi-authored, peer reviewed reference work on Bacteria and Achaea. This fourth edition of The Prokaryotes is organized to cover all taxonomic diversity, using the family level to delineate chapters. Different from other resources, this new Springer product includes not only taxonomy, but also prokaryotic biology and technology of taxa in a broad context. Technological aspects highlight the usefulness of prokaryotes in processes and products, including biocontrol agents and as genetics tools. The content of the expanded fourth edition is divided into two parts: Part 1 contains review chapters dealing with the most important general concepts in molecular, applied and general prokaryote biology; Part 2 describes the known properties of specific taxonomic groups. Two completely new sections have been added to Part 1: bacterial communities and human bacteriology. The bacterial communities section reflects the growing realization that studies on pure cultures of bacteria have led to an incomplete picture of the microbial world for two fundamental reasons: the vast majority of bacteria in soil, water and associated with biological tissues are currently not culturable, and that an understanding of microbial ecology requires knowledge on how different bacterial species interact with each other in their natural environment. The new section on human microbiology deals with bacteria associated with healthy humans and bacterial pathogenesis. Each of the major human diseases caused by bacteria is reviewed, from identifying the pathogens by classical clinical and non-culturing techniques to the biochemical mechanisms of the disease process. The 4th edition of The Prokaryotes is the most complete resource on the biology of prokaryotes. The following volumes are published consecutively within the 4th Edition: Prokaryotic Biology and Symbiotic Associations Prokaryotic Communities and Ecophysiology Prokaryotic Physiology and Biochemistry Applied Bacteriology and Biotechnology Human Microbiology Actinobacteria Firmicutes Alphaproteobacteria and Betaproteobacteria Gammaproteobacteria Deltaproteobacteria and Epsilonproteobacteria Other Major Lineages of Bacteria and the Archaea
Advancements in Polymer-Based Membranes for Water Remediation describes the advanced membrane science and engineering behind the separation processes within the domain of polymer-based membrane systems in water remediation. Emphasis has been put on several aspects, ranging from fundamental concepts to the commercialization of pressure and potential driven membranes, updated with the latest technological progresses, and relevant polymer materials and application potential towards water treatment systems. Also included in this book are advances in polymers for membrane application in reverse osmosis, nanofiltration, ultrafiltration, microfiltration, forward osmosis, and polymeric ion-exchange membranes for electrodialysis and capacitive deionization. With its critical analyzes and opinions from experts around the world, this book will garner considerable interest among actual users, i.e., scientists, engineers, industrialists, entrepreneurs and students.
This book provides an account of the biogenic synthesis of nanomaterials by using different microorganisms. The chapters are focused on the biosynthesis of various metal and metal oxide nanosized materials by using bacteria, actinomycetes, fungi, and algae, including mechanisms of microbial synthesis. Other chapters summarize recent developments of microbial-based nanostructures for the management of food-borne pathogens, plant pathogenic fungi, as nutrients, and biomedical applications. Microorganisms are discussed not only as biofactories for the synthesis of nanomaterials but also as removal agents of toxic metals from the environment. Exposure sources and ecotoxicity of microbially synthesized nanoparticles are also discussed.
Written by leading experts in their respective fields, Principles and Applications of Soil Microbiology 3e, provides a comprehensive, balanced introduction to soil microbiology, and captures the rapid advances in the field such as recent discoveries regarding habitats and organisms, microbially mediated transformations, and applied environmental topics. Carefully edited for ease of reading, it aids users by providing an excellent multi-authored reference, the type of book that is continually used in the field. Background information is provided in the first part of the book for ease of comprehension. The following chapters then describe such fundamental topics as soil environment and microbial processes, microbial groups and their interactions, and thoroughly addresses critical nutrient cycles and important environmental and agricultural applications. An excellent textbook and desk reference, Principles and Applications of Soil Microbiology, 3e, provides readers with broad, foundational coverage of the vast array of microorganisms that live in soil and the major biogeochemical processes they control. Soil scientists, environmental scientists, and others, including soil health and conservation specialists, will find this material invaluable for understanding the amazingly diverse world of soil microbiology, managing agricultural and environmental systems, and formulating environmental policy.
This volume is the first guide to identify mushroom species not commonly classified or illustrated elsewhere in current literature. The book, which will serve as a companion to other popular field guides, shows how to distinguish lesser-known mushrooms from other common fungi. Found in a variety of habitats in North America, each species has an accurate and up-to-date description, a color illustration, and detailed information on its distinctive species characteristics.
Development in Wastewater Treatment Research and Processes: Microbial Degradation of Xenobiotics through Bacterial and Fungal Approach covers the active and applicable role that bacteria and fungi play in the degradation of xenobiotic compounds from the environment. The book gives up-to-date information on recent advancements in the field of environmental xenobiotics and how they disturb a plant's metabolism. The book also gives information on aerobic and anaerobic degradation of xenobiotic compounds through bacteria or fungi and/or a combined approach. Finally, the book covers the characteristics of environmental microbiology, biochemical engineering, agricultural microbiology, environmental engineering, and soil bioremediation.
Whisky and Other Spirits: Technology, Production and Marketing, Third Edition continues to provide details from raw materials to the finished product, including production, packaging and marketing. It focuses on the science and technology of the process as well as the environment in which it is produced. Today, environmental concerns and sustainability of products has taken on a new level of importance. Traditional ways of packaging and marketing have also changed dramatically in recent years as the technology of packaging has moved from a staid bottle industry to spirit products that cross traditional beverage categories and packaging. This new edition provides the latest changes in industry and the beverages market. All chapters are updated, with new chapters added to help improve research and development, and to increase production of not only whiskey but other spirits such as gin and rum and white spirits. This new edition also discusses trendy reduced alcohol and no alcohol products.
Although known for its sandy beaches and pounding surf, historic Cape Cod is also home to a unique community of mushrooms that can be found on its heaths, pine and oak barrens, and on the borders of its bogs, kettle ponds, and cedar swamps.
Here is the definitive guide to the highly varied mycoflora of Cape Cod and the National Seashore. It contains accurate and up-to-date descriptions and over 150 color illustrations that help the reader identify over 250 indigenous mushroom species.
The scope of this work goes well beyond the identification of mushrooms. The authors provide information that increases the readers awareness of the fragile nature of Cape Cod's various ecosystems and the critical role that mushrooms play in helping to preserve them.
Advances in Oil-Water Separation: A Complete Guide for Physical, Chemical, and Biochemical Processes discusses a broad variety of chemical, physical and biochemical processes, including skimming, membrane separation, adsorption, onsite chemical reactions, burning and usage of suitable microbial strains for onsite degradation of oil. It critically reviews all current developments in oil-water separation processes and technologies, identifies gaps and illuminates the scope for future research and development in the field. This book provides researchers, engineers and environmental professionals working in oil recovery, storage and refineries with solutions for disposal of waste oil and separation of oil from water in a sustainable, environmentally-friendly way. As the book provides a complete state-of-art overview on oil-water separation technologies, it will also ease literature searches on oil-water separation technologies.
Importance of Microbiology Teaching and Microbial Resource Management for Sustainable Futures brings experts together to highlight the importance of microbiology-discipline-based teaching with its unique skills-based approaches. The book discusses how microscope microbiology has received significant attention since microorganisms played a significant role in the advancement, as well as destruction of, mankind during incidences such as the black death. With the discovery of penicillin from a fungal culture, the beneficial role of microorganisms has been a major catalyst in the progress of biological sciences. Interestingly, there are fundamental aspects of microbiology that did not change since revelations of their identity dating back to the Pasteur era. This book details the progress made and milestones that have been set in the science.
Microbiome Under Changing Climate: Implications and Solutions presents the latest biotechnological interventions for the judicious use of microbes to ensure optimal agricultural yield. Summarizing aspects of vulnerability, adaptation and amelioration of climate impact, this book provides an important resource for understanding microbes, plants and soil in pursuit of sustainable agriculture and improved food security. It emphasizes the interaction between climate and soil microbes and their potential role in promoting advanced sustainable agricultural solutions, focusing on current research designed to use beneficial microbes such as plant growth promoting microorganisms, fungi, endophytic microbes, and more. Changes in climatic conditions influence all factors of the agricultural ecosystem, including adversely impacting yield both in terms of quantity and nutritional quality. In order to develop resilience against climatic changes, it is increasingly important to understand the effect on the native micro-flora, including the distribution of methanogens and methanotrophs, nutrient content and microbial biomass, among others.
Laboratory Practices in Microbiology provides updated insights on methods of isolation and cultivation, morphology of microorganisms, the determination of biochemical activities of microorganisms, and physical and chemical effects on microorganisms. Sections cover methods of preparation of media and their sterilization, microorganisms in environment, aseptic techniques, pure culture techniques, preservation of cultures, morphological characteristics of microorganisms, wet-mount and hanging-drop techniques, different staining techniques, cultural and biochemical characteristics of bacteria, antimicrobial effects of agents on microorganisms, hand scrubbing in the removal of microorganisms, characteristics of fungi, uses of bacteriophages in different applications, and more. Applications are designed to be common, complete with equipment, minimal expense and quick to the markets. Images are added to applications, helping readers better follow the expressions and make them more understandable. This is an essential book for students and researchers in microbiology, the health sciences, food engineering and technology, and medicine, as well as anyone working in a laboratory setting with microorganisms.
The book Methods in Silkworm Microbiology is the first ever publication that provides in-depth reviews on the latest progresses about silkworm -pathogen interactions, diseases and management practices for sustainable development of sericulture. Different molecular and immunodiagnostic methods for the detection of pathogens have been comprehensively addressed. Most recent advancements on the role of Micro RNAs in silkworm and pathogen interactions are provided with suitable illustrations. Recent technological advances and emerging trends in exploring silkworm gut microbial communities towards translation research, particularly to understand microbiome functions have been highlighted. Information on various immune mechanisms of silkworm against invading pathogens is summarized. The book further highlights the silkworm gut microbiota as a potential source for biotechnological applications.
Bacterial Bioflocculant for Multifunctional Features highlights research findings on the production and characterization of self-assembling bioflocculant from bacterial consortium (encompassing Bacillus subtilis, Enterococcus faecalis and Proteus mirabilis). The book describes the various high-throughput techniques for characterization of wastewater at microbiological and molecular level. Sections cover pharmaceutical compounds, macromolecular compounds and other contaminants, the biotoxicity exhibited cellular and nuclear abnormalities in the zebra fish, and high-throughput techniques used for evaluating the flocculating efficiency of the bacterial bioflocculant to remove the contaminants in different other applications. Bacterial Bioflocculant for Multifunctional Features will help users undertake further advanced research in bacterial bioflocculant for bioremediation technology and environmental prospectives. In addition, it will also inspire readers to understand bioflocculation and its functions.
Removal of Emerging Contaminants from Wastewater through Bio-nanotechnology showcases profiles of the nonregulated contaminants termed as "emerging contaminants," which comprise industrial and household persistent toxic chemicals, pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs), pesticides, surfactants and surfactant residues, plasticizers and industrial additives, manufactured nanomaterials and nanoparticles, microplastics, etc. that are used extensively in everyday life. The occurrence of "emerging contaminants" in wastewater, and their behavior during wastewater treatment and production of drinking water are key issues in the reuse and recycling of water resources. This book focuses on the exploitation of Nano-biotechnology inclusive of the state-of-the-art remediate strategies to degrade/detoxify/stabilize toxic and hazardous contaminants and restore contaminated sites, which is not as comprehensively discussed in the existing titles on similar topics available in the global market. In addition, it discusses the potential environmental and health hazards and ecotoxicity associated with the widespread distribution of emerging contaminants in the water bodies. It also considers the life cycle assessment (LCA) of emerging (micro)-pollutants with suitable case studies from various industrial sources.
Tackling the issue of water and wastewater treatment nowadays requires novel approaches to ensure that sustainable development can be achieved. Water and wastewater treatment should not be seen only as an end-of-pipe solution but instead the approach should be more holistic and lead to a more sustainable process. This requires the integration of various methods/processes to obtain the most optimized design. Integrated and Hybrid Process Technology for Water and Wastewater Treatment discusses the state-of-the-art development in integrated and hybrid treatment processes and their applications to the treatment of a vast variety of water and wastewater sources. The approaches taken in this book are categorized as (i) resources recovery and consumption, (ii) optimal performance, (iii) physical and environmental footprints, (iv) zero liquid discharge concept and are (v) regulation-driven. Through these categories, readers will see how such an approach could benefit the water and wastewater industry. Each chapter discusses challenges and prospects of an integrated treatment process in achieving sustainable development. This book serves as a platform to provide ideas and to bridge the gap between laboratory-scale research and practical industry application.
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