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The paddy field is a unique agro-ecosystem and provides services such as food, nutrient recycling and diverse habitats. However, chemical contamination of paddy soils has degraded the quality of this important ecosystem. This book provides an overview of our current understanding of paddy soil pollution, addressing topics such as the major types of pollutants in contaminated paddy soil ecosystems; factors affecting the fate of pollutants in paddy soil; biomonitoring approaches to assess the contaminated paddy soil; the impact of chemicals on soil microbial diversity; and climate change. It also covers arsenic and heavy metal pollution of paddy soils and their impact on rice quality. Further, new emerging contaminants such as antibiotics and antibiotics resistance genes (ARGs) in paddy soil and their impact on environmental health are also discussed. The last chapters focus on the bioremediation approaches for the management of paddy soils.
Each generation in a sexually reproducing organism such as a fly or a mouse passes through the bottleneck of meiosis, which is the specialized cell division that gives rise to haploid reproductive cells (sperm, eggs, spores, etc. ). The principal function of meiosis is to reduce the genome complement by half, which is accomplished through sequential execution of one round of DNA replication followed by two rounds of chromosome segregation. Within the extended prophase between DNA replication and the first meiotic division in most organisms, homologous maternal and paternal chromosomes pair with one another and undergo homologous recombination, which establishes physical connections that link the homologous chromosomes until the time they are separated at anaphase I. Recombination also serves to increase genetic diversity from one generation to the next by breaking up linkage groups. The unique chromosome dynamics of meiosis have fascinated scientists for well over a century, but in recent years there has been an explosion of new information about how meiotic chromosomes pair, recombine, and are segregated. Progress has been driven by advances in three main areas: (1) genetic identification of meiosis-defective mutants and cloning of the genes involved; (2) development of direct physical assays for DNA intermediates and products of recombination; and (3) increasingly sophisticated cy- logical methods that describe chromosome behaviors and the spatial and temporal patterns by which specific proteins associate with meiotic chromosomes.
The authors of this book discuss the most recent advancements in food microbiology research. Chapters include a review on the factors which help to choose the conditions that assure food microbial stability and contribute to food safety and quality; an examination of the prevalence of one of the most important food-borne pathogens, L. monocytogenes, particularly in fruits and vegetables; emerging bacteria detection methods in food and culture media using mass spectrometry (MS); detection techniques of Salmonella, of which infections from animal food play an important role in public health and particularly in food safety; and case studies of yeasts in fruit wine fermentations, which can have important implications for developing fruit wine and can contribute to an important advancements in any fermentation products.
This volume focuses on mitochondrial RNA metabolism, emphasizing recent discoveries and technological advances in this fast moving area that increase our understanding of mitochondrial gene function. Topics addressed include the interplay of mitochondria with the nucleus and cytosol, structure-function connections, and relevance to human disease. Mitochondria are the powerhouses of the cell, and a great deal is known about mitochondrial energy metabolism. Less well known is the plethora of amazing mechanisms that have evolved to control expression of mitochondrial genomes. Several RNA processes and machineries in protozoa, plants, flies and humans are discussed, including: transcription and RNA polymerase mechanism; tRNA processing of 5' and 3' ends; mRNA maturation by nucleotide insertion/deletion editing and by RNA splicing; mRNA stability; and RNA import. Specialized factors and ribonucleoproteins (RNPs) examined include pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) proteins, RNase P, polymerases, helicases, nucleases, editing and repair enzymes. Remarkable features of these processes and factors are either not found outside mitochondria, differ substantially among eukaryotic lineages, or are unique in biology.
This fully updated edition explores the latest techniques to study the challenging, and at times dangerous, genus of bacteria known as mycobacteria with basic methods that are still required for mycobacteriology along with the newer or improved methods that have been developed. The volume features chapters on the basics of DNA isolation, protein isolation, and lipid isolation, as well as more sophisticated techniques for isolation of ribosomes, and continues with sections involving analyzing subcellular fractions, culture methods, sequencing technology, in vitro models, molecular methods, as well as drug discovery applications. Written for the highly successful Methods in Molecular Biology series, chapters include introductions to their respective topics, lists of the necessary materials and reagents, step-by-step, readily reproducible laboratory protocols, and tips on troubleshooting and avoiding known pitfalls. Authoritative and up-to-date, Mycobacteria Protocols, Fourth Edition serves as an ideal guide for those starting out with their mycobacteria research and also for those who have worked with it for decades.
In one handy book, this reference gathers all the necessary
information on 14 of the most commonly used dangerous groups of
pathogens in biosafety level 3 and 4 laboratories. All the chapters
are uniformly structured, with a brief overview of the
microbiology, pathology, epidemiology and detection methods for
each group. In addition, a whole chapter is devoted to the special
biosafety requirements, disinfection, decontamination protocols,
accident literature and accident procedures, as well as treatment
options for all the organisms. This chapter is clearly marked and
easy to find when opening the book.
Fungal nanotechnology has great prospects for developing new products with industrial, agricultural, medicinal, and consumer applications in a wide range of sectors. The fields of chemical engineering, agri-food, biochemistry, pharmaceuticals, diagnostics, and medical device development all employ fungal products, with fungal nanomaterials currently used in applications ranging from drug development to the food industry and agricultural biotechnology. Fungal agents are an environmentally friendly, clean, non-toxic agent for the synthesis of metal nanoparticles and employ both intracellular and extracellular methods. The simplicity of scaling up and downstream processing and the presence of fungal mycelia which afford an increased surface area provide key advantages. In addition, the large spectrum of synthesized nanoparticle morphologies and the substantially faster biosynthesis rate in cell-free filtrate (due to the higher amount of proteins secreted in fungi) make this a particularly enticing route. Understanding the diversity of fungi in assorted ecosystems, as well as their interactions with other microorganisms, animals, and plants, underpins real and innovative technological developments and the applications of metal nanoparticles in many disciplines including agriculture, catalysis, and biomedical biosensors. Importantly, biogenic fungal nanoparticles show significant synergistic characteristics when combined with antibiotics and fungicides to offer substantially greater resistance to microbial growth and applications in nanomedicine ranging from topical ointments and bandages for wound healing to coated stents.
Instead of relying on prescription medications with numerous dangerous side effects, what if you could opt for a safer, natural alternative to address your health concerns? Medicinal plants for therapeutic purposes have been used for many years. The antimicrobial activity of essential oils and their major constituents has been widely documented by several works, however, in a fragmented way. Based on this premise, this book is designed to provide an overview of current knowledge about the antimicrobial properties of essential oils and their mechanisms of action, either alone or in combination, as a possible tool for obtaining new antibiotics.
This book focuses on the regulation of transcription and translation in Archaea and arising insights into the evolution of RNA processing pathways. From synthesis to degradation and the implications of gene expression, it presents the current state of knowledge on archaeal RNA biology in 13 chapters. Topics covered include the modification and maturation of RNAs, the function of small non-coding RNAs and the CRISPR-Cas defense system. While Archaea have long been considered exotic microbial extremophiles, they are now increasingly being recognized as important model microorganisms for the study of molecular mechanisms conserved across the three domains of life, and with regard to the relevance of similarities and differences to eukaryotes and bacteria. This unique book offers a valuable resource for all readers interested in the regulation of gene expression in Archaea and RNA metabolism in general.
Written by leading experts in their respective fields, Principles and Applications of Soil Microbiology 3e, provides a comprehensive, balanced introduction to soil microbiology, and captures the rapid advances in the field such as recent discoveries regarding habitats and organisms, microbially mediated transformations, and applied environmental topics. Carefully edited for ease of reading, it aids users by providing an excellent multi-authored reference, the type of book that is continually used in the field. Background information is provided in the first part of the book for ease of comprehension. The following chapters then describe such fundamental topics as soil environment and microbial processes, microbial groups and their interactions, and thoroughly addresses critical nutrient cycles and important environmental and agricultural applications. An excellent textbook and desk reference, Principles and Applications of Soil Microbiology, 3e, provides readers with broad, foundational coverage of the vast array of microorganisms that live in soil and the major biogeochemical processes they control. Soil scientists, environmental scientists, and others, including soil health and conservation specialists, will find this material invaluable for understanding the amazingly diverse world of soil microbiology, managing agricultural and environmental systems, and formulating environmental policy.
This book presents an up-to-date review of the ecology of yeast communities in natural ecosystems. It focuses on their biological interactions, including mutualism, parasitism, commensalism and antagonistic interactions, and is closely connected with the volume Yeasts in Natural Ecosystems: Diversity by the same editors. Yeasts are the smallest eukaryotic organisms successfully growing under a wide range of environmental conditions. They constantly modify the environment through their own metabolic activities. Although yeasts are among the earlier colonizers of nutrient-rich substrates, their role in ecosystem processes is not limited to the consumption and transformation of simple sugars. They also engage in close relationships with animals, plants and other fungi in the environment as mutualists, competitors, parasites and pathogens. This book reviews the diversity of biological interactions and roles of yeasts in ecosystems and summarises recent concepts and tools developed in community ecology. All of the chapters were written by leading international yeast research experts, and will appeal to researchers and advanced students in the field of microbial ecology.
The third edition of this monograph continues to have the goal of providing an overview of current thought about the spinal cord mechanisms that are responsible for sensory processing. We hope that the book is of value to both basic and clinical neuroscientists. Several changes have been made in the presentation, as well as additions because of the research advances that have been made during the past decade. Chapters 3 and 4 in the previous edition have been subdivided, and now the morphology of primary afferent neu rons of the dorsal root ganglia is described in Chapter 3 and the chemical neuroanatomy of these neurons in Chapter 4. The description of the dorsal horn in the previous Chapter 4 is now included in Chapter 5, and the chemical neuroanatomy of the dorsal horn in Chapter 6. Furthermore, discussions of the descending control systems have now been consolidated at the end of Chapter 12. The authors would like to express their appreciation for the help provided by several individuals. R.E.C. wishes to acknowledge the many things he learned about primary afferent neurons from conversations with Dr S. N. Lawson. He also thanks Lyn Shilling for her assistance with the typing. WDW thanks Dr Nada Lawand for her critical reading of parts of the manuscript, Rosaline Leigh for help with the manuscript, and Griselda Gonzales for preparing the illustrations.
Today, local, state, and federal funding agencies have recognised the importance of the role the community plays in assuring a healthy population. As a result, these funding sources have mandated that the community which is primarily affected by these persistent public health issues, be present at the working table with academicians, researchers, public health practitioners, and policymakers so their "voice" may be heard and they may contribute to effective solutions. For sustainability purposes, we need to help these communities build their capacity to address the episodic, as well as the persistent, public health issues that affect their health. How do we, as public health professionals, do that? How do we learn the skills and principles necessary to establish partnerships with our communities? How do we then teach our community partners to continue to improve the health status of their neighbourhoods when the funding expires? This book explores this topic in greater detail.
Pasteurization, penicillin, Koch's postulates, and gene coding. These discoveries and inventions are vital yet commonplace in modern life, but were radical when first introduced to the public and academia. In this book, the life and times of leading pioneers in microbiology are discussed in vivid detail, focusing on the background of each discovery and the process in which they were developed - sometimes by accident or sheer providence.
Systems Biogeochemistry of Major Marine Biomes A comprehensive system-level discussion of the geomicrobiology of the Earth's oceans In Systems Biogeochemistry of Major Marine Biomes, a team of distinguished researchers delivers a systemic overview of biogeochemistry across a number of major physiographies of the global ocean: the waters and sediments overlying continental margins; the deep sub-surfaces; the Arctic and Antarctic oceans; and the physicochemical extremes such as the hypersaline and sulfidic marine zones, cold methane seeps and hydrothermal ecosystems. The book explores state-of-the-art advances in marine geomicrobiology and investigates the drivers of biogeochemical processes. It highlights the imperatives of the unique, fringe, and cryptic processes while studying the geological manifestations and ecological feedbacks of in situ microbial metabolisms. Taking a holistic approach toward the understanding of marine biogeochemical provinces, this book emphasizes the centrality of culture-dependent and culture-independent (meta-omics-based) microbiological information within a systems biogeochemistry framework. Perfect for researchers and scientists in the fields of geochemistry, geophysics, geomicrobiology, oceanography, and marine science, Systems Biogeochemistry of Major Marine Biomes will also earn a place in the libraries of policymakers and advanced graduate students seeking a one-stop reference on marine biogeochemistry.
This second fully updated and extended edition of Biotechnology and Conservation of Cultural Heritage provides in-depth insights into the role of different microorganisms and microbial compounds in biodeterioration, conservation and restoration of artworks and artifacts. Latest methods to detect, remove and prevent microbial colonization on artwork surfaces and in air environments of libraries and museums are discussed and illustrated by engaging case studies. Furthermore, this edition covers new case studies on Archaeobiology, exploring ways to perform the molecular biology characterization, restoring and protecting museum taxidermal specimens, preserving and guaranteeing the future integrity. Finally, the use of halloysite-nanotubes is investigated to set up innovative protocols in consolidation and long-term protection of waterlogged and archaeological wood. This book addresses to Biologists, Microbiologists, Conservation Scientists and Conservators who are interested in understanding the role of microorganisms and bioactive molecules in conservation projects.
This contributed volume sheds new light on waste management and the production of biofuels. The authors share insights into microbial applications to meet the challenges of environmental pollution and the ever- growing need for renewable energy. They also explain how healthy and balanced ecosystems can be created and maintained using strategies ranging from oil biodegration and detoxification of azo dyes to biofouling. In addition, the book illustrates how the metabolic abilities of microorganisms can be used in microbial fuel-cell technologies or for the production of biohydrogen. It inspires young researchers and experienced scientists in the field of microbiology to explore the application of green biotechnology for bioremediation and the production of energy, which will be one of the central topics for future generations.
The purpose of this book is to show the essential and indispensable role of prokaryotes in the evolution of aliving world. The evolutionary success of prokaryotes is explained together with their role in the evolution of the geosphere, the biosphere and its functioning, as well as their ability to colonize all biotopes, including the most extreme ones. We consider that all past and present living beings emerged from prokaryotes and have interacted with them. Forces and mechanisms presented in the various theories of evolution apply to prokaryotes. The major stages of their evolution and biodiversity are also described. Finally, it is emphasized that prokaryotes are living organisms that provide indisputable evidence of evolutionary processes. Many examples of ongoing evolution in prokaryotes, observable at the human scale, are provided.
Of major economic, environmental and social importance, industrial
microbiology involves the utilization of microorganisms in the
production of a wide range of products, including enzymes, foods,
beverages, chemical feedstocks, fuels and pharmaceuticals, and
clean technologies employed for waste treatment and pollution
Aimed at undergraduates studying the applied aspects of biology, particularly those on biotechnology and microbiology courses and students of food science and biochemical engineering, this text provides a wide-ranging introduction to the field of industrial microbiology. The content is divided into three sections: key aspects of microbial physiology, exploring the versatility of microorganisms, their diverse metabolic activities and productsindustrial microorganisms and the technology required for large-scale cultivation and isolation of fermentation productsinvestigation of a wide range of established and novel industrial fermentation processes and products
Written by experienced lecturers with industrial backgrounds, Industrial Microbiology provides the reader with groundwork in both the fundamental principles of microbial biology and the various traditional and novel applications of microorganisms to industrial processes, many of which have been made possible or enhanced by recent developments in genetic engineering technology.A wide-ranging introduction to the field of industrial microbiologyBased on years of teaching experience by experienced lecturers with industrial backgroundsExplains the underlying microbiology as well as the industrial application.
Content is divided into three sections:
1. key aspects of microbial physiology, exploring the versatility of microorganisms, their diverse metabolic activities and products
2. industrial microorganisms and the technology required for large-scale cultivation and isolation of fermentation products
3. investigation of a wide range of established and novel industrial fermentation processes and products
This Volume presents methods for quantifying microbial populations and characterising microbial communities by extracting and analysing biomarkers such as RNA, DNA and lipids. The chapters cover a wide range of topics, including: cell separation from oil-rich environments, enumeration of hydrocarbon degraders and sulphate reducers using most-probable-number techniques, and quantification by means of real-time PCR. A variety of molecular methods are described for microbial community profiling, such as phospholipid fatty acid analysis, DGGE, T-RFLP and SSCP. One chapter examines high-throughput sequencing, and provides important information on the associated procedures required for thorough data analysis. A further chapter is devoted to the characterisation of protistan communities, while the closing chapter describes multiplex fluorescent antibody microarrays for detecting microbial biomarkers. Hydrocarbon and Lipid Microbiology Protocols There are tens of thousands of structurally different hydrocarbons, hydrocarbon derivatives and lipids, and a wide array of these molecules are required for cells to function. The global hydrocarbon cycle, which is largely driven by microorganisms, has a major impact on our environment and climate. Microbes are responsible for cleaning up the environmental pollution caused by the exploitation of hydrocarbon reservoirs and will also be pivotal in reducing our reliance on fossil fuels by providing biofuels, plastics and industrial chemicals. Gaining an understanding of the relevant functions of the wide range of microbes that produce, consume and modify hydrocarbons and related compounds will be key to responding to these challenges. This comprehensive collection of current and emerging protocols will facilitate acquisition of this understanding and exploitation of useful activities of such microbes.
The Argentinean Patagonia offers a great diversity of scarcely explored environments suitable for the bioprospection of biotechnological relevant microorganisms. This book provides readers with a concise and clearly illustrated treatment of outstanding topics of Patagonian microbiology and biotechnology. It covers a wide range of areas interesting to several audiences such as researchers, graduate students and professionals working on the industry food. Among the main topics we will discuss examples of environmental applications, such as heavy metal and hydrocarbon bioremediation, bioprospection of valuable molecules from extremophilic bacteria and yeasts, the use of Patagonian yeasts and lactic acid bacteria in fermented foods and beverages, aquaculture probiotics and yeasts for food biopreservation.
This book presents the latest results related to photocatalytic inactivation/killing of microorganisms, which is a promising alternative disinfection method that produces less or even no disinfection byproduct. The book is divided into 13 chapters, which introduce readers to the latest developments in the photocatalytic disinfection of microorganisms, examine essential photocatalytic (PC) and photoelectrocatalytic (PEC) disinfection studies, and forecast and make recommendations for the further development of PC and PEC disinfection. Bringing together contributions by various leading research groups worldwide, it offers a valuable resource for researchers and the industry alike, as well as the general public. Taicheng An, PhD, is Chair Professor and Director at the Institute of Environmental Health and Pollution Control, School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Guangdong University of Technology, Guangzhou, China. Huijun Zhao, PhD, is Chair Professor and Director at the Centre for Clean Environment and Energy & Griffith School of Environment, Griffith University, Australia. Po Keung Wong, PhD, is a Professor at the School of Life Sciences, the Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR, China.
This volume provides state-of-the-art and novel methods on antibiotic isolation and purification, identification of antimicrobial killing mechanisms, and methods for the analysis and detection of microbial adaptation strategies. Antibiotics: Methods and Protocols guides readers through chapters on production and design, mode of action, and response and susceptibility. Written in the highly successful Methods in Molecular Biology series format, chapters include introductions to their respective topics, lists of the necessary materials and reagents, step-by-step, readily reproducible laboratory protocols, and tips on troubleshooting and avoiding known pitfalls. Authoritative and cutting-edge, Antibiotics: Methods and Protocols aims to inspire scientific work in the exciting field of antibiotic research.
Twenty years have elapsed since that last book was published dedicated to biological control of nematodes and to this day a robust commercially successful biological control agent for plant parasitic nematodes is not routinely used. Soil supressive to plant nematodes is a well established phenomenon and yet we clearly do not understand the ecology of it sufficiently well to manipulated it in a way that we can predicatively control these important plant pests. During the last 20 years there has also been a revolution in molecular biology and we now have many techniques available to us that were only just beginning to be developed when his original book was published. Traditional biological control scientists do not really have a clear understanding of what molecular biology can deliver and molecular biologists do not really understand the problems confronting biological control scientists. It has become increasingly apparent that each of these groups needed to walk around in each others shoes for a while, so to speak, and try and get an understanding of where each other were coming from and what may or may not be possible. The current volume focuses on a number of areas that are of importance in the area of plant parasitic nematode soil ecology, based on the multitrophic interactions between plant, nematodes and natural enemies, and also host parasite interactions, plant -- nematode, nematode -- natural enemy, that can now be dissected at the molecular level. By bringing all these areas together within the covers of a single book we hoped to build cohesion between these disciplines and help understand what might be possible from the point of view of biological control.
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