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A virologist's insight into how viruses evolve and why global epidemics are inevitable.
In 1993 a previously healthy young man was drowning in the middle of a desert, in fluids produced by his own lungs. This was the beginning of the terrifying Sin Nombre hantavirus epidemic and the start of a scientific journey that would forever change our understanding of what it means to be human. After witnessing the Sin Nombre outbreak, Dr Frank Ryan began researching viral evolution and was astonished to discover that it's inextricable from the evolution of all life on Earth. From AIDS and Ebola to the common cold, Ryan explores the role of the virus within every ecosystem on the planet.
His gripping conclusions shed new light on the natural world, proving that what doesn't kill you really does make you (and your species) stronger.
A journey through the history and science of epidemics and pandemics – from measles to coronavirus.
For centuries mankind has waged war against the infections that, left untreated, would have the power to wipe out communities, or even entire populations. Yet for all our advanced scientific knowledge, only one human disease – smallpox – has ever been eradicated globally. In recent years, outbreaks of Ebola and Zika have provided vivid examples of how difficult it is to contain an infection once it strikes, and the panic that a rapidly spreading epidemic can ignite.
But while we chase the diseases we are already aware of, new ones are constantly emerging, like the coronavirus that spread across the world in 2020. At the same time, anti-microbial resistance is harnessing infections that we once knew how to control, enabling them to thrive once more.
Meera Senthilingam presents a timely look at humanity’s ongoing battle against infection, examining the successes and failures of the past, along with how we are confronting the challenges of today, and our chances of eradicating disease in the future.
CNN chief medical correspondent Sanjay Gupta, MD, offers an accessible, data-packed answer to our biggest questions about Covid-19: What have we learned about this pandemic and how can we prepare for—or prevent—the next one?
As America’s favorite frontline Covid-19 health journalist, Dr. Sanjay Gupta has barely left his primetime seat in his makeshift studio basement since the pandemic began (other than to perform brain surgery). He’s had the insider of insider access to the drama’s unfolding, including exclusive conversations with the world’s top public health experts and behind-the-scenes scientists racing to find treatments and cures. And now he’s sharing what he’s learned in a book that will answer not only all our questions about what happened, but also about how our world will change in the years ahead, even once we’re back to “normal.”
Gupta argues that we need to prepare for a new era where pandemics will be more frequent, and possibly even more deadly. As the doctor who’s been holding America’s hand through the crisis with compassion, clarity, and well-earned wisdom, he gives you the unvarnished story behind the pandemic, including insights about the novel virus’s behavior, and offers practical tools to ready ourselves for what lies ahead. He answers critical questions: Can we stamp out the virus for good (and if not, how do we live with it)? Should we put our parents in a nursing home? Where should we live? What should we stockpile? What should we know before taking a trip? Does it make sense to spend more on health insurance to deal with any long-term effects? How do you decide when it’s safe to go to a public pool or schedule elective surgery? What should Covid survivors know about protecting their future health? What if you become a long-hauler with chronic health challenges stemming?
World War C will give you hope for the future along with real information that leaves you more resilient and secure.
For those who could read between the lines, the censored news out of China was terrifying. But the president insisted there was nothing to worry about. Fortunately, we are still a nation of skeptics. Fortunately, there are those among us who study pandemics and are willing to look unflinchingly at worst-case scenarios.
Michael Lewis’s taut and brilliant nonfiction thriller pits a band of medical visionaries against the wall of ignorance that was the official response of the Trump administration to the outbreak of COVID-19. The characters you will meet in these pages are as fascinating as they are unexpected.
A thirteen-year-old girl’s science project on transmission of an airborne pathogen develops into a very grown-up model of disease control. A local public-health officer uses her worm’s-eye view to see what the CDC misses, and reveals great truths about American society. A secret team of dissenting doctors, nicknamed the Wolverines, has everything necessary to fight the pandemic: brilliant backgrounds, world-class labs, prior experience with the pandemic scares of bird flu and swine flu…everything, that is, except official permission to implement their work.
Michael Lewis is not shy about calling these people heroes for their refusal to follow directives that they know to be based on misinformation and bad science. Even the internet, as crucial as it is to their exchange of ideas, poses a risk to them. They never know for sure who else might be listening in.
Collins Big Cat supports every primary child on their reading journey from phonics to fluency. Top authors and illustrators have created fiction and non-fiction books that children love to read. Levelled for guided and independent reading, each book includes ideas to support reading. Teaching and assessment support and eBooks are also available. When Tara Binns opens her dressing up box something exciting happens ... Tara Binns is a microbiologist! Something is causing chaos in the scientists' greenhouse ... and everything Tara touches seems to fall apart! Can she corner the culprit and get to the root of the problem? This exciting title in the Tara Binns mini-series is written by Lisa Rajan. Copper/Band 12 books provide more complex plots and longer chapters that develop reading stamina. Text type: An adventure story Ideas for reading in the back of the book provide practical support and stimulating activities.
Please note this version is for instructors only; students and bookstores should purchase 9780815346102. As with the first edition, this new edition of Living in a Microbial World is written for students taking a general microbiology course, or a microbiology-based course for non-science majors. The conversational style and use of practical, everyday examples make the essential concepts of microbiology accessible to a wide audience. While using this approach, the text maintains scientific rigor with clear explanations spanning the breadth of microbiology, including health, evolution, ecology, food production, biotechnology, and industrial processes. Each chapter contains a series of case studies based on microbiology in the news, in history, and in literature. There are questions at the end of each case study and the end of each chapter, as well as an online quiz with help on answering the questions. The text, questions, and cases have been updated to reflect the changing influence of microbiology in the world today, from the microbiome, to new disease outbreaks (Ebola and Zika) and antibiotic resistance, to new biotechnology tools (CRISPR-Cas). Living in a Microbial World, Second Edition is additionally supported by the Garland Science Learning System. This homework platform is designed to evaluate and improve student performance and allows instructors to select assignments on specific topics and review the performance of the entire class, as well as individual students, via the instructor dashboard. Students receive immediate feedback on their mastery of the topics, and will be better prepared for lectures and classroom discussions. The user-friendly system provides a convenient way to engage students while assessing progress. Performance data can be used to tailor classroom discussion, activities, and lectures to address students' needs precisely and efficiently. For more information and sample material, visit http://garlandscience.rocketmix.com/. Living in a Microbial World, Second Edition comes with a full range of supplements: The Garland Science Learning System Images available in PowerPoint and JPEG Testbank Online quiz with answers and feedback Extra modules Help answering the end-of-chapter questions Animations Media guide Online glossary
'A perfect blend of cutting-edge science and compelling storytelling. Daniel Davis has a rare knack for making complex science comprehensible and thrilling' BILL BRYSON Welcome to a revolution in the science of you. Recent and dramatic breakthroughs in our understanding of the body will profoundly change the experience of being human in the coming century. Already they are opening up boundary-breaking possibilities for intervention at every level, from our brains and genes to our microbiomes and immune systems. These will confer unprecedented powers over health, childhood development, our cognitive and physical abilities, and affect every aspect of how we live our lives and think about ourselves. As the secrets of our bodies are revealed, we all will face previously unthinkable choices with consequences we have yet to understand. Imagine knowing years in advance the precise likelihood of developing specific cancers, thanks to a bespoke understanding of every cell in your body; following a diet and health regime tailored to your microbiome; continuous monitoring of your body's workings and well-being; taking drugs that improve your cognition and help to acquire new skills; manipulating the genes of your unborn children to eliminate disease or even enhance their capabilities. Written by an award-winning scientist at the forefront of this work, The Secret Body shows how these radical and disconcerting possibilities have been made real thanks to the ingenious technologies and decades-long collaborations of scientists worldwide. A gripping drama of discovery and a landmark account of this dawning revolution, it presents a vision of the human body of dizzying complexity, wonder and possibility. 'A beautifully rendered picture of the startling new discoveries in human biology which are radically altering our understanding of how we function and what our future holds' BRIAN COX 'An extraordinary journey that reveals the magnificence, intricacy and beauty of the human body, fundamentally changing the way we see ourselves. Masterful' ALICE ROBERTS
Parasites and infectious diseases are everywhere and represent some of the most potent forces shaping the natural world. They affect almost every aspect imaginable in the life of their hosts, even as far as the structure of entire ecosystems. Hosts, in turn, have evolved complex defences, with immune systems being among the most sophisticated processes known in nature. In response, parasites have again found ways to manipulate and exploit their hosts. Ever since life began, hosts and parasites have taken part in this relentless co-evolutionary struggle with far-reaching consequences for us all. Today, concepts borrowed from evolution, ecology, parasitology, and immunology have formed a new synthesis for the study of host-parasite interactions. Evolutionary parasitology builds on these established fields of scientific enquiry but also includes some of the most successful inter-disciplinary areas of modern biology such as evolutionary epidemiology and ecological immunology. The first edition of this innovative text quickly became the standard reference text for this new discipline. Since then, the field has progressed rapidly and an update is now required. This new edition has been thoroughly revised to provide a state-of-the-art overview, from the molecular bases to adaptive strategies and their ecological and evolutionary consequences. It includes completely new material on topics such as microbiota, evolutionary genomics, phylodynamics, within-host evolution, epidemiology, disease spaces, and emergent diseases. Evolutionary Parasitology is suitable for advanced undergraduates, graduate level students, and interdisciplinary researchers from a variety of fields including immunology, genetics, sexual selection, population ecology, behavioural ecology, epidemiology, and evolutionary biology. Those studying and working in adjacent fields such as conservation biology, virology, medicine, and public health will also find it an invaluable resource for connecting to the bases of their science.
Over 90% of bacterial biomass exists in the form of biofilms. The ability of bacteria to attach to surfaces and to form biofilms often is an important competitive advantage for them over bacteria growing in suspension. Some biofilms are good in natural and engineered systems; they are responsible for nutrient cycling in nature and are used to purify waters in engineering processes. Other biofilms are bad when they cause fouling and infections of humans and plants. Whether we want to promote good biofilms or eliminate bad biofilms, we need to understand how they work and what works to control them. Mathematical models help us understand the complex phenomena that occur in biofilms. In recent years, biofilm modelling has rapidly advanced, resulting in a diversity of modeling approaches and tools. On the one hand, complex three-dimensional biofilm models can describe many aspects of the formation of heterogeneous biofilms. On the other hand, it is not always necessary to use such complex models. Simple models - ones that can be solved easily with a spreadsheet sometimes provide the information we need.Mathematical Modeling of Biofilms provides guidelines for the selection and use of mathematical models of biofilms. The whole range of existing models -- from simple analytical expressions to complex numerical models -- is covered. The application of the models for the solution of typical problems is demonstrated, and the performance of the models is tested in comparative studies. With the dramatic evolution of the computational capacity still going on, modeling tools for research and practice will become more and more significant in the next few years. This report provides the foundation to understand the models and to select the most appropriate one for a given use. The different types of biofilm models are described and compared for specific applications. For example, mathematical models often are used to quantify substrate conversion in biofilm reactors used for water treatment. A different application is for describing how heterogeneous biofilms develop in time and space. Mathematical Modeling of Biofilms gives a state-of-the-art overview that is especially valuable for educating students, new biofilm researchers, and design engineers.Through a series of three benchmark problems, the report demonstrates how to use the different models and indicates when simple or highly complex models are most appropriate.
Microbial quality of water is a prime public health concern in today's world. To protect public health, the World Health Organization and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency have established microbial pollution indicator standards and recommended routine monitoring of water for both total and fecal coliforms (Dufour, 1984, U.S. EPA 1986,1994, WHO 1993). However, the adequacy of current water quality standards to indicate the presence or absence of human pathogens is still questionable. For example, human viruses are more resistant to sewage treatment processes and environmental conditions than bacterial indicators and therefore may pose a substantial threat. It is now recognized that the absence, or a low concentration, of indicator organisms in water may not adequately reflect the absence of human viruses. In our previous study of southern California coastal waters, we found over 30% of coastal waters tested contained human viruses, and the presence of these viruses did not correlate with an elevated level of bacterial indicators (Jiang et al. 2000). The goal of this research is to develop and validate a molecular method for rapid and specific detection of microbial contaminants including human viruses and bacterial indicators in treated sewage effluents and receiving waters. Research Outcomes An extensive search and review of current state of technology for molecular alternatives to indicator and viral pathogen detection was conducted. The results indicate that although real-time PCR methods have been widely applied in the clinical research for detection of human viruses, environmental application of this method is very limited. In addition, there is an urgent need for a method for efficient concentration and purification of human viruses in complex environmental matrixes. During this study, we have designed, tested and optimized real-time quantitative PCR method using specific and degenerate primers and probes targeting at adenoviruses and enterococci, respectively. Experimental testing of real time PCR primers and probes for adenoviruses demonstrated reproducible results at efficiency greater than 90% over a 5-log dynamic range of target concentration. The enterococci real time PCR was efficient at 99% of the time and over a 7-log dynamic range of target concentration. Application of these methods to sewage effluents and coastal waters demonstrated that real-time PCR methods are more sensitive than culturing methods at detection of targets, suggesting a great potential for real-time quantification of microbial contaminants in environments. However, real-time PCR based method, like other genome based detection technology, overestimates the concentration of infectious viral concentration in the environment. In addition to the method development for real-time PCR detection, we have also sampled and isolated human adenoviruses from Newport Bay, California using human embryonic kidney cells, 293A. Cloning and sequencing of selective environmental adenovirus hexon gene suggested that most of the viruses recovered from the environment belong to adenovirus serotype 40 (66%). This result is in agreement with clinical data on the load of viral shedding in feces. Since adenovirus serotypes 40 and 41 are the major cause of childhood diarrhea, the result of this investigation indicates the importance of monitoring water for viral quality. Comparison of four different tissue culture cell lines for their sensitivities to adenoviruses infection has demonstrated that the genetically engineered 293A cells are the most efficient at recovery of adenoviruses 40. This result is a significant contribution to our ability to assay for infectious adenoviruses in environmental samples.
Basic and applied microbiology gives a fresh perspective on microbiology. It deals with some of the important issues of the day, including genetically modified food; the increased incidence of food- and waterborne diseases and their control; the introduction of HACCP legislation worldwide; microbial resistance to antimicrobial compounds and the development of multiple drug-resistant organisms; the alleviation of environmental pollution using bioremediation and biofouling; and biocorrosion in water systems, to mention just a few. The title is supported by an e-learning platform with a comprehensive set of animations explaining the basic concepts. The Web portal accompanying the book also provides a gateway to carefully selected Internet sites, unlocking the world of microbiology for the experienced microbiologist and the uninitiated alike.
Preventing Legionellosis covers the biology of Legionella and presents a comprehensive review of best practices for legionellosis prevention from around the world. Recent outbreaks, climbing incidence rates and pending lawsuits have raised public awareness about legionellosis, a serious, preventable form of pneumonia that can be contracted from water systems in buildings. Legionellosis has harmed millions of people worldwide and causes annual monetary losses in the billions. However, to really understand the effects of the disease, one must listen carefully as the victims, or their survivors, describe the suffering they have endured. Victims who recover from legionellosis often suffer severe pulmonary disease that can cause long-term or permanent damage. Debilitating effects to kidneys and in the nervous system can occur within days after becoming infected. Therefore, curing the acute illness is not nearly good enough. Prevention of the disease is necessary. Fundamentally, legionellosis is evidence of the failure to properly maintain water systems. It is the only cause of serious pneumonia that people get from their building's water systems. Most cases result from inadequate water treatment and poor water system management. Commercial conflicts of interest often impede correct action for the prevention of legionellosis. Legionellosis is preventable. The biological hazard caused by Legionella bacteria in water systems can be eliminated or reduced to acceptable levels under operating conditions. Many thousands of legionellosis cases could be prevented each year if hazard control methods were used within the context of well-designed hazard analysis and control plans. Every building water facility should have a water management plan and budget that includes water safety. Preventing Legionellosis provides concise detail for: . Improving awareness and education . Implementing water management plans . Mitigating against commercial conflict of interest The book will give the scientific basis for the worldwide technical consensus on the prevention of legionellosis. It will be an invaluable source of information for public health administrators, epidemiologists, infection control professionals, facility safety managers, industrial hygienists, and academic engineers and scientists.
Drinking water provides an efficient source for the spread of gastrointestinal microbial pathogens capable of causing serious human disease. The massive death toll and burden of disease worldwide caused by unsafe drinking water is a compelling reason to value the privilege of having safe drinking water delivered to individual homes. On rare occasions, that privilege has been undermined in affluent nations by waterborne disease outbreaks traced to the water supply. Using the rich and detailed perspectives offered by the evidence and reports from the Canadian public inquiries into the Walkerton (2000) and North Battleford (2001) outbreaks to develop templates for understanding their key dimensions, over 60 waterborne outbreaks from 15 affluent countries over the past 30 years are explored as individual case studies. Recurring themes and patterns are revealed and the critical human dimensions are highlighted suggesting insights for more effective and more individualized preventive strategies, personnel training, management, and regulatory control. Safe Drinking Water aims to raise understanding and awareness of those factors that have most commonly contributed to or caused drinking-water-transmitted disease outbreaks - essentially a case-history analysis within the multi-barrier framework. It contains detailed analysis of the failures underlying drinking-water-transmitted disease epidemics that have been documented in the open literature, by public inquiry, in investigation reports, in surveillance databases and other reliable information sources. The book adopts a theme of 'converting hindsight into foresight', to inform drinking-water and health professionals including operators, managers, engineers, chemists and microbiologists, regulators, as well as undergraduates and graduates at specialty level. Key Features: Contains details and perspectives of major outbreaks not widely known or understood beyond those directly involved in the investigations. Technical and scientific background associated with case studies is offered in an accessible summary form. Does not require specialist training or experience to comprehend the details of the numerous outbreaks reviewed. By providing a broad-spectrum review using a consistent approach, several key recurring themes are revealed that offer insights for developing localized, tailor-made prevention strategies.
For readers of Plague of Corruption, Thomas S. Cowan, MD, and Sally Fallon Morell ask the question: are there really such things as "viruses"? Or are electro smog, toxic living conditions, and 5G actually to blame for COVID-19? The official explanation for today's COVID-19 pandemic is a "dangerous, infectious virus." This is the rationale for isolating a large portion of the world's population in their homes so as to curb its spread. From face masks to social distancing, from antivirals to vaccines, these measures are predicated on the assumption that tiny viruses can cause serious illness and that such illness is transmissible person-to-person. It was Louis Pasteur who convinced a skeptical medical community that contagious germs cause disease; his "germ theory" now serves as the official explanation for most illness. However, in his private diaries he states unequivocally that in his entire career he was not once able to transfer disease with a pure culture of bacteria (he obviously wasn't able to purify viruses at that time). He admitted that the whole effort to prove contagion was a failure, leading to his famous death bed confession that "the germ is nothing, the terrain is everything." While the incidence and death statistics for COVID-19 may not be reliable, there is no question that many people have taken sick with a strange new disease--with odd symptoms like gasping for air and "fizzing" feelings--and hundreds of thousands have died. Many suspect that the cause is not viral but a kind of pollution unique to the modern age--electromagnetic pollution. Today we are surrounded by a jangle of overlapping and jarring frequencies--from power lines to the fridge to the cell phone. It started with the telegraph and progressed to worldwide electricity, then radar, then satellites that disrupt the ionosphere, then ubiquitous Wi-Fi. The most recent addition to this disturbing racket is fifth generation wireless--5G. In The Truth About Contagion: Exploring Theories of How Disease Spreads, bestselling authors Thomas S. Cowan, MD, and Sally Fallon Morell explore the true causes of COVID-19. On September 26, 2019, 5G wireless was turned on in Wuhan, China (and officially launched November 1) with a grid of about ten thousand antennas--more antennas than exist in the whole United States, all concentrated in one city. A spike in cases occurred on February 13, the same week that Wuhan turned on its 5G network for monitoring traffic. Illness has subsequently followed 5G installation in all the major cities in America. Since the dawn of the human race, medicine men and physicians have wondered about the cause of disease, especially what we call "contagions," numerous people ill with similar symptoms, all at the same time. Does humankind suffer these outbreaks at the hands of an angry god or evil spirit? A disturbance in the atmosphere, a miasma? Do we catch the illness from others or from some outside influence? As the restriction of our freedoms continues, more and more people are wondering whether this is true. Could a packet of RNA fragments, which cannot even be defined as a living organism, cause such havoc? Perhaps something else is involved--something that has upset the balance of nature and made us more susceptible to disease? Perhaps there is no "coronavirus" at all; perhaps, as Pasteur said, "the germ is nothing, the terrain is everything."
Principles of Virology, the leading virology textbook in use, is an extremely valuable and highly informative presentation of virology at the interface of modern cell biology and immunology. This text utilizes a uniquely rational approach by highlighting common principles and processes across all viruses. Using a set of representative viruses to illustrate the breadth of viral complexity, students are able to under-stand viral reproduction and pathogenesis and are equipped with the necessary tools for future encounters with new or understudied viruses. This fifth edition was updated to keep pace with the ever-changing field of virology. In addition to the beloved full-color illustrations, video interviews with leading scientists, movies, and links to exciting blogposts on relevant topics, this edition includes study questions and active learning puzzles in each chapter, as well as short descriptions regarding the key messages of references of special interest. Volume I: Molecular Biology focuses on the molecular processes of viral reproduction, from entry through release. Volume II: Pathogenesis and Control addresses the interplay between viruses and their host organisms, on both the micro- and macroscale, including chapters on public health, the immune response, vaccines and other antiviral strategies, viral evolution, and a brand new chapter on the therapeutic uses of viruses. These two volumes can be used for separate courses or together in a single course. Each includes a unique appendix, glossary, and links to internet resources. Principles of Virology, Fifth Edition, is ideal for teaching the strategies by which all viruses reproduce, spread within a host, and are maintained within populations. This edition carefully reflects the results of extensive vetting and feedback received from course instructors and students, making this renowned textbook even more appropriate for undergraduate and graduate courses in virology, microbiology, and infectious diseases.
This updated final volume in the best-selling series of reference works features descriptions of more than 200 genera in 49 families and includes a revised taxonomic outline for the Actinobacteria as well as many medically and industrially important taxa.
Since the identification of the first cases of the coronavirus in December 2019, there has been a significant amount of confusion regarding the origin and spread of the so-called 'coronavirus', SARS-CoV-2, and the cause of the disease COVID-19. Conflicting messages from the media and officials across different countries and organizations, the abundance of disparate sources of information, unfounded conspiracy theories on the origins of the virus, unproven therapies, and inconsistent public health measures, have all served to increase anxiety in the population. Where did the virus come from? How is it transmitted? How does it cause disease? Is it like flu? What is a pandemic? In this concise and accessible introduction, a leading expert provides answers to these commonly asked questions. This revised and updated edition now also covers how the virus mutates, how important these mutations are, how vaccines work, and what we can expect in the near and long-term future.
Coronavirus Disease: From Origin to Outbreak provides a comprehensive review of coronaviruses, particularly COVID-19, its transmission, and disease pathology. The book covers the viral structure and genetics of coronaviruses, the pathogenesis and unique characteristics of coronavirus infection, and the evolving nature of our understanding of coronaviruses and disease. It also looks at the history of SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV infections and its global spread. The book examines the effectiveness of various preventive measures and new therapeutic agents that are either currently available or expected to available. Finally, it details the psychological and societal impact the virus and disease has in outbreak regions and what the financial impact an outbreak has on the healthcare system and local economies.
The Urostyloidea are a large group of hypotrichs comprising limnetic, marine, and terrestrial species in well-known genera like Holosticha, Urostyla, and Pseudokeronopsis. Holosticha pullaster is one of the most common hypotrichs in freshwater and the sea.
This monograph is the second of a series treating the hypotrichs, a major part of the spirotrichous ciliates. The urostyloids are characterised by a zigzag-arrangement of the ventral cirri. Like the first part of the series, the Oxytrichidae, it summarises the morphological, morphogenetic, faunistic, and ecological data from the past 230 years, scattered in more than 1300 references from all over the world. Dichotomous keys lead to 36 genera and subgenera comprising 153 species illustrated by more than 2100 figures, including original ones. The treatise offers taxonomists, cell biologists, and ecologists a thorough and up-to-date revision because for each species a detailed list of synonyms, a discussion of the nomenclature and systematics, and an extensive description of the morphology and ecology, including almost all published faunistic records, are provided. With the monographs of the Urostyloidea and the Oxytrichidae the interested scientist can identify more than 320 species of hypotrichs, which are an important component of the eukaryotic microbial life in limnetic, marine, and terrestrial habitats.
This updated text collects all the introductory aspects of beer brewing science into one place for undergraduate brewing science courses. This expansive and detailed work is written in conversational style, walking students through all the brewing basics from the origin and history of beer to the brewing process to post-brew packaging and quality control and assurance. As an introductory text, this book assumes the reader has no prior knowledge of brewing science and only limited experience with chemistry, biology and physics. The text provides students with all the necessary details of brewing science using a multidisciplinary approach, with a thorough and well-defined program of in-chapter and end-of-chapter problems. As students solve these problems, they will learn how scientists think about beer and brewing and develop a critical thinking approach to addressing concerns in brewing science. As a truly comprehensive introduction to brewing science, Brewing Science: A Multidisciplinary Approach, Second Edition walks students through the entire spectrum of the brewing process. The different styles of beer, the molecular makeup and physical parameters, and how those are modified to provide different flavors are listed. All aspects of the brewery process, from the different setup styles to sterility to the presentation of the final product, are outlined in full. All the important brewing steps and techniques are covered in meticulous detail, including malting, mashing, boiling, fermenting and conditioning. Bringing the brewing process full circle, this text covers packaging aspects for the final product as well, focusing on everything from packaging technology to quality control. Students are also pointed to the future, with coverage of emerging flavor profiles, styles and brewing methods. Each chapter in this textbook includes a sample of related laboratory exercises designed to develop a student's capability to critically think about brewing science. These exercises assume that the student has limited or no previous experience in the laboratory. The tasks outlined explore key topics in each chapter based on typical analyses that may be performed in the brewery. Such exposure to the laboratory portion of a course of study will significantly aid those students interested in a career in brewing science.
The book elucidates the role of inorganic polyphosphates in eukaryotic cells, from fungi and protozoa to human being. To date, there is plenty of evidence that these anionic biopolymers occurring in the cells of all living organisms, from bacteria to humans, perform numerous regulatory functions. The book describes the evolution of PolyPs, their role in lower eukaryotes and their involvement in various processes in the human organism, as well as its use in biomaterials such as bioactive glass and engineered bone tissue. The aim of this book is to summarize the data of the past decade on the functional role of inorganic polyphosphates in eukaryotes and discuss their biological role also in context of common human diseases. The book will provide a modern concept of the functional significance of these biopolymers, useful for researchers in cell biology, biochemistry, molecular biology and biomedicine alike.
This book offers authoritative contributions by world experts actively working on different aspects of phototrophic prokaryotes. Providing up-to-date information in this rapidly advancing field, it covers the range of topics that are currently the focus of research with this group of organisms. As essentially single-celled organisms, phototrophic prokaryotes process many environmental signals and use this information to optimize their metabolism, growth rate, DNA replication and cell division. Phototrophic prokaryotes are collectively of great interest for a number of different fundamental and applied perspectives and have long served as models for understanding such basic fundamental biological processes as photosynthesis and respiration. On an ecological/environmental level they are extremely important, being the most abundant photosynthetic organisms on earth and responsible for the majority of the primary productivity in the oceans. They also hold great promise as biotechnological catalysts, being able to couple solar energy conversion through photosynthesis and carbon fixation to the production of biofuels, commodity chemicals and neutraceuticals. The book is recommended to advanced students and scientists dealing with life sciences, especially in genetics, microbiology and molecular biology.
This book focuses on food security in sustainable agriculture and nutrient management. The study of plant probiotic microbes' synergism using existing techniques has greatly improved our grasp of the structure and functioning of the plant microbiome. However, the function of plant probiotic microbes and their relation to plants' health in the context of food security, soil nutrient management, human and plant health are largely unexplored. Compared to human probiotics, diverse types and millions of microbiota inhabit plants, forming multifaceted and complicated ecological societies that stimulate plant growth and health through their combined metabolic activities. From the perspective of sustainable cropping systems, observing plant probiotics can provide insights on how to stimulate and maintain plant productivity, along with host stress tolerance and recycling of soil nutrients. This book combines reviews and original research articles to highlight the latest advances in plant probiotics, their specificity, diversity, function, as well as plant microbiome management to improve plant growth and productivity, nutrient management and human health.
This book comprehensively discusses the latest research in the area of metabolic engineering. Metabolic engineering solutions for bioactive compounds are now being derived by means of heterologous gene expression, in a wide range of organisms. The book provides an overview of the model systems being employed for metabolic manipulation to yield bioactive molecules, such as single-cell proteins, antibody generation, metabolites, proteases, chaperones, therapeutic proteins, nanomaterials, polymeric conjugates, dendrimers and nanoassemblies, Escherichia coli, Agrobacterium, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and cell lines, etc. In addition, it shares insights into the scope of these methods in the areas of prevention, diagnosis and treatment of diseases, e.g. immunotherapy for curing various diseases like cancer, allergies, autoimmune diseases, etc.
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