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This is the second edition of Freshwater Algae; the popular guide to temperate freshwater algae. This book uniquely combines practical information on sampling and experimental techniques with an explanation of basic algal taxonomy plus a key to identify the more frequently-occurring organisms. Fully revised, it describes major bioindicator species in relation to key environmental parameters and their implications for aquatic management. This second edition includes: the same clear writing style as the first edition to provide an easily accessible source of information on algae within standing and flowing waters, and the problems they may cause the identification of 250 algae using a key based on readily observable morphological features that can be readily observed under a conventional light microscope up-to-date information on the molecular determination of taxonomic status, analytical microtechniques and the potential role of computer analysis in algal biology upgrades to numerous line drawings to include more detail and extra species information, full colour photographs of live algae including many new images from the USA and China Bridging the gap between simple identification texts and highly specialised research volumes, this book is used both as a comprehensive introduction to the subject and as a laboratory manual. The new edition will be invaluable to aquatic biologists for algal identification, and for all practitioners and researchers working within aquatic microbiology in industry and academia.
Knowledge of the evolutionary history of birds has much improved in recent decades. Fossils from critical time periods are being described at unprecedented rates and modern phylogenetic analyses have provided a framework for the interrelationships of the extant groups. This book gives an overview of the avian fossil record and its paleobiological significance, and it is the only up-to-date textbook that covers both Mesozoic and more modern-type Cenozoic birds in some detail. The reader is introduced to key features of basal avians and the morphological transformations that have occurred in the evolution towards modern birds. An account of the Cenozoic fossil record sheds light on the biogeographic history of the extant avian groups and discusses fossils in the context of current phylogenetic hypotheses. This review of the evolutionary history of birds not only addresses students and established researchers, but it may also be a useful source of information for anyone else with an interest in the evolution of birds and a moderate background in biology and geology.
Connections define the functions of neurons: information flows along connections, as well as growth factors and viruses, and even neuronal death may progress through connections. Knowledge of how the various parts of the brain are interconnected to form functional systems is a prerequisite for the proper understanding of data from all fields in the neurosciences.
"Clinical Neuroanatomy: Brain Circuitry and Its Disorders" bridges the gap between neuroanatomy and clinical neurology. It emphasizes human and primate data in the context of disorders of brain circuitry which are so common in neurological practice. In addition, numerous clinical cases demonstrate how normal brain circuitry may be interrupted and to what effect. Following an introduction into the organization and vascularisation of the human brain and the techniques to study brain circuitry, the main neurofunctional systems are discussed, including the somatosensory, auditory, visual, motor, autonomic and limbic systems, the cerebral cortex and complex cerebral functions.
The evolution of high-crowned teeth, hypsodonty, is a defining characteristic of many terrestrial herbivores. To date, the most prominent focus in the study of the teeth of grazing herbivores has been co-evolution with grasses and grasslands. This book develops the idea further and looks at the myriad ways that soil can enter the diet. Madden then expands this analysis to examine the earth surface processes that mobilize sediment in the environment. The text delivers a global perspective on tooth wear and soil erosion, with examples from the islands of New Zealand to the South American Andes, highlighting how similar geological processes worldwide result in convergent evolution. The final chapter includes a review of elodonty in the fossil record and its environmental consequences. Offering new insights into geomorphology and adaptive and evolutionary morphology, this text will be of value to any researcher interested in the evolution of tooth size and shape.
PATTERNS OF LIFE: SPECIAL EDITIONS OF GROUNDBREAKING SCIENCE BOOKS In recent decades human beings have altered the planet beyond anything it has experienced in its 4.5 billion-year history. We have become a force on a par with earth-shattering asteroids and planet-cloaking volcanoes. As a result, our planet is said to be crossing a geological boundary - from the Holocene into the Anthropocene, or the Age of Man. Gaia Vince quit her job to travel the world and to explore what all these changes really mean to our daily lives. She discovers the shocking ways in which we have reshaped our living planet and reveals the ingenious solutions we've evolved to engineer Earth for the future.
Never mind the Ph.D. and middle-class trappings--Laura Pritchett is a Dumpster diver and proud of it. Ever since she was old enough to navigate the contents of a metal bin, she has reveled in the treasures found in other people's cast-offs.
For "Going Green," Pritchett has gathered the work of more than twenty writers to tell their personal stories of Dumpster diving, eating road kill, salvaging plastic from the beach, and forgoing another trip to the mall for the thrill of bargain hunting at yard sales and flea markets. These stories look not just at the many ways people glean but also at the larger, thornier issues dealing with what re-using--or not--says about our culture and priorities.
The essayists speak to the joys of going beyond the norm to save old houses, old dishwater, old cultures, old Popsicle sticks, and old friendships--and turning them into something new. Some write about gleaning as a means of survival, while others see the practice as a rejection of consumerism or as a way of treading lightly on the earth.
Brimming with practical and creative new ways to think about recycling, this collection invites you to dive in and find your own way of going green.
This volume is part of the definitive edition of letters written by and to Charles Darwin, the most celebrated naturalist of the nineteenth century. Notes and appendixes put these fascinating and wide-ranging letters in context, making the letters accessible to both scholars and general readers. Darwin depended on correspondence to collect data from all over the world, and to discuss his emerging ideas with scientific colleagues, many of whom he never met in person. The letters are published chronologically: volume 25 includes letters from 1877, the year in which Darwin published Forms of Flowers and with his son Francis carried out experiments on plant movement and bloom on plants. Darwin was awarded an honorary LL.D. by Cambridge University, and appeared in person to receive it. The volume contains a number of appendixes, including two on the albums of photograph sent to Darwin by his Dutch, German, and Austrian admirers.
This textbook describes recent advances in genomics and bioinformatics and provides numerous examples of genome data analysis that illustrate its relevance to real world problems and will improve the reader's bioinformatics skills. Basic data preprocessing with normalization and filtering, primary pattern analysis, and machine learning algorithms using R and Python are demonstrated for gene-expression microarrays, genotyping microarrays, next-generation sequencing data, epigenomic data, and biological network and semantic analyses. In addition, detailed attention is devoted to integrative genomic data analysis, including multivariate data projection, gene-metabolic pathway mapping, automated biomolecular annotation, text mining of factual and literature databases, and integrated management of biomolecular databases. The textbook is primarily intended for life scientists, medical scientists, statisticians, data processing researchers, engineers, and other beginners in bioinformatics who are experiencing difficulty in approaching the field. However, it will also serve as a simple guideline for experts unfamiliar with the new, developing subfield of genomic analysis within bioinformatics.
This book introduces experimental design and data analysis / interpretation as well as field monitoring skills for both plants and animals. Clearly structured throughout and written in a student-friendly manner, the main emphasis of the book concentrates on the techniques required to design a field based ecological survey and shows how to execute an appropriate sampling regime. The book evaluates appropriate methods, including the problems associated with various techniques and their inherent flaws (e.g. low sample sizes, large amount of field or laboratory work, high cost etc). This provides a resource base outlining details from the planning stage, into the field, guiding through sampling and finally through organism identification in the laboratory and computer based data analysis and interpretation.
The text is divided into six distinct chapters. The first chapter covers planning, including health and safety together with information on a variety of statistical techniques for examining and analysing data. Following a chapter dealing with site characterisation and general aspects of species identification, subsequent chapters describe the techniques used to survey and census particular groups of organisms. The final chapter covers interpreting and presenting data and writing up the research. The emphasis here is on appropriate wording of interpretation and structure and content of the report.
Pollution of freshwater resources becomes an issue in virtually every country undergoing an industrialization process. While the main emphasis has been for many years on lakes due to their limited capacity of self-renewal, streams and rivers attract increasing attention due to their importance for agriculture, fisheries, drinking water reserves and as feeder of freshwater lakes and reservoirs. There are many factors influencing the ecology of streams, only some of them relating to direct anthropogenic influences and it is important to have reliable long term data on natural occurring variations in order to better estimate the default' status of a stream and to judge the influence of modern anthropogenic influences.
The Breitenbach is one of the best-studied streams on earth, as the nearby Max-Planck Outstation in Schlitz was founded in 1949 and scientists there have been collecting data ever since.
"Central European Stream Ecosystems: The Long Term Study of the Breitenbach "is the result of this research, and special focus has been placed on animal and microorganism occurrence and variation as well as chemical and physical parameters. Already this data influences the discussion of the good ecological state' reference values and it will be in particular useful to analyze the effect of global warming on the ecology of streams.
An invaluable data basis for modeling purposes, this important book is a useful resource for everyone in the world dealing with stream ecology, for example limnologists, ecologists, biologists and hydrologists.
What teeth can tell us about human evolution, development, and behavior. Our teeth have intriguing stories to tell. These sophisticated time machines record growth, diet, and evolutionary history as clearly as tree rings map a redwood's lifespan. Each day of childhood is etched into tooth crowns and roots-capturing birth, nursing history, environmental clues, and illnesses. The study of ancient, fossilized teeth sheds light on how our ancestors grew up, how we evolved, and how prehistoric cultural transitions continue to affect humans today. In The Tales Teeth Tell, biological anthropologist Tanya Smith offers an engaging and surprising look at what teeth tell us about the evolution of primates-including our own uniqueness. Humans' impressive set of varied teeth provides a multipurpose toolkit honed by the diet choices of our mammalian ancestors. Fossil teeth, highly resilient because of their substantial mineral content, are all that is left of some long-extinct species. Smith explains how researchers employ painstaking techniques to coax microscopic secrets from these enigmatic remains. Counting tiny daily lines provides a way to estimate age that is more powerful than any other forensic technique. Dental plaque-so carefully removed by dental hygienists today-records our ancestors' behavior and health in the form of fossilized food particles and bacteria, including their DNA. Smith also traces the grisly origins of dentistry, reveals that the urge to pick one's teeth is not unique to humans, and illuminates the age-old pursuit of "dental art." The book is generously illustrated with original photographs, many in color.
Leading authorities in the field review current experimental and theoretical knowledge on criticality and brain function. The book begins by summarizing experimental evidence for criticality and self-organized criticality in the brain. Subsequently, important breakthroughs in modeling of critical neuronal circuits and how to establish self-organized criticality in the brain are described. A milestone publication, defining upcoming directions of research in this new fi eld and set to become the primary source of information on the brain and criticality.
A new framework for the neuroscientific study of emotions in humans and animals The Neuroscience of Emotion presents a new framework for the neuroscientific study of emotion across species. Written by Ralph Adolphs and David J. Anderson, two leading authorities on the study of emotion, this accessible and original book recasts the discipline and demonstrates that in order to understand emotion, we need to examine its biological roots in humans and animals. Only through a comparative approach that encompasses work at the molecular, cellular, systems, and cognitive levels will we be able to comprehend what emotions do, how they evolved, how the brain shapes their development, and even how we might engineer them into robots in the future. Showing that emotions are ubiquitous across species and implemented in specific brain circuits, Adolphs and Anderson offer a broad foundation for thinking about emotions as evolved, functionally defined biological states. The authors discuss the techniques and findings from modern neuroscientific investigations of emotion and conclude with a survey of theories and future research directions. Featuring color illustrations throughout, The Neuroscience of Emotion synthesizes the latest in neuroscientific work to provide deeper insights into how emotions function in all of us.
If you're working on or studying the effects of drug metabolisms, then this reference is for you "Order today and benefit from the special introductory price - full details below."
"Handbook of Metabolic Pathways of Xenobiotics" is an essential new reference which presents the metabolic fate of xenobiotics in animals and plants, and shows the metabolic pathways in the environment.
Presenting a comprehensive guide to understanding the metabolisms of xenobiotics, the "Handbook of Metabolic Pathways of Xenobiotics" spans five volumes: Volumes 1-2 are Review Articles and Volumes 3-5 are Compound Articles. Review Articles present detailed reviews on the techniques and methods used to establish in vitro and in vivo metabolic pathways. Compound Articles are carefully selected lists of key chemicals representing agrochemicals, pharmaceuticals, animal health products and industrial chemicals.
An essential addition to every library, this introduction, guide and catalogue presents:
Current topics in the metabolism of xenobioticsTopics of both scientific and regulatory importance are covered, including in vitro high throughput metabolism screens, computer-aided metabolism predictions, and advances in bioanalytical techniques.
Techniques and methods used in metabolic pathways29 chapters provide an introduction to the understanding of drug metabolism and detail how to establish in vitro and in vivo metabolic pathways.
Biotransformation pathwaysPresented as a catalogue of short articles covering major pharmaceuticals, agrochemicals, animal health products and industrial chemicals. Each article summarizes the chemical properties and uses, and presents a detailed review of the chemical and metabolic pathways in soil, plants and animals.
Over 450 examples of xenobiotics and their fate in animals and plantsEach compound includes systematic information about the metabolic pathway of drugs for human and veterinary medicine, agrochemicals and major industrial chemicals.
Chemical and biological fate dataThe Handbook summarises data from scientific literature, patent literature, industrial resources and regulatory agencies, such as the EPA, FDA, EU, WHO and FAO, in a single reference for the first time.
An essential reference for everyone working and studying pharmacokinetics and drug metabolismCoverage of the chemical and biological reactivity of molecules and primary sub-structures makes this an ideal reference for students and research scientists. The broad and diverse coverage of chemical and biological fate under different exposure and biological compartments make this a useful resource for regulatory and developmental scientists.
Experience the scope of content offered in the "Handbook of Metabolic Pathways of Xenobiotics "for yourself, download these articles today: Review Article: Fundamentals of organic chemistry as applicable to the biotransformation of foreign compoundsReview Article: Metabolic stability screen in drug discovery Review Article: Unusual metabolic reactions and pathwaysCompound Article: Ganoderic acid DCompound Article: MilnacipranCompound Article: TenofovirOrder your copy today and take advantage of this special introductory price: 795.00 / 1030.00 / $1275.00"HURRY This price is only valid until the 30th April 2014." Prices will revert back to 950.00 / 1220.00 / $1495.00 thereafter.
Online Edition Coming Soon Featuring the same great content as the five volume print set, the "Handbook of Metabolic Pathways for Xenobiotics" will be available on Wiley Online Library in summer 2014. The online reference will benefit from the enhanced functionality powered by "The Smart Article" - learn more about "The Smart Article "at wileyonlinelibrary.com/thesmartarticle. Free trials will be available when the Online Edition goes live, bookmark this page or sign-up for regular product alerts at www.wiley.com/email to stay informed.
For much of his thirties, Jesse Bering thought he was probably going to kill himself. He was a successful psychologist and writer, with books to his name and bylines in major magazines. But none of that mattered. The impulse to take his own life remained. At times it felt all but inescapable. Bering survived. And in addition to relief, the fading of his suicidal thoughts brought curiosity. Where had they come from? Would they return? Is the suicidal impulse found in other animals? Or is our vulnerability to suicide a uniquely human evolutionary development? In Suicidal, Bering answers all these questions and more, taking us through the science and psychology of suicide, revealing its cognitive secrets and the subtle tricks our minds play on us when we're easy emotional prey. Scientific studies, personal stories, and remarkable cross-species comparisons come together to help readers critically analyze their own doomsday thoughts while gaining broad insight into a problem that, tragically, will most likely touch all of us at some point in our lives. But while the subject is certainly a heavy one, Bering's touch is light. Having been through this himself, he knows that sometimes the most effective response to our darkest moments is a gentle humor, one that, while not denying the seriousness of suffering, at the same time acknowledges our complicated, flawed, and yet precious existence. Authoritative, accessible, personal, profound--there's never been a book on suicide like this. It will help you understand yourself and your loved ones, and it will change the way you think about this most vexing of human problems.
This is the first comprehensive science-based textbook on the biology and ecology of the Baltic Sea, one of the world's largest brackish water bodies. The aim of this book is to provide students and other readers with knowledge about the conditions for life in brackish water, the functioning of the Baltic Sea ecosystem and its environmental problems and management. It highlights biological variation along the unique environmental gradients of the brackish Baltic Sea Area (the Baltic Sea, Belt Sea and Kattegat), especially those in salinity and climate. pt;font-family:"Arial","sans-serif"; color:#262626">The first part of the book presents the challenges for life processes and ecosystem dynamics that result from the Baltic Sea's highly variable recent geological history and geographical isolation. The second part explains interactions between organisms and their environment, including biogeochemical cycles, patterns of biodiversity, genetic diversity and evolution, biological invasions and physiological adaptations. In the third part, the subsystems of the Baltic Sea ecosystem - the pelagic zone, the sea ice, the deep soft sea beds, the phytobenthic zone, the sandy coasts, and estuaries and coastal lagoons - are treated in detail with respect to the structure and function of communities and habitats and consequences of natural and anthropogenic constraints, such as climate change, discharges of nutrients and hazardous substances. Finally, the fourth part of the book discusses monitoring and ecosystem-based management to deal with contemporary and emerging threats to the ecosystem's health.
Swearing, it turns out, is an incredibly useful part of our linguistic repertoire. Not only has some form of swearing existed since the earliest humans began to communicate, but it has been shown to reduce physical pain, help stroke victims recover their language, and encourage people to work together as a team. Swearing Is Good For You is a spirited and hilarious defence of our most cherished dirty words, backed by historical case studies and cutting-edge research. From chimpanzees creating their own curse words, to a man who lost half his brain in a mining accident experiencing a new-found compulsion to swear - Dr Emma Byrne outlines the fascinating science behind swearing; how it affects us both physically and emotionally, and how it is more natural and beneficial than we are led to believe.
Acclaimed author Matt Ridley's thrilling follow-up to his bestseller Genome. Armed with the extraordinary new discoveries about our genes, Ridley turns his attention to the nature versus nurture debate to bring the first popular account of the roots of human behaviour. What makes us who we are?In February 2001 it was announced that the genome contains not 100,000 genes as originally expected but only 30,000. This startling revision led some scientists to conclude that there are simply not enough human genes to account for all the different ways people behave: we must be made by nurture, not nature. Matt Ridley argues that the emerging truth is far more interesting than this myth. Nurture depends on genes, too, and genes need nurture. Genes not only predetermine the broad structure of the brain; they also absorb formative experiences, react to social cues and even run memory. after the discovery of the double helix of DNA, Nature via Nurture chronicles a new revolution in our understanding of genes. Ridley recounts the hundred years' war between the partisans of nature and nurture to explain how this paradoxical creature, the human being, can be simultaneously free-willed and motivated by instinct and culture. Nature via Nurture is an enthralling, up-to-the-minute account of how genes build brains to absorb experience.
"The Starry Night, a painting by Vincent Van Gogh, is the most famous painting for which the subject is the background: the night sky. In this book, Leslie Dikeni, just like Van Gogh, brings to life the voices of the destitute and the silent found in communities around the Kruger National Park as they offer contrasting narratives of their experience with the Park to those of the bureaucracy of the Park and those who have benefited from the flora and fauna of the Kruger National Park." --Dr Lufuno Marwala
We are in the midst of a biological revolution. Molecular tools are now providing new means of critically testing hypotheses and models of microevolution in populations of wild, cultivated, weedy and feral plants. They are also offering the opportunity for significant progress in the investigation of long-term evolution of flowering plants, as part of molecular phylogenetic studies of the Tree of Life. This long-awaited fourth edition, fully revised by David Briggs, reflects new insights provided by molecular investigations and advances in computer science. Briggs considers the implications of these for our understanding of the evolution of flowering plants, as well as the potential for future advances. Numerous new sections on important topics such as the evolutionary impact of human activities, taxonomic challenges, gene flow and distribution, hybridisation, speciation and extinction, conservation and the molecular genetic basis of breeding systems will ensure that this remains a classic text for both undergraduate and graduate students in the field.
A place of exceptional diversity, rapid change, and high energy, Europe has literally been at the crossroads of the world ever since the interaction of Asia, North America and Africa formed the tropical island archipelago that would become the continent of today. In this unprecedented evolutionary history, Tim Flannery shows how for the past 100 million years Europe has absorbed wave after wave of immigrant species; taking them in, transforming them, and sometimes hybridising them. Flannery reveals how, in addition to playing a vital role in the evolution of our own species, Europe was once the site of the formation of the first coral reefs, the home of some of the world's largest elephants, and now has more wolves than North America. This groundbreaking book charts the history of the land itself and the forces shaping life on it - including modern humans - to create a portrait of a continent that continues to exert a huge influence on the world today.
Our relentless drive to create makes us unique among living creatures. What is special about the human brain that enables us to innovate? Why don't cows choreograph dances? Why don't squirrels build elevators to their treetops? Why don't alligators invent speedboats? Weaving together the arts and sciences, neuroscientist David Eagleman and composer Anthony Brandt explore the need for novelty, the simulation of possible futures, and the social components that drive the inventiveness of our species. Taking us on a tour of human creativity from Picasso to concept cars to umbrellas to lunar travel, Brandt and Eagleman explore the cognitive software that generates new ideas, and illuminate the key facets of a creative mentality. Through understanding our ability to innovate - our most profound, mysterious, and deeply human capacity - we can meet the challenge of remaking our constantly shifting world.
As scientific inquiry and public interest in the adolescent brain grows, so too does the need for an accessible textbook that communicates the growing research on this topic. The Neuroscience of Adolescence is a comprehensive educational tool for developmental cognitive neuroscience students at all levels as it details the varying elements that shape the adolescent brain. Historical notions of adolescence have focused on the significant hormonal changes that occur as one transitions from childhood to adolescence, but new research has revealed a more nuanced picture that helps inform our understanding of how the brain functions across the lifespan. By emphasizing the biological and neurobiological changes that occur during adolescence, this book gives students a holistic understanding of this developmental window and uniquely discusses the policy implications of neuroscience research on the lives of young people today.
"How Do You Feel?" brings together startling evidence from neuroscience, psychology, and psychiatry to present revolutionary new insights into how our brains enable us to experience the range of sensations and mental states known as feelings. Drawing on his own cutting-edge research, neurobiologist Bud Craig has identified an area deep inside the mammalian brain--the insular cortex--as the place where interoception, or the processing of bodily stimuli, generates feelings. He shows how this crucial pathway for interoceptive awareness gives rise in humans to the feeling of being alive, vivid perceptual feelings, and a subjective image of the sentient self across time. Craig explains how feelings represent activity patterns in our brains that signify emotions, intentions, and thoughts, and how integration of these patterns is driven by the unique energy needs of the hominid brain. He describes the essential role of feelings and the insular cortex in such diverse realms as music, fluid intelligence, and bivalent emotions, and relates these ideas to the philosophy of William James and even to feelings in dogs.
"How Do You Feel?" is also a compelling insider's account of scientific discovery, one that takes readers behind the scenes as the astonishing answer to this neurological puzzle is pursued and pieced together from seemingly unrelated fields of scientific inquiry. This book will fundamentally alter the way that neuroscientists and psychologists categorize sensations and understand the origins and significance of human feelings.
An essential book for all those who conduct animal-based research or are involved in education and training, as well as regulators, supporters, and opponents alike. This fully updated third edition includes discussion of genetically altered animals and associated welfare and ethical issues that surround the breeding programmes in animal based research. The book discusses the origins of vivisection, the advances in human and non-human welfare made possible by animal experimentation, moral objections, and alternatives to the use of animals in research. It also examines the regulatory umbrella under which experiments are conducted in Europe, USA and Australasia. The author highlights the future responsibilities of researchers who will be working with animals, and offers practical advice on experimental design, literature search, consultation with colleagues, and the importance of the ongoing search for alternatives.
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