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Surface bio-contamination has become a severe problem that contributes to outbreaks of community acquired and nosocomial infections through contiguous fomite transmission of diseases. Every year, thousands of patients die due to nosocomial infections by pathogens. It is therefore essential to develop novel strategies to prevent or improve the treatment of biomaterial concomitant infections. The concept of antimicrobial materials is becoming increasingly important not only in the hospital and healthcare environments, but also for laboratories, home appliances, and certain industrial applications. Materials are now being developed to prevent the buildup, spread and transfer of harmful microbes, and to dynamically deactivate them. Drawing on research and examples from around the world, this book highlights the latest advances in, and applications of, antibacterial biomaterials for biomedical devices, and focuses on metals with antibacterial coatings/surfaces, antibacterial stainless steels and other commonly used antibacterial materials. It also discusses the role of innovative approaches and provides a comprehensive overview of cutting-edge research on the processing, properties and technologies involved in the development of antimicrobial applications. Given its scope, the book will be of interest to researchers and policymakers, as well as undergraduate and graduate students of biochemistry, microbiology, and environmental chemistry
For a century, social scientists have avoided genetics like the plague. But the nature-nurture wars are over. In the past decade, a small but intrepid group of economists, political scientists, and sociologists have harnessed the genomics revolution to paint a more complete picture of human social life than ever before. The Genome Factor describes the latest astonishing discoveries being made at the scientific frontier where genomics and the social sciences intersect. The Genome Factor reveals that there are real genetic differences by racial ancestry--but ones that don't conform to what we call black, white, or Latino. Genes explain a significant share of who gets ahead in society and who does not, but instead of giving rise to a genotocracy, genes often act as engines of mobility that counter social disadvantage. An increasing number of us are marrying partners with similar education levels as ourselves, but genetically speaking, humans are mixing it up more than ever before with respect to mating and reproduction. These are just a few of the many findings presented in this illuminating and entertaining book, which also tackles controversial topics such as genetically personalized education and the future of reproduction in a world where more and more of us are taking advantage of cheap genotyping services like 23andMe to find out what our genes may hold in store for ourselves and our children. The Genome Factor shows how genomics is transforming the social sciences--and how social scientists are integrating both nature and nurture into a unified, comprehensive understanding of human behavior at both the individual and society-wide levels.
The Affymetrix GeneChip (R) system is one of the most widely adapted microarray platforms. However, due to the overwhelming amount of information available, many Affymetrix users tend to stick to the default analysis settings and may end up drawing sub-optimal conclusions. Written by a molecular biologist and a biostatistician with a combined decade of experience in practical expression profiling experiments and data analyses, Gene Expression Studies Using Affymetrix Microarrays tears down the omnipresent language barriers among molecular biology, bioinformatics, and biostatistics by explaining the entire process of a gene expression study from conception to conclusion. Truly Multidisciplinary: Merges Molecular Biology, Bioinformatics, and Biostatistics This authoritative resource covers important technical and statistical pitfalls and problems, helping not only to explain concepts outside the domain of researchers, but to provide additional guidance in their field of expertise. The book also describes technical and statistical methods conceptually with illustrative, full-color examples, enabling those inexperienced with gene expression studies to grasp the basic principles. Gene Expression Studies Using Affymetrix Microarrays provides novices with a detailed, yet focused introductory course and practical user guide. Specialized experts will also find it useful as a translation dictionary to understand other involved disciplines or to get a broader picture of microarray gene expression studies in general. Although focusing on Affymetrix gene expression, this globally relevant guide covers topics that are equally useful for other microarray platforms and other Affymetrix applications.
Few people have done as much to change how we view the world as Charles Darwin. Yet On the Origin of Species is more cited than read. Some of it is considered outdated; in some ways, it has been consigned to the nineteenth century. In The Theory That Changed Everything, the renowned cognitive scientist Philip Lieberman demonstrates that there is no better guide to the world's living things than Darwin, as the phenomena that he observed are still being explored at the frontiers of science. In a wide-ranging voyage from Darwin's transformative trip aboard the Beagle to Lieberman's own sojourns in the remotest regions of the Himalayas, this book relates contemporary findings to the major concepts of Darwinian theory. Drawing on his own research into the evolution of human linguistic and cognitive abilities, Lieberman explains the paths that adapted human anatomy to language, the acrobatics of the lungs and larynx and a tongue that facilitates speech at the cost of the peril of choking. He demystifies the role of recently identified transcriptional and epigenetic factors encoded in DNA, explaining how nineteenth-century Swedish famines alternating with years of plenty caused survivors' grandchildren to die many years short of their life expectancy. Lieberman is equally at home decoding supermarket shelves and climbing with the Sherpas as he discusses how natural selection explains features from lactose tolerance to ease of breathing at Himalayan altitudes. With conversational clarity and memorable examples, Lieberman relates the insights that led to groundbreaking discoveries in both Darwin's time and our own while asking provocative questions about what Darwin would have made of controversial issues today.
Developed by internationally renowned neurosurgeons, this unique book is designed for students of psychology and the biological sciences, and medical, dental, and nursing students.
The human genome is the complete set of human genetic information, stored as DNA sequences within the 23 chromosome pairs of the cell nucleus and in a small DNA molecule within the mitochondrion. In this publication, the authors present topical research in the study of the components, structural and functional disorders; and ethical issues of the human genome. Topics discussed include critical events in the pathobiology of cancer and the compilation of major biomarkers enabling improved diagnosis; and the evolution of human genome analysis and its impact on disease diagnosis and molecular diagnostics.
Metacommunity ecology links smaller-scale processes that have been the provenance of population and community ecology--such as birth-death processes, species interactions, selection, and stochasticity--with larger-scale issues such as dispersal and habitat heterogeneity. Until now, the field has focused on evaluating the relative importance of distinct processes, with niche-based environmental sorting on one side and neutral-based ecological drift and dispersal limitation on the other. This book moves beyond these artificial categorizations, showing how environmental sorting, dispersal, ecological drift, and other processes influence metacommunity structure simultaneously. Mathew Leibold and Jonathan Chase argue that the relative importance of these processes depends on the characteristics of the organisms, the strengths and types of their interactions, the degree of habitat heterogeneity, the rates of dispersal, and the scale at which the system is observed. Using this synthetic perspective, they explore metacommunity patterns in time and space, including patterns of coexistence, distribution, and diversity. Leibold and Chase demonstrate how these processes and patterns are altered by micro- and macroevolution, traits and phylogenetic relationships, and food web interactions. They then use this scale-explicit perspective to illustrate how metacommunity processes are essential for understanding macroecological and biogeographical patterns as well as ecosystem-level processes. Moving seamlessly across scales and subdisciplines, Metacommunity Ecology is an invaluable reference, one that offers a more integrated approach to ecological patterns and processes.
Much of the evolutionary debate since Darwin has focused on the level at which natural selection occurs. Most biologists acknowledge multiple levels of selection - from the gene to the species. The debate about group selection, however, is the focus of Mark E. Borrello's "Evolutionary Restraints". Tracing the history of biological attempts to determine whether selection leads to the evolution of fitter groups, Borrello takes as his focus the British naturalist V. C. Wynne-Edwards, who proposed that animals could regulate their own populations and thus avoid overexploitation of their resources. By the mid-twentieth century, Wynne-Edwards became an advocate for group selection theory and led a debate that engaged the most significant evolutionary biologists of his time, including Ernst Mayr, G. C. Williams, and Richard Dawkins. This important dialogue bled out into broader conversations about population regulation, environmental crises, and the evolution of human social behavior. By examining a single facet of the long debate about evolution, Borrello provides powerful insight into an intellectual quandary that remains relevant and alive to this day.
Sharing the discoveries that enabled her to successfully heal from her cancer, tumors, toxicity, and inflammatory-related conditions, the author explains how genes are not solely responsible for creating disease. She shows how human physiology interacts with the quantum energies of our external and personal environments and how the resulting information triggers the development and persistence of disease and chronic conditions. We each inherit susceptibilities, but it is our unique experience of these environmental factors, as well as our beliefs, thoughts, and emotions, that alter the way our genes are expressed. Detailing how our DNA is both quantum-energetic and biological-chemical, Hawk explains how your environment and your consciousness influence your quantum DNA, which in turn interacts with your biological DNA. By working directly with energetic information that affects how your quantum and biological DNA communicate, you can alter the expression of your genes by re-encoding the gene sequences on your physical DNA, erasing the imprint of illness and enabling your body to remember how to function properly.
Dendrites are complex neuronal structures that receive and integrate synaptic input from other nerve cells. They therefore play a critical role in brain function. Although dendrites were discovered over a century ago, due to the development of powerful new techniques there has been a dramatic resurgence of interest in the properties and function of these beautiful structures. This is the third edition of the first book devoted exclusively to dendrites. It contains a comprehensive survey of the current state of dendritic research across a wide range of topics, from dendritic morphology, evolution, development, and plasticity through to the electrical, biochemical and computational properties of dendrites, and finally to the key role of dendrites in brain disease. The third edition has been thoroughly revised, with the addition of a number of new chapters and comprehensive updates or rewrites of existing chapters by leading experts. "Dendrites" will be of interest to researchers and students in neuroscience and related fields, as well as to anyone interested in how the brain works.
Tumors and Cancers: Skin - Soft Tissue - Bone - Urogenitals provides succinct reviews of neoplastic growths disrupting normal functions of affected structures. Each chapter presents a state of the art summary of tumor/cancer of a particular type in relation to its biology, epidemiology, disease mechanisms, clinical signs, diagnosis, treatment and prognosis.
Why people are not as gullible as we think Not Born Yesterday explains how we decide who we can trust and what we should believe-and argues that we're pretty good at making these decisions. In this lively and provocative book, Hugo Mercier demonstrates how virtually all attempts at mass persuasion-whether by religious leaders, politicians, or advertisers-fail miserably. Drawing on recent findings from political science and other fields ranging from history to anthropology, Mercier shows that the narrative of widespread gullibility, in which a credulous public is easily misled by demagogues and charlatans, is simply wrong. Why is mass persuasion so difficult? Mercier uses the latest findings from experimental psychology to show how each of us is endowed with sophisticated cognitive mechanisms of open vigilance. Computing a variety of cues, these mechanisms enable us to be on guard against harmful beliefs, while being open enough to change our minds when presented with the right evidence. Even failures-when we accept false confessions, spread wild rumors, or fall for quack medicine-are better explained as bugs in otherwise well-functioning cognitive mechanisms than as symptoms of general gullibility. Not Born Yesterday shows how we filter the flow of information that surrounds us, argues that we do it well, and explains how we can do it better still.
Compared to animals, plants have been largely neglected in evolutionary developmental biology. Mainstream research has focused on developmental genetics, while a rich body of knowledge in comparative morphology is still to be exploited. No integrated account is available. In this volume, Minelli fills this gap using the same approach he gave to animals, revisiting traditional concepts and providing an articulated analysis of genetic and molecular data. Topics covered include leaf complexity and the evolution of flower organs, handedness, branching patterns, flower symmetry and synorganization, and less conventional topics such as fractal patterns of plant organization. Also discussed is the hitherto neglected topic of the evolvability of temporal phenotypes like a plant's annual, biennial or perennial life cycle, flowering time and the timing of abscission of flower organs. This will be informative reading for anyone in the field of plant evo-devo, from students to lecturers and researchers.
Humankind's fascination with the animal kingdom began as a matter of survival - differentiating the edible from the toxic, the ferocious from the tractable. Since then, our compulsion to catalogue wildlife has played a key role in growing our understanding of the planet and ourselves, inspiring religious beliefs and evolving scientific theories. The book unveils wild truths and even wilder myths about animals, as perpetuated by zoologists - revealing how much more there is to learn, and unlearn. Long before Darwin, our ancestors were obsessed with the visual similarities and differences between the animals. Early scientists could sense there was an order that unified all life and formulated a variety of schemes to help illustrate this. This human quest to classify living beings has left us with a rich artistic legacy, from the folklore and religiosity of the ancient and Medieval world through the naturalistic cataloging of the Enlightenment to the modern, computer-generated classificatory labyrinth. This book tells the fascinating, visual story of this process. The wonderful zoological charts reflect prevailing artistic trends and scientific discoveries, as well as telling us as much about ourselves as they do about the creatures depicted.
The maintenance of telomeres-repetitive sequences at the end of chromosome-is essential to health. Dysfunction in telomere maintenance pathways plays a role in aging, cancer, atherosclerosis and other diseases. This has led to telomere maintenance as a prime target for patient therapies. This book describes the advances in telomere research as it applies to human health and especially how lifestyle and dietary factors could modify the telomerase maintenance process. The book examines the mechanisms involved, the primary of which are oxidative stress and the role of sirtuins, and how they can be modified by dietary patterns such as Mediterranean diet.
Cyberpsychology is a relatively new discipline that is growing at an alarming rate. While a number of cyberpsychology-related journals and books have emerged, none directly address the neuroscience behind it. This book proposes a framework for integrating neuroscience and cyberpsychology for the study of social, cognitive, and affective processes, and the neural systems that support them. A brain-based cyberpsychology can be understood as a branch of psychology that studies the neurocognitive, affective, and social aspects of humans interacting with technology, as well as the affective computing aspects of humans interacting with computational devices or systems. As such, a cyberpsychologist working from a brain-based cyberpsychological framework studies both the ways in which persons make use of devices and the neurocognitive processes, motivations, intentions, behavioural outcomes, and effects of online and offline uses of technology. Cyberpsychology and the Brain brings researchers into the vanguard of cyberpsychology and brain research.
A lavishly illustrated look at how evolution plays out in selective breeding Unnatural Selection is a stunningly illustrated book about selective breeding--the ongoing transformation of animals at the hand of man. More important, it's a book about selective breeding on a far, far grander scale-a scale that encompasses all life on Earth. We'd call it evolution. A unique fusion of art, science, and history, this book celebrates the 150th anniversary of Charles Darwin's monumental work The Variation of Animals and Plants under Domestication, and is intended as a tribute to what Darwin might have achieved had he possessed that elusive missing piece to the evolutionary puzzle-the knowledge of how individual traits are passed from one generation to the next. With the benefit of a century and a half of hindsight, Katrina van Grouw explains evolution by building on the analogy that Darwin himself used-comparing the selective breeding process with natural selection in the wild, and, like Darwin, featuring a multitude of fascinating examples. This is more than just a book about pets and livestock, however. The revelation of Unnatural Selection is that identical traits can occur in all animals, wild and domesticated, and both are governed by the same evolutionary principles. As van Grouw shows, animals are plastic things, constantly changing. In wild animals the changes are usually too slow to see-species appear to stay the same. When it comes to domesticated animals, however, change happens fast, making them the perfect model of evolution in action. Suitable for the lay reader and student, as well as the more seasoned biologist, and featuring more than four hundred breathtaking illustrations of living animals, skeletons, and historical specimens, Unnatural Selection will be enjoyed by anyone with an interest in natural history and the history of evolutionary thinking.
If humans are to understand and discover ways of addressing complex social and ecological problems, we first need to find intimacy with our particular places and communities. Cultivating a relationship to place often includes a negotiating process that involves both science and sensibility. While science is one key part of an adaptive and resilient society, the cultivation of a renewed sense of place and community is essential as well. Science and Sensibility argues for the need for ecology to engage with philosophical values and economic motivations in a political process of negotiation, with the goal of shaping humans' treatment of the natural world. Michael Vincent McGinnis aims to reframe ecology so it might have greater "trans-scientific" awareness of the roles and interactions among multiple stakeholders in socioecological systems, and he also maintains that deep ecological knowledge of specific places will be crucial to supporting a sustainable society. He uses numerous specific case studies from watershed, coastal, and marine habitats to illustrate how place-based ecological negotiation can occur, and how reframing our negotiation process can influence conservation, restoration, and environmental policy in effective ways.
In the post-genomic era SAGE (Serial Analysis of Gene Expression) is one of the most powerful tools available for global expression profiling at the mRNA level (transcriptome analysis). SAGE is also a valuable tool for gene discovery and gene network identification. Written by recognized experts in the field, this timely and authoritative volume reviews every aspect of SAGE technology including the evaluation of SAGE, the improvement and further development of SAGE methodology, the statistical analysis and mathematical modeling of SAGE data, and the practical application of SAGE in eukaryotic organisms, stem cell research, brain cells analysis, and much more.
Research on personality psychology is making important contributions to psychological science and applied psychology. This second edition of The Cambridge Handbook of Personality Psychology offers a one-stop resource for scientific personality psychology. It summarizes cutting-edge personality research in all its forms, including genetics, psychometrics, social-cognitive psychology, and real-world expressions, with informative and lively chapters that also highlight some areas of controversy. The team of renowned international authors, led by two esteemed editors, ensures a wide range of theoretical perspectives. Each research area is discussed in terms of scientific foundations, main theories and findings, and future directions for research. The handbook also features advances in technology, such as molecular genetics and functional neuroimaging, as well as contemporary statistical approaches. An invaluable aid to understanding the central role played by personality in psychology, it will appeal to students, researchers, and practitioners in psychology, behavioral neuroscience, and the social sciences.
The only account written during the original enclosure, Life Under Glass tells the story of the original crew that lived and worked inside the Biosphere 2 structure for two years, where they recycled their air, water, food, and wastes, setting a world record for time spent in a closed ecological system and gaining valuable insights for confronting climate change and environmental degradation. In Life Under Glass, Biosphere 2 crew members, Abigail Alling and Mark Nelson with co-captain Sally Silverstone present the full account of their remarkable two year enclosure, written while inside. From the struggles of growing their own food, to learning how to help sustain their life-giving atmosphere, the general reader is offered a rare glimpse into how a group of dedicated researchers managed to surprise the world and fulfill their dream. In this updated edition, a new chapter reflects on the legacy of Biosphere 2 and the state of related scientific progress. Other crews will come and go, but no one else will face the risks, the uncertainties, and the challenges that this new breed of explorers did on Biosphere 2's maiden voyage. Here is the fascinating story of how it all appeared-living under glass.
Spontaneous resting-state fluctuations in neuronal activity offer insights into the inherent organization of the human brain, and may provide markers for diagnosis and treatment of mental disorders. Resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) can be used to investigate intrinsic functional connectivity networks, which are identified based on similarities in the signal measured from different brain regions. From data acquisition to interpretation of results, Introduction to Resting State fMRI Functional Connectivity discusses a wide range of approaches without requiring any previous knowledge of resting state fMRI, making it highly accessible to readers from a broad range of backgrounds. Supplemented with online datasets and examples to enable the reader to obtain hands-on experience working with real data, this primer provides a practical and approachable introduction for those new to the field of resting state fMRI. The Oxford Neuroimaging Primers are short texts aimed at new researchers or advanced undergraduates from the biological, medical or physical sciences. They are intended to provide a thorough understanding of the ways in which neuroimaging data can be analyzed and how that relates to acquisition and interpretation. Each primer has been written so that it is a stand-alone introduction to a particular area of neuroimaging, and the primers also work together to provide a comprehensive foundation for this increasingly influential field.
How do our brains enable us to tell and follow stories? And how do stories affect our minds? In Stories and the Brain, Paul B. Armstrong analyzes the cognitive processes involved in constructing and exchanging stories, exploring their role in the neurobiology of mental functioning. Armstrong argues that the ways in which stories order events in time, imitate actions, and relate our experiences to others' lives are correlated to cortical processes of temporal binding, the circuit between action and perception, and the mirroring operations underlying embodied intersubjectivity. He reveals how recent neuroscientific findings about how the brain works-how it assembles neuronal syntheses without a central controller-illuminate cognitive processes involving time, action, and self-other relations that are central to narrative. An extension of his previous book, How Literature Plays with the Brain, this new study applies Armstrong's analysis of the cognitive value of aesthetic harmony and dissonance to narrative. Armstrong explains how narratives help the brain negotiate the neverending conflict between its need for pattern, synthesis, and constancy and its need for flexibility, adaptability, and openness to change. The neuroscience of these interactions is part of the reason stories give shape to our lives even as our lives give rise to stories. Taking up the age-old question of what our ability to tell stories reveals about language and the mind, this truly interdisciplinary project should be of interest to humanists and cognitive scientists alike.
Current theories about human memory have been shaped by clinical observations and animal experiments. This doctrine holds that the medial temporal lobe subserves one memory system for explicit or declarative memories, while the basal ganglia subserves a separate memory system for implicit or procedural memories, including habits. Cortical areas outside the medial temporal lobe are said to function in perception, motor control, attention, or other aspects of executive function, but not in memory. 'The Evolution of Memory Systems' advances dramatically different ideas on all counts. It proposes that several memory systems arose during evolution and that they did so for the same general reason: to transcend problems and exploit opportunities encountered by specific ancestors at particular times and places in the distant past. Instead of classifying cortical areas in terms of mutually exclusive perception, executive, or memory functions, the authors show that all cortical areas contribute to memory and that they do so in their own ways-using specialized neural representations. The book also presents a proposal on the evolution of explicit memory. According to this idea, explicit (declarative) memory depends on interactions between a phylogenetically ancient navigation system and a representational system that evolved in humans to represent one's self and others. As a result, people embed representations of themselves into the events they experience and the facts they learn, which leads to the perception of participating in events and knowing facts. 'The Evolution of Memory Systems' is an important new work for students and researchers in neuroscience, psychology, and biology.
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