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Ecological economics is an increasingly important subject that addresses the current conflict between positive economic growth and negative environmental consequences. In this state-of-the-art two-volume set, the editors, both leading scholars in their field, have selected the most important recently published papers on the subject. This authoritative collection will be a vital resource for researchers and practitioners in ecological economics, human ecology, industrial ecology and environmental sciences.
Religions and mythologies from around the world teach that God or gods created humans. Atheist, humanist, and materialist critics, meanwhile, have attempted to turn theology on its head, claiming that religion is a human invention. In this book, E. Fuller Torrey draws on cutting-edge neuroscience research to propose a startling answer to the ultimate question. Evolving Brains, Emerging Gods locates the origin of gods within the human brain, arguing that religious belief is a by-product of evolution. Based on an idea originally proposed by Charles Darwin, Torrey marshals evidence that the emergence of gods was an incidental consequence of several evolutionary factors. Using data ranging from ancient skulls and artifacts to brain imaging, primatology, and child development studies, this book traces how new cognitive abilities gave rise to new behaviors. For instance, autobiographical memory, the ability to project ourselves backward and forward in time, gave Homo sapiens a competitive advantage. However, it also led to comprehension of mortality, spurring belief in an alternative to death. Torrey details the neurobiological sequence that explains why the gods appeared when they did, connecting archaeological findings including clothing, art, farming, and urbanization to cognitive developments. This book does not dismiss belief but rather presents religious belief as an inevitable outcome of brain evolution. Providing clear and accessible explanations of evolutionary neuroscience, Evolving Brains, Emerging Gods will shed new light on the mechanics of our deepest mysteries.
An enchanting biography of the most resonant - and most necessary - chemical element on Earth. Carbon. It's in the fibres in your hair, the timbers in your walls, the food that you eat and the air that you breathe. It's worth billions as a luxury and half a trillion as a necessity, but there are still mysteries yet to be solved about the element that can be both diamond and coal. Where does it come from, what does it do, and why, above all, does life need it? With sparkling prose and engaging narrative, earth scientist Robert Hazen leads us on a vibrant journey through the origin and evolution of life's most ubiquitous element. The story unfolds in four movements - Earth, Air, Fire and Water - and transports us through 14 billion years of cosmic history. From the outer reaches of the universe to the cliffs of Scotland and into the precious-metal mines of Namibia, Symphony in C is a sweeping chronicle of carbon: the most essential element on Earth.
From the bestselling author of A More Beautiful Question, hundreds of big and small questions that harness the magic of inquiry to tackle challenges we all face--at work, in our relationships, and beyond.
When confronted with almost any demanding situation, the act of questioning can help guide us to smart decisions. By asking questions, we can analyze, learn, and move forward in the face of uncertainty. But "questionologist" Warren Berger says that the questions must be the right ones; the ones that cut to the heart of complexity or enable us to see an old problem in a fresh way.
In The Book of Beautiful Questions, Berger shares illuminating stories and compelling research on the power of inquiry. Drawn from the insights and expertise of psychologists, innovators, effective leaders, and some of the world's foremost creative thinkers, he presents the essential questions readers need to make the best choices when it truly counts, with a particular focus in four key areas: decision-making, creativity, leadership, and relationships.
The powerful questions in this book can help you:
- Identify opportunities in your career or industry
- Generate fresh ideas in business or in your own creative pursuits
- Check your biases so you can make better judgments and decisions
- Do a better job of communicating and connecting with the people around you
Thoughtful, provocative, and actionable, these beautiful questions can be applied immediately to bring about change in your work or your everyday life.
Stem cells and the emerging field of regenerative medicine are at the frontiers of modern medicine. These areas of scientific inquiry suggest that in the future, damaged tissue and organs might be repaired through personalized cell therapy as easily as the body repairs itself, revolutionizing the treatment of numerous diseases. Yet the use of stem cells is fraught with ethical and public policy dilemmas that challenge scientists, clinicians, the public health community, and people of good will everywhere. How shall we deal with these amazing biomedical advances, and how can we talk about potential breakthroughs with both moral and scientific intelligence? This book provides an innovative look at these vexing issues through a series of innovative Socratic dialogues that elucidate key scientific and ethical points in an approachable manner. Addressing the cultural and value issues underlying stem cell research while also educating readers about stem cells' biological function and medical applications, Stem Cell Dialogues features fictional characters engaging in compelling inquiry and debate. Participants investigate the scientific, political, and socioethical dimensions of stem cell science using actual language, analysis, and arguments taken from scientific, philosophical, and popular literature. Each dialogue centers on a specific, recognizable topic, such as the policies implemented by the George W. Bush administration restricting the use of embryonic stem cells; the potential role of stem cells in personalized medicine; the ethics of cloning; and the sale of eggs and embryos. Additionally, speakers debate the use of stem cells to treat paralysis, diabetes, stroke effects, macular degeneration, and cancer. Educational, entertaining, and rigorously researched (with 300 references to scientific literature), Stem Cell Dialogues should be included in any effort to help the public understand the science, ethics, and policy concerns of this promising field.
Acclaimed author Matt Ridley's thrilling follow-up to his bestseller Genome. Armed with the extraordinary new discoveries about our genes, Ridley turns his attention to the nature versus nurture debate to bring the first popular account of the roots of human behaviour. What makes us who we are?In February 2001 it was announced that the genome contains not 100,000 genes as originally expected but only 30,000. This startling revision led some scientists to conclude that there are simply not enough human genes to account for all the different ways people behave: we must be made by nurture, not nature. Matt Ridley argues that the emerging truth is far more interesting than this myth. Nurture depends on genes, too, and genes need nurture. Genes not only predetermine the broad structure of the brain; they also absorb formative experiences, react to social cues and even run memory. after the discovery of the double helix of DNA, Nature via Nurture chronicles a new revolution in our understanding of genes. Ridley recounts the hundred years' war between the partisans of nature and nurture to explain how this paradoxical creature, the human being, can be simultaneously free-willed and motivated by instinct and culture. Nature via Nurture is an enthralling, up-to-the-minute account of how genes build brains to absorb experience.
CCTV for Wildlife Monitoring is a handbook on the use of CCTV in nature watching, conservation and ecological research. CCTV offers a unique ability to monitor wildlife in real time, stream video to the web, capture imagery of fast-moving species or cold animals such as wet otters or fish and maintain monitoring over long periods of time in a diverse array of habitats. Wildlife watchers can take advantage of a huge range of CCTV cameras, recording devices and accessories developed for use in non-wildlife applications. CCTV allows intimate study of animal behaviour not possible with other technologies. With expert experience in engineering, photography and wildlife, Susan Young describes CCTV equipment and techniques, giving readers the confidence to tackle what initially may seem technically challenging. The book enables the reader to navigate the technical aspects of recording: basic analogue, high definition HD-TVI and IP cameras, portable CCTV, digital video recorders (DVR) and video processing by focusing on practical applications. No prior knowledge of CCTV is required - step-by-step information is provided to get anyone started recording wildlife. In-depth methods for recording foxes, badger, deer, otters, small mammals and fish are also included, and the book makes comparisons with trail cameras where appropriate. Examples of recorded footage illustrate the book along with detailed diagrams on camera set-ups and links to accompanying videos on YouTube. Case-studies show real projects, both the equipment used and the results. This book will be of interest to amateur naturalists wishing to have a window into the private world of wildlife, ecological consultants monitoring protected species and research scientists studying animal behaviour.
This book brings together contributions from scientists and educators at the forefront of interdisciplinary research efforts involving neuroscience and education. It includes consideration of what we know about brain function that may be relevant to educational areas including reading, mathematics, music and creativity. The increasing interest of educators in neuroscience also brings dangers with it, as evidenced by the proliferation of neuromyths within schools and colleges. For this reason, it also reviews some of the more prominent misconceptions, as well as exploring how educational understanding can be constructed in the future that includes concepts from neuroscience more judiciously. This book will be of interest to educators, policymakers and scientists seeking fresh perspectives on how we learn. This book was published as a special issue in Educational Research, a journal of the National Foundation for Educational Research (NFER).
If every known species on Earth were a leaf on a tree, the tree would have almost 2 million leaves. Humans are just one leaf on this tree of life. Tree of Life is a dazzling introduction to the incredible variety of life on Earth, from the team behind the bestselling If The World Were a Village. It shows how living things are classified and interconnected, and how a problem with just one part of the tree of life can have devastating consequences for the whole tree. Winner of the American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals Henry Bergh Children's Book Awards 2004.
One of evolution's fundamental questions is how the skein of life on Earth remains unbroken yet is constantly renewed by new species. What accounts for the scientific paradox that all organisms and species are ephemeral, and yet life endures, yielding more advanced players in nature's eternal play? In this riveting work, renowned scientist Niles Eldredge presents a magisterial account of leading thinkers as they wrestle with this paradox over a span of two hundred years.
Eldredge begins in France with Jean Baptiste Lamarck, who in 1802 first framed the overarching question about new species. Giambatista Brocchi followed, bringing in geology and paleontology to expand the question. In 1825, at the University of Edinburgh, Robert Grant and Robert Jameson introduce these astounding ideas to a young medical student named Charles Darwin. Who can doubt that Darwin left for his voyage in 1831 filled with these daring, new ideas about the "transmutation" of species, well cultivated by earlier thinkers tilling this rugged and contentious intellectual ground?
Eldredge revisits Darwin's early insights in South America and his later synthesis of knowledge into the origin of species. He then considers more recent evolutionary thinkers, such as George Gaylord Simpson, Ernst Mayr, and Theodosius Dhobzhansky, concluding with the young, brash graduate students Niles Eldredge and Steven J. Gould, who set science afire with their revolutionary concept of punctuated equilibria and upended accepted evolutionary ideas. Filled with shattering insight into evolutionary biology and told with a rich affection for the tumult of the scientific arena, this new book is destined to become a classic in the field.
The Selfish Gene is a classic exposition of evolutionary thought. In it Professor Dawkins articulates a gene's eye view of evolution - a view giving centre stage to these persistent units of information, and in which organisms can be seen as vehicles for the replication of genes. The book provoked widespread and heated debate, which in part led Dawkins to write The Extended Phenotype, in which he gave a deeper clarification of the central concept of the gene as the unit of selection, as well as contributing his own development of this insight. For the first time, The Extended Selfish Gene brings these two books together, by including two key chapters from The Extended Phenotype. These chapters provide Dawkins's detailed and powerful response to two issues raised by critics of The Selfish Gene: the accusations of genetic determinism (the idea that our behaviour is entirely determined by our genes), and of "adaptationism " (that all traits are indiscriminately perceived to be adaptations resulting from natural selection). While written in particular for the biology community, Dawkins's clarity of expression allows these chapters to be accessible to all who are seriously engaged with the gene's eye view and its implications. The imaginative, powerful, and stylistically brilliant Selfish Gene not only brought the insights of Neo-Darwinism to a wide audience, but galvanized the biology community, generating much debate and stimulating whole new areas of research. Forty years later, its insights remain as significant as on the day it was published. Along with the two extra chapters, The Extended Selfish Gene includes a new epilogue to The Selfish Gene from the author which highlights the relevance of the gene's eye view to evolutionary biology today.
An introduction to the mind-body problem, covering all the proposed solutions and offering a powerful new one. Philosophers from Descartes to Kripke have struggled with the glittering prize of modern and contemporary philosophy: the mind-body problem. The brain is physical. If the mind is physical, we cannot see how. If we cannot see how the mind is physical, we cannot see how it can interact with the body. And if the mind is not physical, it cannot interact with the body. Or so it seems. In this book the philosopher Jonathan Westphal examines the mind-body problem in detail, laying out the reasoning behind the solutions that have been offered in the past and presenting his own proposal. The sharp focus on the mind-body problem, a problem that is not about the self, or consciousness, or the soul, or anything other than the mind and the body, helps clarify both problem and solutions. Westphal outlines the history of the mind-body problem, beginning with Descartes. He describes mind-body dualism, which claims that the mind and the body are two different and separate things, nonphysical and physical, and he also examines physicalist theories of mind; antimaterialism, which proposes limits to physicalism and introduces the idea of qualia; and scientific theories of consciousness. Finally, Westphal examines the largely forgotten neutral monist theories of mind and body, held by Ernst Mach, William James, and Bertrand Russell, which attempt neither to extract mind from matter nor to dissolve matter into mind. Westphal proposes his own version of neutral monism. This version is unique among neutral monist theories in offering an account of mind-body interaction.
50 Great Myths of Human Evolution uses common misconceptions to explore basic theory and research in human evolution and strengthen critical thinking skills for lay readers and students. Examines intriguing-yet widely misunderstood-topics, from general ideas about evolution and human origins to the evolution of modern humans and recent trends in the field Describes what fossils, archaeology, and genetics can tell us about human origins Demonstrates the ways in which science adapts and changes over time to incorporate new evidence and better explanations Includes myths such as "Humans lived at the same time as dinosaurs;" "Lucy was so small because she was a child;" "Our ancestors have always made fire;" and "There is a strong relationship between brain size and intelligence" Comprised of stand-alone essays that are perfect for casual reading, as well as footnotes and references that allow readers to delve more deeply into topics
A descriptive account of the flowering plants and ferns native and
naturalised in Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda, together with
information on exotic ornamental and crop plants. At least one
species in each genus is illustrated, and the bibliography and
synonymy are sufficiently detailed to explain nomenclature and
taxonomic circumscriptions within a broad regional context. The
Flora is a part work published in paperback fascicles.
This fourth, greatly enlarged edition of a bestselling title is now neatly divided into three volumes. The text has been thoroughly updated and expanded by around 30 %. The result is an essential reference work - almost 12,000 entries provide a comprehensive overview of genomics, transcriptomics and proteomics. Each entry is accompanied by an extensive explanation including a complete listing of synonyms and acronyms, and most entries also contain cross-references to related terms. All formulas have been professionally redrawn to create a uniform style, and the majority of figures are custom designed for the dictionary.
The Dictionary of Genomics, Transcriptomics and Proteomics, Fourth Edition is a must-have reference for every gene technologists, biotechnologists and cell biologists. It is also of interest for the biotechnological industry, and a useful addition to the bookshelf of every university and company library.
It's a Jungle in There pursues the hypothesis that the overarching theory of biology, Darwin's theory, should be the overarching theory of cognitive psychology. David Rosenbaum, a cognitive psychologist and former editor of the Journal of Experimental Psychology, proposes that the phenomena of cognitive psychology can be understood as emergent interactions among neural elements that compete and cooperate in a kind of inner jungle. This perspective allows Rosenbaum to present cognitive psychology in a new way, both for students (for whom the book is mainly intended) and for seasoned investigators (who may be looking for a fresh way to approach and understand their material). Rather than depicting the discipline as a rag-tag collection of miscellaneous facts, as has generally been the case in textbooks, this book presents cognitive psychology under a single rubric: "It's a jungle in there." Making continual reference to hypothetical neural creatures eking out their livings in a tough environment, the book offers an over-arching principle that will both entertain readers and motivate more in-depth study of the mind and brain.
Known world-wide as the standard introductory text to this important and exciting area, the seventh edition of Gene Cloning and DNA Analysis addresses new and growing areas of research whilst retaining the philosophy of the previous editions. Assuming the reader has little prior knowledge of the subject, its importance, the principles of the techniques used and their applications are all carefully laid out, with over 250 clearly presented four-colour illustrations. In addition to a number of informative changes to the text throughout the book, the chapters on DNA sequencing and genome studies have been rewritten to reflect the continuing rapid developments in this area of DNA analysis: * In depth description of the next generation sequencing methods and descriptions of their applications in studying genomes and transcriptomes * New material on the use of ChiP-seq to locate protein-binding sites * Extended coverage of the strategies used to assemble genome sequences * Description of how the Neanderthal genome has been sequenced and what that sequence tells us about interbreeding between Neanderthals and Homo sapiens Gene Cloning and DNA Analysis remains an essential introductory text to a wide range of biological sciences students; including genetics and genomics, molecular biology, biochemistry, immunology and applied biology. It is also a perfect introductory text for any professional needing to learn the basics of the subject. All libraries in universities where medical, life and biological sciences are studied and taught should have copies available on their shelves.
While the field of vision science has grown significantly in the past three decades, there have been few comprehensive books that showed readers how to adopt a computional approach to understanding visual perception, along with the underlying mechanisms in the brain. Understanding Vision explains the computational principles and models of biological visual processing, and in particular, of primate vision. The book is written in such a way that vision scientists, unfamiliar with mathematical details, should be able to conceptually follow the theoretical principles and their relationship with physiological, anatomical, and psychological observations, without going through the more mathematical pages. For those with a physical science background, especially those from machine vision, this book serves as an analytical introduction to biological vision. It can be used as a textbook or a reference book in a vision course, or a computational neuroscience course for graduate students or advanced undergraduate students. It is also suitable for self-learning by motivated readers. in addition, for those with a focused interest in just one of the topics in the book, it is feasible to read just the chapter on this topic without having read or fully comprehended the other chapters. In particular, Chapter 2 presents a brief overview of experimental observations on biological vision; Chapter 3 is on encoding of visual inputs, Chapter 5 is on visual attentional selection driven by sensory inputs, and Chapter 6 is on visual perception or decoding. Including many examples that clearly illustrate the application of computational principles to experimental observations, Understanding Vision is valuable for students and researchers in computational neuroscience, vision science, machine and computer vision, as well as physicists interested in visual processes.
Everything you need to know about Neuroanatomy and Neuroscience at a Glance! Neuroanatomy and Neuroscience at a Glance is a highly illustrated, quick reference guide to the anatomy, biochemistry, physiology and pharmacology of the human nervous system. Each chapter features a summary of the anatomical structure and function of a specific component of the central nervous system, a section on applied neurobiology outlining how to approach a patient with neurological or psychiatric problems aligned to the chapter topic, standard diagnostic procedures for most common scenarios, as well as an overview of treatment and management options. This fully updated and expanded new edition includes: * Dozens of full-page, colour illustrations and neurological scans * Expanded coverage of techniques to study the nervous system * More practical information on the neurological exam * New content on neuropharmacology and drug therapies * Bullet points and bold terms throughout assist with revision and review of the topic Neuroanatomy and Neuroscience at a Glance is the ideal companion for students embarking on a neuroanatomy or neuroscience course, and is an excellent reference tool for those in clinical training. An updated companion website with new clinical cases, multiple choice self-assessment questions, revision slides, and downloadable illustrations and flashcards is available at www.ataglanceseries.com/neuroscience
This is the first publication of its kind for Uganda and provides up-to-date names and synonymy on over 800 species. A conservation assessment is given for each species, and for the 'vulnerable' species, a full page treatment includes a description, illustration, distribution map, graph on flowering/fruiting times, with notes on threats and habitat. This publication will be useful for botanists, conservation workers and CBD enforcers.
Moving beyond ecocomposition, this book galvanizes conversations in ecology and writing not with an eye toward homogenization, but with an agenda of firmly establishing the significance of writing research that intersects with ecology. It looks to establish ecological writing studies not just as a legitimate or important form of writing research, but as paramount to the future of writing studies and writing theory. Complex ecologies, writing studies, and new-media/post-media converge to highlight network theories, systems theories, and posthumanist theories as central in the shaping of writing theory, and this study embraces work in these areas as essential to the development of ecological theories of writing. Contributors address ecological theories of writing by way of diverse and promising avenues, united by the underlying commitment to better understand how ecological methodologies might help better inform our understanding of writing and might provoke new theories of writing. Ecology, Writing Theory, and New Media fuels future theoretical conversations about ecology and writing and will be of interest to those who are interested in theories of writing and the function of writing.
This title includes a number of Open Access chapters. Environmental chemistry is an interdisciplinary field of study that involves the science of ecology as well as chemistry. Environmental chemistry covers the basic chemistry and biochemistry that occur naturally in the world around us. It focuses on the air, water, and land. Environmental science normally begins by determining the chemical reactions that are occurring in the environment when all systems are in balance and then goes on the discover how chemistry has changed when there is an imbalance caused by stress or pollution. The field is constantly changing, with new discoveries being made all the time. The availability of new and more sensitive instruments in analytical science is enabling the detection of smaller and smaller concentrations of pollutants in the environment. This new volume deals with a host of important topics in environmental chemistry, such as pesticide-related illnesses in humans and plants, the effects of litterfall in the soil of tropical forests, toxicants in various bodies of water, and much more.
With an Introduction by Jeff Wallace. 'A grain in the balance will determine which individual shall live and which shall die...'. Darwin's theory of natural selection issued a profound challenge to orthodox thought and belief: no being or species has been specifically created; all are locked into a pitiless struggle for existence, with extinction looming for those not fitted for the task. Yet The Origin of Species (1859) is also a humane and inspirational vision of ecological interrelatedness, revealing the complex mutual interdependencies between animal and plant life, climate and physical environment, and - by implication - within the human world. Written for the general reader, in a style which combines the rigour of science with the subtlety of literature, The Origin of Species remains one of the founding documents of the modern age.
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