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While the sequencing of the human genome was a landmark achievement, the availability and manipulation of such a vast amount of data about our species has inevitably led to questions that are increasingly fundamental and urgent: now that information about human bodies can be transformed into a natural resource, how will and should we interpret and use it? With The Postgenomic Condition, Jenny Reardon draws on more than a decade of research in molecular biology labs, commercial startups, governmental agencies and civic spaces to examine the extensive efforts after the completion of the Human Genome Project to transform genomics from high tech informatics practiced by a few well-financed scientists and engineers to meaningful knowledge beneficial to all people. Through her in-depth profiles of genomic initiatives around the world, we see hopes to forge public knowledge and goods from blood and DNA meet the reality of limited resources and conflicting values. Building the argument around the limits of liberal concepts of openness, information, inclusion, privacy, property and the public concepts that proved salient at different points in the unfolding story of efforts to make sense of human genomes Reardon shows how genomics challenges us to move beyond existing liberal frameworks to ask deeper questions of knowledge and justice. While the news media is filled with grand visions of future designer drugs and babies, The Postgenomic Condition brings richly into view these hard on-the-ground questions about what can be known and who and how we will live on a depleted but data-rich, interconnected yet fractured planet, where technoscience garners disproportionate resources.
The scope of this volume is intentionally broad. We review applications of spatially realistic occupancy models and age- or stage-structured demographic models as well as individual-based demographic models. These three main Population Viability Analysis (PVA) approaches initially are compared with other conservation assessment tools in an overview by Akcakaya, Lacy and Sjogren-Gulve and Hanski, with a special chapter on plant PVAs by Menges, all using illustrative examples. Fleishman et al. subsequently outline how nested subsets analyses can help discern focal species, taxa whose habitat requirements may encompass those of larger species groups and can be subjected to PVAs. Kindvall then compares the predictive accuracy of simpler occupancy models versus a democratic model for predicting local extinctions and colonizations in a bush-cricket metapopulation. Thereafter, four case studies which use the three model categories are presented (papers by Berglind, Ebenhard, Lennartsson, and Vos et al.). The volume concludes with Gardenfors' paper on the use of PVAs in the classification of threatened species, and Lacy's presentation of the structure and logic of VORTEX, a widely used demographic and genetic PVA model.
How our ability to learn from each other has been the essential ingredient to our remarkable success as a species Human beings are a very different kind of animal. We have evolved to become the most dominant species on Earth. We have a larger geographical range and process more energy than any other creature alive. This astonishing transformation is usually explained in terms of cognitive ability--people are just smarter than all the rest. But in this compelling book, Robert Boyd argues that culture--our ability to learn from each other--has been the essential ingredient of our remarkable success. A Different Kind of Animal demonstrates that while people are smart, we are not nearly smart enough to have solved the vast array of problems that confronted our species as it spread across the globe. Over the past two million years, culture has evolved to enable human populations to accumulate superb local adaptations that no individual could ever have invented on their own. It has also made possible the evolution of social norms that allow humans to make common cause with large groups of unrelated individuals, a kind of society not seen anywhere else in nature. This unique combination of cultural adaptation and large-scale cooperation has transformed our species and assured our survival--making us the different kind of animal we are today. Based on the Tanner Lectures delivered at Princeton University, A Different Kind of Animal features challenging responses by biologist Allen Orr, philosopher Kim Sterelny, economist Paul Seabright, and evolutionary anthropologist Ruth Mace, as well as an introduction by Stephen Macedo.
Fish, or lower vertebrates, occupy the basal nodes of the vertebrate phylogeny, and are therefore crucial in interpreting almost every feature of more advanced vertebrates, including amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals. Recent research focuses on combining evolutionary observations - primarily from the fish fossil record - with developmental data from living fishes, in order to better interpret evolutionary history and vertebrate phylogeny. This book highlights the importance of this research in the interpretation of vertebrate evolution, bringing together world-class palaeontologists and biologists to summarise the most interesting, current and cutting-edge topics in fish evolution and development. It will be an invaluable tool for researchers in early vertebrate palaeontology and evolution, and those particularly interested in the interface between evolution and development.
Historians relying on written records can tell us nothing about the 99.9% of human evolution which preceded the invention of writing. It is the study of genetic variation, backed up by language and archaeology, which provides concrete evidence about the spread of farming, the movements of peoples across the globe, the precise links between races - and the sheer unscientific absurdity of racism.Genes, Peoples and Languages offers an astonishing investigation into the past 100,000 years of human history and a rare, firsthand account of some of the most significant and gripping scientific work of recent years. Cavalli-Sforza is one of the great founding fathers of archaeogenetics, and in this book he maps out some of its grand themes.
This book consolidates current knowledge in the field and discusses psychiatric disorders among the elderly, while bridging the gap between clinical practice and the socio-cultural contexts. The book is particularly important in the face of rapidly changing conditions globally and challenges such as migration, war and violence, diminishing physical health due to ageing and their impact on the mental health of elderly. Longevity is a great gift of medical sciences and modern health care and since the benefit of longevity comes with specific mental health issues of the elderly, this book responds to the heightened need to understand and address the mental health challenges of the elderly.
When data from all aspects of our lives can be relevant to our health - from our habits at the grocery store and our Google searches to our FitBit data and our medical records - can we really differentiate between big data and health big data? Will health big data be used for good, such as to improve drug safety, or ill, as in insurance discrimination? Will it disrupt health care (and the health care system) as we know it? Will it be possible to protect our health privacy? What barriers will there be to collecting and utilizing health big data? What role should law play, and what ethical concerns may arise? This timely, groundbreaking volume explores these questions and more from a variety of perspectives, examining how law promotes or discourages the use of big data in the health care sphere, and also what we can learn from other sectors.
An anniversary edition of the classic work that influenced a generation of neuroscientists and cognitive neuroscientists. Before The Computational Brain was published in 1992, conceptual frameworks for brain function were based on the behavior of single neurons, applied globally. In The Computational Brain, Patricia Churchland and Terrence Sejnowski developed a different conceptual framework, based on large populations of neurons. They did this by showing that patterns of activities among the units in trained artificial neural network models had properties that resembled those recorded from populations of neurons recorded one at a time. It is one of the first books to bring together computational concepts and behavioral data within a neurobiological framework. Aimed at a broad audience of neuroscientists, computer scientists, cognitive scientists, and philosophers, The Computational Brain is written for both expert and novice. This anniversary edition offers a new preface by the authors that puts the book in the context of current research. This approach influenced a generation of researchers. Even today, when neuroscientists can routinely record from hundreds of neurons using optics rather than electricity, and the 2013 White House BRAIN initiative heralded a new era in innovative neurotechnologies, the main message of The Computational Brain is still relevant.
Some animals have developed astonishing techniques to hunt and kill their prey. From the humpback whale's bubble nets that capture hundreds of fish, to the komodo dragon's deadly saliva, the creatures featured in this book are equipped with hunting abilities that are unique and extraordinary. Find out more about these masters of predation and learn how evolution has shaped each animal's hunting strategy and killing technique. The Nature's Best series uses vivid, arresting photography paired with captivating animal encounters. It is a thrilling introduction to some of the basics of evolutionary theory.
A single species of fly, Drosophila melanogaster, has been the subject of scientific research for more than one hundred years. Why does this tiny insect merit such intense scrutiny? Drosophila's importance as a research organism began with its short life cycle, ability to reproduce in large numbers, and easy-to-see mutant phenotypes. Over time, laboratory investigation revealed surprising similarities between flies and other animals at the level of genes, gene networks, cell interactions, physiology, immunity, and behavior. Like humans, flies learn and remember, fight microbial infection, and slow down as they age. Scientists use Drosophila to investigate complex biological activities in a simple but intact living system. Fly research provides answers to some of the most challenging questions in biology and biomedicine, including how cells transmit signals and form ordered structures, how we can interpret the wealth of human genome data now available, and how we can develop effective treatments for cancer, diabetes, and neurodegenerative diseases. Written by a leader in the Drosophila research community, First in Fly celebrates key insights uncovered by investigators using this model organism. Stephanie Elizabeth Mohr draws on these "first in fly" findings to introduce fundamental biological concepts gained over the last century and explore how research in the common fruit fly has expanded our understanding of human health and disease.
A generously illustrated examination of the boom in luxurious, resort-style scientific laboratories and how this affects scientists' work. The past decade has seen an extraordinary laboratory-building boom. This new crop of laboratories features spectacular architecture and resort-like amenities. The buildings sprawl luxuriously on verdant campuses or sit sleekly in expensive urban neighborhoods. Designed to attract venture capital, generous philanthropy, and star scientists, these laboratories are meant to create the ideal conditions for scientific discovery. Yet there is little empirical evidence that shows if they do. Laboratory Lifestyles examines this new species of scientific laboratory from architectural, economic, social, and scientific perspectives. Generously illustrated with photographs of laboratories and scientists at work in them, the book investigates how "lifestyle science" affects actual science. Are scientists working when they stretch in a yoga class, play volleyball in the company tournament, chat in an on-site cafe, or show off their facilities to visiting pharmaceutical executives? The book describes, among other things, the role of beanbag chairs in the construction of science at Xerox PARC; the Southern California vibe of the RAND Corporation (Malibu), General Atomic (La Jolla), and Hughes Research Laboratories (Malibu); and Biosphere 2's "bionauts" as both scientists and scientific subjects; and interstellar laboratories. Laboratory Lifestyles (the title is an allusion to Bruno Latour and Steve Woolgar's influential Laboratory Life) documents a shift in what constitutes scientific practice; these laboratories and their lifestyles are as experimental as the science they cultivate. Contributors Kathleen Brandt, Russell Hughes, Tim Ivison, Sandra Kaji-O'Grady, Stuart W. Leslie, Brian Lonsway, Sean O'Halloran, Simon Sadler, Chris L. Smith, Nicole Sully, Ksenia Tatarchenko, William Taylor, Julia Tcharfas, Albena Yaneva, Stelios Zavos
Over the past thirty years, a new systemic conception of life has emerged at the forefront of science. New emphasis has been given to complexity, networks, and patterns of organisation, leading to a novel kind of 'systemic' thinking. This volume integrates the ideas, models, and theories underlying the systems view of life into a single coherent framework. Taking a broad sweep through history and across scientific disciplines, the authors examine the appearance of key concepts such as autopoiesis, dissipative structures, social networks, and a systemic understanding of evolution. The implications of the systems view of life for health care, management, and our global ecological and economic crises are also discussed. Written primarily for undergraduates, it is also essential reading for graduate students and researchers interested in understanding the new systemic conception of life and its implications for a broad range of professions - from economics and politics to medicine, psychology and law.
Das didaktisch ausgefeilte und umfassende Lehrbuch mit dem sympathischen Frosch: der neue und moderne Purves! Dieses die gesamte Biologie mit all ihren Teildisziplinen darstellende Werk richtet sich an: den Studienanf nger in der Biologie, der einen guten Einstieg in das Studium brauch den Studierenden der Biologie, sei es Diplom, Bachelor oder Master, auch von Biologie als Nebenfach, der einen verl sslichen Begleiter an der Universit t braucht den Universit tsdozenten, der in seinem Unterricht Wert auf herausragende Didaktik und pr fungsrelevantes Wissen legt den Lehrer, dem die Schulb cher f r den Unterricht unzureichend erscheinen und der sich v.a. einen pr gnanten und originellen Einstieg in seine Unterrichtsstunden w nscht den Staatsexamenskandidaten und den Referendar, f r den eine gute Pr sentation von Lehrstoff in der Biologie berufsentscheidend ist den Sch ler in der Sek II/Oberstufe, der ber seinen Tellerrand hinausschauen m chte den Medizinstudenten, der Lebenswissenschaften nicht nur in Multiple-Choice-Fragen verstehen m chte den interessierte Leser, der sich mit kurzen Informationsh ppchen nicht zufrieden geben m chte Die St rken dieses Lehrbuches sind: didaktisch ausgezeichnete Visualisierung selbst schwieriger Sachverhalte Lernen nicht nur von Fakten, sondern von Zusammenh ngen moderne Methoden und neue Forschungsans tze sind integriert und leiten damit zu eigenen Untersuchungen an Visuelles Lernen wird erleichtert, u.a. durch Grafiken mit Sprechblasen, die Vorg nge erkl ren 10 Teile untergliedern die Biologie entsprechend der Curricula an Universit ten jedes Kapitel beginnt mit einer anschaulichen Geschichte zum Thema eigene kostenfreie und ausgezeichnet visualisierte Website auf Englisch www.thelifewire.com mit bungen und multimedialen Lernmodulen im Studienalltag erprobt Neu in der Neuauflage: Kapitel ber Evolution erheblich erweitert Zoologie-Kapitel und -Glossar (neu!) durch Mitarbeit von Mary Berenbaum verbessert Web-Links "Animated Tutorial" und "Web Activity" verweisen auf kostenfreie, englischsprachige Lernbereiche die Anzahl der Boxen "Experiment" mit Labor- und Feldmethoden sind deutlich erweitert und zeigen didaktisch verbessert auf, wie man wissenschaftliche Erkenntnisse gewinnt; sie ermutigen zum eigenst ndigen Nachdenken und Forschen Strukturierung erheblich verbessert durch Schl ssels tze, Boxen zur "Wiederholung," Kurzfassung der Kapitelinhalte in "Kapitel berblick" und "Kapitel-Zusammenfassung" sowie Fragen zur Selbstkontrolle 70% neue Kapitel-Er ffnungen alle Texte in der Neuauflage von Biologie-Dozenten kritisch durchgesehen
The book gives an overview of developments in Quantitative Genetics and variance component analysis in an era of Big Data and Sequenced Genomes. It provides a detailed description of a direct method of estimation that will be a useful means of extracting information from a large set of data that was inconceivable 10 to 20 years ago.The book is a combination of a history of variance component analysis and a forward looking view as to how direct methods of estimation arise from the availability of big data sets and sequenced genomes of each individual in the sample.Many papers and books on quantitative genetics versions of the general linear model from statistics are useful for analyzing the data, using relatively small sets of data. In this book, new methods of direct estimation are introduced and analyzed that are appropriate for an era of big sets of data and sequences genomes. These direct methods of estimation are based on taking conditional expectations rather the methods of least squares that characterize many applications of the general linear model of statistics.
Demystifying consciousness: how subjective experience can be explained by natural brain and evolutionary processes. Consciousness is often considered a mystery. How can the seemingly immaterial experience of consciousness be explained by the material neurons of the brain? There seems to be an unbridgeable gap between understanding the brain as an objectively observed biological organ and accounting for the subjective experiences that come from the brain (and life processes). In this book, Todd Feinberg and Jon Mallatt attempt to demystify consciousness-to naturalize it, by explaining that the subjective, experiencing aspects of consciousness are created by natural brain processes that evolved in natural ways. Although subjective experience is unique in nature, they argue, it is not necessarily mysterious. We need not invoke the unknown or unknowable to explain its creation. Feinberg and Mallatt flesh out their theory of neurobiological naturalism (after John Searle's biological naturalism) that recognizes the many features that brains share with other living things, lists the neural features unique to conscious brains, and explains the subjective-objective barrier naturally. They investigate common neural features among the diverse groups of animals that have primary consciousness-the type of consciousness that experiences both sensations received from the world and affects such as emotions. They map the evolutionary development of consciousness and find an uninterrupted progression over time, without inserting any mysterious forces or exotic physics. Finally, bridging the previously unbridgeable, they show how subjective experience, although different from objective observation, can be naturally explained.
More than eighty years after the Scopes trial, the debate over teaching evolution continues in spite of the emptiness of the creationist positions. This accessible resource, now completely revised and updated, provides an essential introduction to the ongoing dispute's many facets--the scientific evidence for evolution, the legal and educational basis for its teaching, and the various religious points of view--as well as a concise history of the evolution-creationism controversy. This second edition also contains a discussion of the legal history, updated to include the seminal case of "Kitzmiller v. Dover" as well as a new chapter on public opinion and media coverage.
The first edition of Toward a Unified Ecology was ahead of its time. For the second edition, the authors present a new synthesis of their core ideas on evaluating communities, organisms, populations, biomes, models, and management. The book now places greater emphasis on post-normal critiques, cognizant of ever-present observer values in the system. The problem it addresses is how to work holistically on complex things that cannot be defined, and this book continues to build an approach to the problem of scaling in ecosystems. Provoked by complexity theory, the authors add a whole new chapter on the central role of narrative in science and how models improve them. The book takes data and modeling seriously, with a sophisticated philosophy of science.
Santiago Ramon y Cajal (1852-1934), the father of modern neuroscience and a Nobel laureate, was an exceptional artist. He devoted his life to the anatomy of the brain, the body's most complex and mysterious organ. His superhuman feats of visualisation, based on fanatically precise techniques and countless hours at the microscope, resulted in some of the most remarkable illustrations in the history of science. Beautiful Brain presents a selection of his exquisite drawings of brain cells, brain regions and neural circuits with accessible descriptive commentary. An art book at the crossroads of art and science, Beautiful Brain describes Cajal's contributions to neuroscience, explores his artistic roots and achievement and looks at his work in relation to contemporary neuroscience imaging techniques.
This updated final volume in the best-selling series of reference works features descriptions of more than 200 genera in 49 families and includes a revised taxonomic outline for the Actinobacteria as well as many medically and industrially important taxa.
The tropics with their lush rainforests are extremely rich in plant life but are still comparatively unknown. Botanists at the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew have a long tradition of exploring and plant collecting in the tropics, accumulating an unsurpassed practical knowledge of the tropical plants they encounter. This second edition of The Kew Tropical Plant Families Identification Handbook brings together this knowledge in a guide to the commonly encountered and ecologically important plants of the tropics. Written by Kew's experts, this handbook is based on Kew's Tropical Plant Identification course, which uses classical morphology, as well as more simple 'spot' characters, to teach plant identification.
Almost everybody has an obsession or feels a compulsion to do something a certain way. Magic numbers, intrusive thoughts, unusual fears and superstitions happen to about four people out of five, but where do these obsessive-compulsive (OC) traits come from? This book explores what they are, why we have them and what we can do about them, through fascinating and highly original insights. Are you a perfectionist, or can you be fussy? Do you like to have control in certain situations? Or are you overly anxious in others? These are all OC traits, and this book looks at their recent increase in human behaviour, and how they are formed in the brain. Showing that these traits are more common in highly educated, intelligent and successful people, it highlights the positive sides of what have previously been seen as negative quirks. Weaving together sections that are anecdotal and humorous, with technical and up-to-date scientific information, this groundbreaking book gives a fascinating introduction into an under-discussed personality type.
Provides a broad snapshot of recent findings showing how the environment and genes influence behavior The great debate of nature versus nurture rages on -- but our understanding of the genetic basis of many behaviors has expanded over the last decade, and there is now very good evidence showing that seemingly complex behaviours can have relatively simple genetic underpinnings, but also that most behaviours have very complicated genetic and environmental architecture. Studies have also clearly shown that behaviors, and other traits, are influenced not just by genes and the environment, but also by the statistical interaction between the two. This book aims to end the nature versus nurture argument by showing that behaviors are nature and nurture and the interaction between the two, and by illustrating how single genes can explain some of the variation in behaviors even when they are seemingly complex. Genes and Behaviour: Beyond Nature-Nurture puts to rest the nature versus nurture dichotomy, providing an up-to-date synopsis of where we are, how far we've come and where we are headed. It considers the effects of a dual-inheritance of genes and culture, and genes and social environment, and highlights how indirect genetic effects can affect the evolution of behavior. It also examines the effect of non-self genes on the behavior of hosts, shines a light on the nature and nurturing of animal minds and invites us to embrace all the complexity nature and nurture generates, and more. Explores exciting new findings about behavior and where we go from here Features contributions by top scholars of the subject Seeks to end the nature versus nurture debate forever Genes and Behaviour: Beyond Nature-Nurture is a unique, and eye-opening read that will appeal to Ph.D. Students, post-doctoral fellows, and researchers in evolution and behavior. Additionally, the book will also be of interest to geneticists, sociologists and philosophers.
How complex systems theory sheds new light on the adaptive dynamics of viral populations Viruses are everywhere, infecting all sorts of living organisms, from the tiniest bacteria to the largest mammals. Many are harmful parasites, but viruses also play a major role as drivers of our evolution as a species and are essential regulators of the composition and complexity of ecosystems on a global scale. This concise book draws on complex systems theory to provide a fresh look at viral origins, populations, and evolution, and the coevolutionary dynamics of viruses and their hosts. New viruses continue to emerge that threaten people, crops, and farm animals. Viruses constantly evade our immune systems, and antiviral therapies and vaccination campaigns can be powerless against them. These unique characteristics of virus biology are a consequence of their tremendous evolutionary potential, which enables viruses to quickly adapt to any environmental challenge. Ricard Sol and Santiago Elena present a unified framework for understanding viruses as complex adaptive systems. They show how the application of complex systems theory to viral dynamics has provided new insights into the development of AIDS in patients infected with HIV-1, the emergence of new antigenic variants of the influenza A virus, and other cutting-edge advances. Essential reading for biologists, physicists, and mathematicians interested in complexity, Viruses as Complex Adaptive Systems also extends the analogy of viruses to the evolution of other replicators such as computer viruses, cancer, and languages.
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