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As our closest primate relatives, chimpanzees offer tantalizing clues about the behavior of early human ancestors. This book provides a rich and detailed portrait of chimpanzee social life in the wild, synthesizing hundreds of thousands of hours of research at seven long-term field sites. Why are the social lives of males and females so different? Why do groups of males sometimes seek out and kill neighboring individuals? Do chimpanzees cooperate when they hunt monkeys? Is their vocal behaviour like human speech? Are there different chimpanzee 'cultures'? Addressing these questions and more, Adam Arcadi presents a fascinating introduction to the chimpanzee social universe and the challenges we face in trying to save this species from extinction. With extensive notes organized by field site and an appendix describing field methods, this book is indispensable for students, researchers, and anyone else interested in the remarkable and complex world of these intelligent apes.
An argument that more people should have children with Down syndrome, written from a pro-choice, disability-positive perspective. The rate at which parents choose to terminate a pregnancy when prenatal tests indicate that the fetus has Down syndrome is between 60 and 90 percent. In Choosing Down Syndrome, Chris Kaposy offers a carefully reasoned ethical argument in favor of choosing to have such a child. Arguing from a pro-choice, disability-positive perspective, Kaposy makes the case that there is a common social bias against cognitive disability that influences decisions about prenatal testing and terminating pregnancies, and that more people should resist this bias by having children with Down syndrome. Drawing on accounts by parents of children with Down syndrome, and arguing for their objectivity, Kaposy finds that these parents see themselves and their families as having benefitted from having a child with Down syndrome. To counter those who might characterize these accounts as based on self-deception or expressing adaptive preference, Kaposy cites supporting evidence, including divorce rates and observational studies showing that families including children with Down syndrome typically function well. Himself the father of a child with Down syndrome, Kaposy argues that cognitive disability associated with Down syndrome does not lead to diminished well-being. He argues further that parental expectations are influenced by neoliberal ideologies that unduly focus on the supposed diminished economic potential of a person with Down syndrome. Kaposy does not advocate restricting access to abortion or prenatal testing for Down syndrome, and he does not argue that it is ethically mandatory in all cases to give birth to a child with Down syndrome. People should be free to make important decisions based on their values. Kaposy's argument shows that it may be consistent with their values to welcome a child with Down syndrome into the family.
Soon after publication of On the Origin of Species, Charles Darwin received a letter that deeply unsettled him. He had expected outrage and accusations of heresy, but this letter was different: it accused him of taking credit for a theory that wasn't his. Yet when he tried to trace his intellectual forebears, he found that history had already forgotten them... Rediscovering Aristotle on the shores of Lesbos and Leonardo da Vinci fossil hunting in the Tuscan hills, this is a masterful retelling of the collective daring of a few like-minded men, whose early theories flew in the face of prevailing political and religious orthodoxies and laid the foundations for Darwin's revolutionary idea.
In 2006 Dr Adrian Owen and his team made medical history. They discovered a new realm of consciousness, somewhere between life and death, which they called the Grey Zone. The people who inhabit it are frequently labelled as irretrievably lost, with no awareness or sense of self. The shocking truth is that they are often still there, an intact mind trapped inside a broken body and brain, hearing everything around them, experiencing emotions, thoughts, pleasure and pain. But now, through Dr Owen's pioneering techniques, we can talk to them - and they can talk back.
Ants are probably the most dominant insect family on earth, and flowering plants have been the dominant plant group on land for more than 100 million years. In recent decades, human activities have degraded natural environments with unparalleled speed and scale, making it increasingly apparent that interspecific interactions vary not only under different ecological conditions and across habitats, but also according to anthropogenic global change. This is the first volume entirely devoted to the anthropogenic effects on the interactions between these two major components of terrestrial ecosystems. A first-rate team of contributors report their research from a variety of temperate and tropical ecosystems worldwide, including South, Central and North America, Africa, Japan, Polynesia, Indonesia and Australia. It provides an in-depth summary of the current understanding for researchers already acquainted with insect-plant interactions, yet is written at a level to offer a window into the ecology of ant-plant interactions for the mostly uninitiated international scientific community.
The next wave of science writing is here. Editor Max Brockman has talent-spotted 19 young scientists, working on leading-edge research across a wide range of fields. Nearly half of them are women, and all of them are great communicators: their passion and excitement makes this collection a wonderfully invigorating read. We hear from an astrobiologist at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena about the possibilities for life elsewhere in the solar system (and the universe); from the director of Yale's Comparative Cognition Laboratory about why we keep making the same mistakes; from a Cambridge lab about DNA synthesis; from the Tanzanian savannah about what lies behind attractiveness; we hear about how to breed plants to withstand disease, about ways to extract significance from the Interne's enormous datasets, about oceanography, neuroscience, microbiology, and evolutionary psychology.
Demystifying consciousness: how subjective experience can be explained by natural brain and evolutionary processes. Consciousness is often considered a mystery. How can the seemingly immaterial experience of consciousness be explained by the material neurons of the brain? There seems to be an unbridgeable gap between understanding the brain as an objectively observed biological organ and accounting for the subjective experiences that come from the brain (and life processes). In this book, Todd Feinberg and Jon Mallatt attempt to demystify consciousness-to naturalize it, by explaining that the subjective, experiencing aspects of consciousness are created by natural brain processes that evolved in natural ways. Although subjective experience is unique in nature, they argue, it is not necessarily mysterious. We need not invoke the unknown or unknowable to explain its creation. Feinberg and Mallatt flesh out their theory of neurobiological naturalism (after John Searle's biological naturalism) that recognizes the many features that brains share with other living things, lists the neural features unique to conscious brains, and explains the subjective-objective barrier naturally. They investigate common neural features among the diverse groups of animals that have primary consciousness-the type of consciousness that experiences both sensations received from the world and affects such as emotions. They map the evolutionary development of consciousness and find an uninterrupted progression over time, without inserting any mysterious forces or exotic physics. Finally, bridging the previously unbridgeable, they show how subjective experience, although different from objective observation, can be naturally explained.
For millions of years reptiles have walked, crawled, and slithered over the face of our Earth. From the mighty dinosaurs who dominated the land, the pterosaurs who took to the air, and the marine adapted ichthyosaurs, to the living reptiles today such as the lizards, snakes, crocodiles, and turtles, plus the single species of tuatara in New Zealand, reptiles have come in all shapes and sizes. In this Very Short Introduction Tom Kemp discusses the adaptations reptiles made to first leave the sea and colonise the land in dry conditions, such as their waterproof skin, their ability to expel almost dry waste products, their efficient use of external heat for maintaining their body temperature, and the amniotic egg that is laid and develops on dry land. Considering the different living groups of reptiles today, Kemp then describes how their respective bodies are adapted for their different ways of life, from snake feeding patterns to the way crocodiles breathe. Finally, Kemp assesses the threat of extinction to reptile species due to over-exploitation, habitat destruction, and climate change, and considers what can be done. ABOUT THE SERIES: The Very Short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost every subject area. These pocket-sized books are the perfect way to get ahead in a new subject quickly. Our expert authors combine facts, analysis, perspective, new ideas, and enthusiasm to make interesting and challenging topics highly readable.
How did we come to have minds? For centuries, poets, philosophers, psychologists, and physicists have wondered how the human mind developed its unrivaled abilities. Disciples of Darwin have explained how natural selection produced plants, but what about the human mind? In From Bacteria to Bach and Back, Daniel C. Dennett builds on recent discoveries from biology and computer science to show, step by step, how a comprehending mind could in fact have arisen from a mindless process of natural selection. A crucial shift occurred when humans developed the ability to share memes, or ways of doing things not based in genetic instinct. Competition among memes produced thinking tools powerful enough that our minds don't just perceive and react, they create and comprehend. An agenda-setting book for a new generation of philosophers and scientists, From Bacteria to Bach and Back will delight and entertain all those curious about how the mind works.
Research participants who have cognitive disabilities and differences may be considered a vulnerable population. At the same time, they should also be empowered to participate in research in order to foster the growth of knowledge and the improvement of practices. For research participants with cognitive disabilities or differences, participating in research that concerns them follows the Disability Rights Movement's call <"Nothing About Us Without Us>" and is a vital component of the principle of justice. However, cognitive disabilities and differences may pose challenges to ethical research, particularly with respect to the research ethics principle of autonomy, for a variety of reasons. Several alternative or modified strategies, for example when obtaining informed consent, have been used by researchers. This volume provides timely, multidisciplinary insights into the ethical aspects of research that includes participants with cognitive disability and differences. These include conditions such as intellectual disability, autism, mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and psychiatric diagnoses. The chapters in this volume describe situations where difficulties arise, explore strategies for empowerment and inclusion, drawing on both empirical and normative research to offer suggestions for research design, research ethics, and best practices that empower people with cognitive disabilities and differences to participate in research while respecting and managing potential coercion or undue influence. The book includes contributions from scholars in anthropology, sociology, ethics, child studies, health and rehabilitation sciences, philosophy, and law who address these issues in both clinical and social/behavioural research. The book will be valuable for anyone performing research involving these populations - from the fields of neuropsychology, neurology, psychiatry, and neuroscience.
Most of us have no idea what's really going on inside our heads. Yet brain scientists have uncovered details every business leader, parent, and teacher should know--like the need for physical activity to get your brain working its best. How do we learn? What exactly do sleep and stress do to our brains? Why is multi-tasking a myth? Why is it so easy to forget--and so important to repeat new knowledge? Is it true that men and women have different brains? In Brain Rules, Dr. John Medina, a molecular biologist, shares his lifelong interest in how the brain sciences might influence the way we teach our children and the way we work. In each chapter, he describes a brain rule--what scientists know for sure about how our brains work--and then offers transformative ideas for our daily lives. Medina's fascinating stories and infectious sense of humor breathe life into brain science. You'll learn why Michael Jordan was no good at baseball. You'll peer over a surgeon's shoulder as he proves that most of us have a Jennifer Aniston neuron. You'll meet a boy who has an amazing memory for music but can't tie his own shoes. You will discover how: Every brain is wired differently Exercise improves cognition We are designed to never stop learning and exploring Memories are volatile Sleep is powerfully linked with the ability to learn Vision trumps all of the other senses Stress changes the way we learn In the end, you'll understand how your brain really works--and how to get the most out of it.
DNA typing of non-human DNA is a fast developing area of research and professional practice. The application of DNA typing in wildlife forensic science is one of these prime uses of DNA typing and is gaining increasing profile. The use of DNA profiling in wildlife forensic science falls into two broad areas: species testing and genetic linkage. Species testing answers the question 'what species is this?' and genetic linkage answers the question 'did these two samples come from the same organism or population?' "Wildlife DNA Analysis: Applications in Forensic Science" provides an accessible introduction to both of these key areas. Clearly structured throughout, the introduction highlights the different types of crime where these techniques are regularly used. This chapter includes a discussion as to who performs forensic wildlife examinations, the standardisation and validation of methods, and the role of the expert witness in this type of alleged crime. This is followed by a detailed section on the science behind DNA typing including the problems in isolating DNA from trace material and subsequent genetic analysis are also covered. The book then undertakes a comprehensive review of species testing using DNA, including a step-by-step guide to sequence comparisons. A comparison of the different markers used in species testing highlights the criteria for a genetic marker. A full set of case histories illustrates the use of the different markers used. The book details the use of genetic markers to link two or more hairs/feather/leaves/needles to the same individual organism and the software used in population assignment. The problems and possibilities in isolating markers, along with the construction of allele databases are discussed in this chapter. The book concludes with evaluation and reporting of genetic evidence in wildlife forensic science illustrated by examples of witness statements. -An accessible introduction to this fast developing area of research within forensic science-Case studies throughout to link theory and practice and to highlight the use of DNA testing in species testing.-Covers both crimes against wildlife and offences where wildlife can provide vital evidence-Assumes only a basic background knowledge of DNA-Includes a comprehensive review of species testing using DNA, including a step-by-step guide to sequence comparisons
Within the last two decades, the field of cognitive neuroscience has begun to thrive, with technological advances that non-invasively measure human brain activity. This is the first book to provide a comprehensive and up-to-date treatment on the cognitive neuroscience of memory. Topics include cognitive neuroscience techniques and human brain mechanisms underlying long-term memory success, long-term memory failure, working memory, implicit memory, and memory and disease. Cognitive Neuroscience of Memory highlights both spatial and temporal aspects of the functioning human brain during memory. Each chapter is written in an accessible style and includes background information and many figures. In his analysis, Scott D. Slotnick questions popular views, rather than simply assuming they are correct. In this way, science is depicted as open to question, evolving, and exciting.
To foster a better understanding of dopamine receptor functionality, this detailed volume creates an interface between updated classical methods and new emerging technologies heretofore not available to new or seasoned researchers. Divided in five sections dedicated to experimental approaches investigating different facets of dopaminergic signal transduction, Dopamine Receptor Technologies covers epigenetic and post-transcriptional analysis, computational and biochemical techniques, visualization and imaging methods, molecular and cell biological tools, as well as behavioral assessment. The book, as a part of the popular Neuromethods series, provides insightful step-by-step protocols and methodological reviews that readers will find useful. Practical and versatile, Dopamine Receptor Technologies seeks to aid researchers in developing new pharmacological tools to improve our knowledge of in vivo roles played by each receptor subtype and the synthesis of prospective lead compounds for drug discovery.
Since information in the brain is processed by the exchange of spikes among neurons, a study of such group dynamics is extremely important in understanding hippocampus dependent memory. These spike patterns and local field potentials (LFPs) have been analyzed by various statistical methods. These studies have led to important findings of memory information processing. For example, memory-trace replay, a reactivation of behaviorally induced neural patterns during subsequent sleep, has been suggested to play an important role in memory consolidation. It has also been suggested that a ripple/sharp wave event (one of the characteristics of LFPs in the hippocampus) and spiking activity in the cortex have a specific relationship that may facilitate the consolidation of hippocampal dependent memory from the hippocampus to the cortex. The book will provide a state-of-the-art finding of memory information processing through the analysis of multi-neuronal data. The first half of the book is devoted to this analysis aspect. Understanding memory information representation and its consolidation, however, cannot be achieved only by analyzing the data. It is extremely important to construct a computational model to seek an underlying mathematical principle. In other words, an entire picture of hippocampus dependent memory system would be elucidated through close collaboration among experiments, data analysis, and computational modeling. Not only does computational modeling benefit the data analysis of multi-electrode recordings, but it also provides useful insight for future experiments and analyses. The second half of the book will be devoted to the computational modeling of hippocampus-dependent memory.
This text examines in detail mathematical and physical modeling, computational methods and systems for obtaining and analyzing biological structures, using pioneering research cases as examples. As such, it emphasizes programming and problem-solving skills. It provides information on structure bioinformatics at various levels, with individual chapters covering introductory to advanced aspects, from fundamental methods and guidelines on acquiring and analyzing genomics and proteomics sequences, the structures of protein, DNA and RNA, to the basics of physical simulations and methods for conformation searches. This book will be of immense value to researchers and students in the fields of bioinformatics, computational biology and chemistry. Dr. Dongqing Wei is a Professor at the Department of Bioinformatics and Biostatistics, College of Life Science and Biotechnology, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai, China. His research interest is in the general area of structural bioinformatics.
Prepared by two of the leading figures in wildlife biology, this book gathers in one volume the most influential articles published in the field. Paul R. Krausman and Bruce D. Leopold have collected the forty-two papers that every wildlife student should read. Each piece is introduced with a commentary that explains why it is important and a brief listing of papers that inspired or were inspired by the classic. Practical and conceptual topics consider every aspect of the wildlife profession, including ethics. Ideal for use as a textbook, "Essential Readings in Wildlife Management and Conservation" is divided into four sections: the philosophical roots of wildlife management, biology, habitat, and human dimensions.
Contains the classic publications of
K. T. Adair, R. A. Baer, L. C. Birch, W. H. Burt, L. H. Carpenter, G. Caughley, T. C. Chamberlin, E. L. Charnov, L. C. Chase, F. E. Clements, L. C. Cole, J. H. Connell, R. N. Conner, Z. J. Cornett, P. D. Dalke, D. J. Decker, L. R. Dice, J. G. Dickson, D. F. Doak, P. R. Ehrlich, R. Y. Edwards, C. S. Elton, P. L. Errington, D. Esler, C. D. Fowle, T. A. Gavin, V. Geist, M. Gilpin, H. A. Gleason, J. Grinnell, J. P. Hailman, G. Hardin, N. T. Hobbs, C. S. Holling, S. S. Hutchings, D. H. Johnson, S. R. Kellert, R. H. Klopfer, B. A. Knuth, C. C. Kreuger, A. Leopold, R. L. Lindeman, C. A. Loker, R. H. MacArthur, J. Macnab, S. P. Mahoney, G. F. Mattfield, D. R. McCullough, S. L. Mills, A. J. Nicholson, J. F. Organ, R. T. Paine, G. Parsons, M. E. Richmond, S. J. Riley, S. J. Schwager, V. E. Shelford, W. F. Siemer, D. S. Simberloff, M. E. Soule, G. Stewart, J. W. Thomas, B. Van Horne, S. C. Wecker, E. O. Wilson
Epigenetics is the study of both heritable and non-heritable changes in the regulation of gene activity and expression that occur without an alteration in the DNA sequence. This dynamic and rapidly developing discipline is making its impact across the biomedical sciences, in particular in toxicology where epigenetic differences can mean that different individuals respond differently to the same drug or chemical.
"Toxicology and Epigenetics" reflects the multidimensional character of this emerging area of toxicology, describing cutting-edge molecular technologies to unravel epigenetic changes, the use of "in vivo" and "in vitro "models, as well as the potential use of toxicological epigenetics in regulatory environments. An international team of experts consider the interplay between epigenetics and toxicology in a number of areas, including environmental, nutritional, pharmacological, and computational toxicology, nanomaterials, proteomics and metabolomics, and cancer research.
Topics covered include: environment, epigenetics and diseasesDNA methylation and toxicogenomics chromatin at the intersection of disease and therapyepigenomic actions of environmental arsenicalsenvironment, epigenetics and cardiovascular healthtoxicology, epigenetics and autoimmunityocular epigenomics: potential sites of environmental impact in development and diseasenuclear RNA silencing and related phenomena in animalsepigenomics - impact for drug safety sciencesmethods of global epigenomic profilingtranscriptomics: applications in epigenetic toxicology
"Toxicology and Epigenetics" is an essential insight into the current trends and future directions of research in this rapidly expanding field for investigators, toxicologists, risk assessors and regulators in academia, industry and government.
This book covers the current states of microbial and related technologies that have been developed for the efficient production of chemicals, fuels and materials by integrating strain and enzyme development, fermentation processes, and downstream processes. The book also covers how microbes and microbial products can be employed to facilitate petroleum recovery. Global consequences of bio-based production of chemicals, fuels and materials are also discussed with insights.
Surveying the last sixty years of research, this book describes the physical properties of DNA in the context of its biological functioning. It is designed to enable both students and researchers of molecular biology, biochemistry and physics to better understand the biophysics of DNA, addressing key questions and facilitating further research. The chapters integrate theoretical and experimental approaches, emphasising throughout the importance of a quantitative knowledge of physical properties in building and analysing models of DNA functioning. For example, the book shows how the relationship between DNA mechanical properties and the sequence specificity of DNA-protein binding can be analyzed quantitatively by using our current knowledge of the physical and structural properties of DNA. Theoretical models and experimental methods in the field are critically considered to enable the reader to engage effectively with the current scientific literature on the physical properties of DNA.
This book will take an evidence-based approach to current knowledge about biomolecules and their place in our lives, inviting readers to explore how we know what we know, and how current gaps in knowledge may influence the way we approach the information. Biomolecular science is increasingly important in our everyday life, influencing the choices we make about our diet, our health, and our wellness. Often, however, information about biomolecular science is presented as a list of immutable facts, discouraging critical thought. The book will introduce the basic tools of structural biology, supply real-life examples, and encourage critical thought about aspects of biology that are still not fully understood.
Scientific advances have transformed the world. However, science can sometimes get things wrong, and at times, disastrously so. Understanding the basis for scientific claims and judging how much confidence we should place in them is essential for individual choice, societal debates, and development of public policy and laws. We must ask: what is the basis of scientific claims? How much confidence should we put in them? What is defined as science and what is not? This book synthesizes a working definition of science and its properties, as explained through the eyes of a practicing scientist, by integrating advances from philosophy, psychology, history, sociology, and anthropology into a holistic view. Crucial in our political climate, the book fights the myths of science often portrayed to the public. Written for a general audience, it also enables students to better grasp methodologies and helps professional scientists to articulate what they do and why.
This volume is part of the definitive edition of letters written by and to Charles Darwin, the most celebrated naturalist of the nineteenth century. Notes and appendixes put these fascinating and wide-ranging letters in context, making the letters accessible to both scholars and general readers. Darwin depended on correspondence to collect data from all over the world, and to discuss his emerging ideas with scientific colleagues, many of whom he never met in person. The letters are published chronologically: Volume 23 includes letters from 1875, the year in which Darwin wrote and published Insectivorous plants, a botanical work that was a great success with the reading public, and started writing Cross and self fertilisation in the vegetable kingdom. The volume contains an appendix on the 1875 anti-vivisection debates, with which Darwin was closely involved, giving evidence before a Royal Commission on the subject.
The concepts of veterinary genetics are crucial to understanding and controlling many diseases and disorders in animals. They are also crucial to enhancing animal production. Accessible and clearly presented, Introduction to Veterinary Genetics provides a succinct introduction to the aspects of genetics relevant to animal diseases and production. Now in its third edition, this is the only introductory level textbook on genetics that has been written specifically for veterinary and animal science students. Coverage includes: basic genetics, molecular biology, genomics, cytogenetics, immunogenetics, population genetics, quantitative genetics, biotechnology, and the use of molecular tools in the control of inherited disorders. This book describes in detail how genetics is being applied to artificial selection in animal production. It also covers the conservation of genetic diversity in both domesticated and wild animals. New for the Third Edition: End-of-chapter summaries provide quick recaps. Covers new topics: epigenetics, genomics and bioinformatics. Thoroughly revised according to recent advances in genetics. Introduction to Veterinary Genetics is still the only introductory genetics textbook for students of veterinary and animal science and will continue to be an indispensable reference tool for veterinary students and practitioners alike.
How complex systems theory sheds new light on the adaptive dynamics of viral populations Viruses are everywhere, infecting all sorts of living organisms, from the tiniest bacteria to the largest mammals. Many are harmful parasites, but viruses also play a major role as drivers of our evolution as a species and are essential regulators of the composition and complexity of ecosystems on a global scale. This concise book draws on complex systems theory to provide a fresh look at viral origins, populations, and evolution, and the coevolutionary dynamics of viruses and their hosts. New viruses continue to emerge that threaten people, crops, and farm animals. Viruses constantly evade our immune systems, and antiviral therapies and vaccination campaigns can be powerless against them. These unique characteristics of virus biology are a consequence of their tremendous evolutionary potential, which enables viruses to quickly adapt to any environmental challenge. Ricard Sol and Santiago Elena present a unified framework for understanding viruses as complex adaptive systems. They show how the application of complex systems theory to viral dynamics has provided new insights into the development of AIDS in patients infected with HIV-1, the emergence of new antigenic variants of the influenza A virus, and other cutting-edge advances. Essential reading for biologists, physicists, and mathematicians interested in complexity, Viruses as Complex Adaptive Systems also extends the analogy of viruses to the evolution of other replicators such as computer viruses, cancer, and languages.
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