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Everything you need to know about Neuroanatomy and Neuroscience at a Glance! Neuroanatomy and Neuroscience at a Glance is a highly illustrated, quick reference guide to the anatomy, biochemistry, physiology and pharmacology of the human nervous system. Each chapter features a summary of the anatomical structure and function of a specific component of the central nervous system, a section on applied neurobiology outlining how to approach a patient with neurological or psychiatric problems aligned to the chapter topic, standard diagnostic procedures for most common scenarios, as well as an overview of treatment and management options. This fully updated and expanded new edition includes: * Dozens of full-page, colour illustrations and neurological scans * Expanded coverage of techniques to study the nervous system * More practical information on the neurological exam * New content on neuropharmacology and drug therapies * Bullet points and bold terms throughout assist with revision and review of the topic Neuroanatomy and Neuroscience at a Glance is the ideal companion for students embarking on a neuroanatomy or neuroscience course, and is an excellent reference tool for those in clinical training. An updated companion website with new clinical cases, multiple choice self-assessment questions, revision slides, and downloadable illustrations and flashcards is available at www.ataglanceseries.com/neuroscience
Neuroanesthesia: A Problem-Based Learning Approach provides an up-to-date and comprehensive review of the neuroanesthesia subspecialty. Its problem-based format incorporates a pool of practical, multiple-choice questions for self-assessment. Each of its 29 case-based chapters is accompanied by 10 questions and answers, accessible online in a full practice exam. The cases presented are also unique, as each chapter starts with a case description, usually a compilation of several actual cases; it then branches out through case-based questions, to increasingly complex situations. This structure is designed to create an authentic experience that mirrors that of an oral board examination. The discussion sections that follow offer a comprehensive approach to the chapter's subject matter, thus creating a modern, complete, and up-to-date medical review of that topic. This book is equally a solid reference compendium of neuroanesthesia topics and a comprehensive review to assist the general practitioner both in day-to-day practice and during preparation for certification exams. Its problem-based format makes it an ideal resource for the lifelong learner and the modern realities of education.
Oxygen has had extraordinary effects on life. Three hundred million years ago, in Carboniferous times, dragonflies grew as big as seagulls, with wingspans of nearly a metre. Researchers claim they could have flown only if the air had contained more oxygen than today - probably as much as 35 per cent. Giant spiders, tree-ferns, marine rock formations and fossil charcoals all tell the same story. High oxygen levels may also explain the global firestorm that contributed to the demise of the dinosaurs after the asteroid impact. The strange and profound effects that oxygen has had on the evolution of life pose a riddle, which this book sets out to answer. Oxygen is a toxic gas. Divers breathing pure oxygen at depth suffer from convulsions and lung injury. Fruit flies raised at twice normal atmospheric levels of oxygen live half as long as their siblings. Reactive forms of oxygen, known as free radicals, are thought to cause ageing in people. Yet if atmospheric oxygen reached 35 per cent in the Carboniferous, why did it promote exuberant growth, instead of rapid ageing and death? Oxygen takes the reader on an enthralling journey, as gripping as a thriller, as it unravels the unexpected ways in which oxygen spurred the evolution of life and death. The book explains far more than the size of ancient insects: it shows how oxygen underpins the origin of biological complexity, the birth of photosynthesis, the sudden evolution of animals, the need for two sexes, the accelerated ageing of cloned animals like Dolly the sheep, and the surprisingly long lives of bats and birds. Drawing on this grand evolutionary canvas, Oxygen offers fresh perspectives on our own lives and deaths, explaining modern killer diseases, why we age, and what we can do about it. Advancing revelatory new ideas, following chains of evidence, the book ranges through many disciplines, from environmental sciences to molecular medicine. The result is a captivating vision of contemporary science and a humane synthesis of our place in nature. This remarkable book might just redefine the way we think about the world. Oxford Landmark Science books are 'must-read' classics of modern science writing which have crystallized big ideas, and shaped the way we think.
Can music really arouse emotions? If so, what emotions, and how? Why do listeners respond with different emotions to the same piece of music? Are emotions to music different from other emotions? Why do we respond to fictional events in art as if they were real, even though we know they're not? What is it that makes a performance of music emotionally expressive? Based on ground-breaking research, Musical Emotions Explained explores how music expresses and arouses emotions, and how it becomes an object of aesthetic judgments. Within the book, Juslin demonstrates how psychological mechanisms from our ancient past engage with meanings in music at multiple levels of the brain to evoke a broad variety of affective states - from startle responses to profound aesthetic emotions. He also explores why these mechanisms respond to music. Written by one of the leading researchers in the field, the book is richly illustrated with music examples from everyday life, and explains with clarity and rigour the manifold ways in which music may engage our emotions. Advance praise Musical Emotions Explained is a magnificent publication that has been painstakingly researched to illuminate the many, varied ways music can express and arouse emotions. It provides the most authoritative single authored text on the topic so far. As a highly readable and informative publication, it superbly unlocks the secrets of musical affect for experienced researchers through to lay readers alike. Gary E. McPherson, Ormond Chair of Music and Director, Melbourne Conservatorium of Music, Australia Anyone who wants to understand more about the most essential quality of music - its ability to move us - needs to read this book. Juslin's writing is gripping and thoughtful as he takes us on a journey through the latest research on this most interesting intersection between science and art. Daniel J. Levitin, Author of This Is Your Brain on Music and The World in Six Songs. Music Emotions Explained is a tour de force. In this extraordinary book, written with passion and humor, Patrik Juslin shares insights gleaned from decades of ground-breaking research. Breadth and depth are nicely balanced as grand, over-arching themes are richly supported by systematic and detailed research findings. This book will serve as an inviting introduction to students or interested laypersons but also as a touchstone to which professionals will return frequently for guidance and inspiration. Donald A. Hodges, Professor Emeritus, University of North Carolina at Greensboro, USA Patrik Juslin here deftly synthesizes several decades of psychological research, much of it his own, on how music both expresses emotion and moves us emotionally, in the course of developing an empirically grounded, evolutionarily based, philosophically informed theory of the phenomenon in question, doing so with style and wit. Musical Emotion Explained is wide ranging, engagingly written, full of arresting claims, and studded with telling anecdotes. It is a book that everyone who has ever marveled at the affective power of music should read. Jerrold Levinson, Distinguished University Professor, Department of Philosophy, University of Maryland, USA Musical Emotions Explained is essential reading that sets the new gold standard resource for understanding the delicious pleasures of music experience. Using lucid, witty and compelling arguments, Patrik Juslin illustrates a set of core mechanisms that collectively account for music-evoked emotions. Scholars, general readers and musicians will be inspired by this landmark work, which will stimulate research for decades to come. Bill Thompson, Distinguished Professor, Macquarie University, Sydney, Australia It goes without saying that Patrik Juslin is one of the world's top experts on the science of musical emotion. What this book reveals is that he is a hugely persuasive and accessible interlocutor. It really feels as though one is in conversation with a friend who is thinking issues and arguments through with the reader, step by step. Of course all the important literature is covered, but this is far from a dry literature review. Juslin's book should excite and stimulate layreaders and professional colleagues alike to deepen their understanding of what makes music emotional. John Sloboda, Research Professor, Guildhall School of Music & Drama, London, UK The best comprehensive and critically explanatory tome to-date on one of the most fascinating and still poorly understood topics in music research, written by the foremost international expert on music and emotion. A treasure for decades to come. Michael Thaut, Professor of Music, Neuroscience and Rehabilitation Science, University of Toronto, Canada In Musical Emotions Explained, Patrik Juslin probes and proffers many psychological and philosophical concepts of musical emotions toward unpacking numerous mysteries surrounding the arousal and expression of musical affect. The results of his meticulous research have profound implications for experiencing, creating, valuing, and teaching music. Written with great care and passion, this brilliant book is a must-read for anyone who takes a serious interest in the nature and values of music in people's lives. David Elliott, Professor of Music and Music Education, New York University, USA Patrik Juslin has been at the forefront of research into music and emotion for more than 20 years. Adding to what is already an astonishing body of work, this hugely impressive monograph is the culmination of that remarkable programme of research. Witten in an accessible and engaging style, and covering a huge range of perspectives, this is a book that will undoubtedly become a classic in the psychology of music, an indispensable resource for researchers in the field, and a fascinating read for those who may be new to the topic. Eric Clarke FBA, Heather Professor of Music, University of Oxford, UK
Soil is a vital support system for all life forms, and is directly or indirectly exposed to various pollutants and harmful chemicals. Any pollutant entering the soil system not only affects the quality of the soil, but also the plants and crops growing in it. Further, soil pollution has far-reaching impacts, since harmful chemicals can become biomagnified and enter the food chain, causing severe health concerns. Degraded soils can adversely affect various plant systems by creating biotic and abiotic stress, which increases the chances of biochemical and physiological disorders. Chronic diseases and lower yield have been reported as consequences of soil pollution. Drawing on decades of soil-related research, this book focuses on soil pollution, types of soil pollutants, and their impacts on plant physiological and biochemical systems, along with crop productivity. The book begins with a brief introduction to soil pollution and continues with a discussion of the different types and their effects, together with remediation methods. It highlights various sources of soil pollution such as herbicides, acidification, chemical fertilizers, sewage sludge, heavy metals, and radioactive pollutants. It also covers plant responses to combinations of pollutants, effects of pollutants on plant ultrastructure, interactions between pollutants and plant diseases, and interactions between pollutants and agricultural practices. In closing, it addresses the challenges involved in the restoration of degraded land, side effects of agricultural practices in the form of greenhouse gases, and strategies for mitigating these effects. Plant Responses to Soil Pollution offers an essential guide for students, environmental consultants, researchers and other professionals involved in soil and plant-related research.
This manual details the techniques involved in the study of plant microbe interactions (PMI). Covering a wide range of basic and advanced techniques associated with research on biological nitrogen fixation, microbe-mediated plant nutrient use efficiency, the biological control of plant diseases and pests such as nematodes, it will appeal to postgraduate students, research scholars and postdoctoral fellows, as well as teachers from various fields, including pathology, entomology and agronomy. It consists of five broad sections featuring different units. Information panels at the beginning of each unit present essential knowledge as well as advances in a particular topic. The manual can also serve as a textbook for undergraduate courses like Techniques for Plant-Microbe Interactions; Biological Control of Plant Diseases; and Nutrient Use Efficiency. Providing basic insights and working protocols from all related disciplines, this unique laboratory manual is a valuable resource for researchers interested in investigating PMI.
Race, while drawn from the visual cues of human diversity, is an idea with a measurable past, an identifiable present, and an uncertain future. The concept of race has been at the center of both triumphs and tragedies in American history and has had a profound effect on the human experience. Race Unmasked revisits the origins of commonly held beliefs about the scientific nature of racial differences, examines the roots of the modern idea of race, and explains why race continues to generate controversy as a tool of classification even in our genomic age. Surveying the work of some of the twentieth century's most notable scientists, Race Unmasked reveals how genetics and related biological disciplines formed and preserved ideas of race and, at times, racism. A gripping history of science and scientists, Race Unmasked elucidates the limitations of a racial worldview and throws the contours of our current and evolving understanding of human diversity into sharp relief.
While the sequencing of the human genome was a landmark achievement, the availability and manipulation of such a vast amount of data about our species has inevitably led to questions that are increasingly fundamental and urgent: now that information about human bodies can be transformed into a natural resource, how will and should we interpret and use it? With The Postgenomic Condition, Jenny Reardon draws on more than a decade of research in molecular biology labs, commercial startups, governmental agencies and civic spaces to examine the extensive efforts after the completion of the Human Genome Project to transform genomics from high tech informatics practiced by a few well-financed scientists and engineers to meaningful knowledge beneficial to all people. Through her in-depth profiles of genomic initiatives around the world, we see hopes to forge public knowledge and goods from blood and DNA meet the reality of limited resources and conflicting values. Building the argument around the limits of liberal concepts of openness, information, inclusion, privacy, property and the public concepts that proved salient at different points in the unfolding story of efforts to make sense of human genomes Reardon shows how genomics challenges us to move beyond existing liberal frameworks to ask deeper questions of knowledge and justice. While the news media is filled with grand visions of future designer drugs and babies, The Postgenomic Condition brings richly into view these hard on-the-ground questions about what can be known and who and how we will live on a depleted but data-rich, interconnected yet fractured planet, where technoscience garners disproportionate resources.
The ability of beavers to create an abundant habitat for a diverse array of plants and animals has been analyzed time and again. The disappearance of beavers across the northern hemisphere, and what this effects, has yet to be comprehensively studied. Saving the Dammed analyzes the beneficial role of beavers and their dams in the ecosystem of a river, focusing on one beaver meadow in Colorado. In her latest book, Ellen Wohl contextualizes North St. Vrain Creek by discussing the implications of the loss of beavers across much larger areas. Saving the Dammed raises awareness of rivers as ecosystems and the role beavers play in sustaining the ecosystem surrounding rivers by exploring the macrocosm of global river alteration, wetland loss, and the reduction in ecosystem services. The resulting reduction in ecosystem services span things such as flood control, habitat abundance and biodiversity, and nitrate reduction. Allowing readers to follow her as she crawls through seemingly impenetrable spaces with slow and arduous movements, Wohl provides a detailed narrative of beaver meadows. Saving the Dammed takes readers through twelve months at a beaver meadow in Colorado's Rocky Mountain National Park, exploring how beavers change river valleys and how the decline in beaver populations has altered river ecosystems. As Wohl analyzes and discusses the role beavers play in the ecosystem of a river, readers get to follow her through tight, seemingly impenetrable, crawl spaces as she uncovers the benefit of dams.
Making decisions is such a regular activity that it is mostly taken for granted. However, damage or abnormality in the areas of the brain involved in decision-making can severely affect personality and the ability to manage even simple tasks. Here, Barbara Sahakian and Jamie Nicole LaBuzetta discuss the process of normal decision making - our strategies for making decisions, biases that affect us, and influential factors - and then describe the abnormal patterns found in patients with conditions such as severe depression, Alzheimer's, and accidental brain damage. Using striking examples and case studies from their own research to show the impact of abnormal decision making, they introduce the concept of 'hot' and 'cold' decision making based on the level of emotions involved, showing that in various psychiatric conditions extreme emotions alter the pattern of decision making. Looking at the ways in which the brain can be manipulated to improve cognitive function in these patients, they consider the use of 'smart drugs' that alleviate these problems. The realization that smart drugs can improve cognitive abilities in healthy people has led to growing general use, with drugs easily available via the Internet. They raise ethical questions about the availability of these drugs for cognitive enhancement, in the hope of informing public debate about an increasingly important issue.
This book compiles biographical sketches of top professionals in the field of genetics research, as well as research summaries from a number of different focuses in this important field.
As more of us live longer, the fear of an old age devastated by brain diseases like dementia is growing. Many people are already facing the challenges posed by these progressive and terminal conditions, whether in person or because they are caring for loved ones. Dementia is now the fifth most common cause of death across the world. It is small wonder that understanding, preventing, and finally curing these illnesses is now a global priority. Recent advances in brain research have given scientists a better chance than ever of finding ways to help patients, carers, and clinicians dealing with dementia. Yet there is still no effective treatment. Why has progress been so slow? And what can we all do to reduce our chances of getting the disease? In this Very Short Introduction Kathleen Taylor offers a guide to the science of dementia and brain ageing. Never forgetting the human costs of brain disorders - movingly illustrated throughout the book - she also discusses their costs to society. Clearly explaining the research, she sets out the main ideas which have driven dementia science, and the new contenders hoping to make a breakthrough. Taylor also looks at risk factors, and how to lower our chances of succumbing to dementia. Assessing current and potential treatments, including both drugs and other approaches, she explains, clearly and gently, what help is available for someone who is diagnosed with dementia, and how to boost the chances of living well with the condition. ABOUT THE SERIES: The Very Short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost every subject area. These pocket-sized books are the perfect way to get ahead in a new subject quickly. Our expert authors combine facts, analysis, perspective, new ideas, and enthusiasm to make interesting and challenging topics highly readable.
These proceedings from the 37th International Workshop on Bayesian Inference and Maximum Entropy Methods in Science and Engineering (MaxEnt 2017), held in Sao Carlos, Brazil, aim to expand the available research on Bayesian methods and promote their application in the scientific community. They gather research from scholars in many different fields who use inductive statistics methods and focus on the foundations of the Bayesian paradigm, their comparison to objectivistic or frequentist statistics counterparts, and their appropriate applications. Interest in the foundations of inductive statistics has been growing with the increasing availability of Bayesian methodological alternatives, and scientists now face much more difficult choices in finding the optimal methods to apply to their problems. By carefully examining and discussing the relevant foundations, the scientific community can avoid applying Bayesian methods on a merely ad hoc basis. For over 35 years, the MaxEnt workshops have explored the use of Bayesian and Maximum Entropy methods in scientific and engineering application contexts. The workshops welcome contributions on all aspects of probabilistic inference, including novel techniques and applications, and work that sheds new light on the foundations of inference. Areas of application in these workshops include astronomy and astrophysics, chemistry, communications theory, cosmology, climate studies, earth science, fluid mechanics, genetics, geophysics, machine learning, materials science, medical imaging, nanoscience, source separation, thermodynamics (equilibrium and non-equilibrium), particle physics, plasma physics, quantum mechanics, robotics, and the social sciences. Bayesian computational techniques such as Markov chain Monte Carlo sampling are also regular topics, as are approximate inferential methods. Foundational issues involving probability theory and information theory, as well as novel applications of inference to illuminate the foundations of physical theories, are also of keen interest.
'Funny, wise and absolutely fascinating.' Adam Kay, author of This Is Going to Hurt
Do you want to be happy?
If so – read on.
This book has all the answers*
In The Happy Brain, neuroscientist Dean Burnett delves deep into the inner workings of our minds to explore some fundamental questions about happiness. What does it actually mean to be happy? Where does it come from? And what, really, is the point of it? Forget searching for the secret of happiness through lifestyle fads or cod philosophy ― Burnett reveals the often surprising truth behind what make us tick. From whether happiness really begins at home (spoiler alert: yes – sort of) to what love, sex, friendship, wealth, laughter and success actually do to our brains, this book offers a uniquely entertaining insight into what it means to be human.
*Not really. Sorry. But it does have some very interesting questions, and at least the occasional answer.
If you die through mistakes in moral reasoning, then you are as dead as if you die through mistakes made in medicine. Organ transplantation saves lives yet thousands die every year on waiting lists through lack of organs. We are exhorted to donate; but is our individual reluctance the essence of the problem, or is it caused by deeper issues in the way public policy is discussed and formulated? Janet Radcliffe Richards casts a sharp critical eye on the moral arguments, forcing us to confront the logic and implications of our own position. A book for everyone who is up for intellectual challenge and is serious about moral reasoning in any context.
In this unusual book an evolutionary anthropologist and her coauthor/granddaughter, who has Asperger syndrome, examine the emergence and spread of Asperger syndrome and other forms of high-functioning autism. The authors speak to readers with autism, parents, teachers, clinicians, psychologists, psychiatrists, other health-care providers, autism researchers, evolutionary biologists, geneticists, paleoanthropologists, and people who simply enjoy reading about science. Using the latest findings regarding brain evolution and the neurological, genetic, and cognitive underpinnings of autistic individuals at the high end of the spectrum, Falk theorizes that many characteristics associated with Asperger syndrome are by-products of the evolution of advanced mental processing. She explores the origins of autism, whether it is currently evolving, how it differs in males and females, and whether it is a global phenomenon. Additionally, Eve Schofield, who was diagnosed with Asperger syndrome as a child, provides firsthand accounts of what it is like to grow up as an "Aspie."
Before you read this book, you have homework to do. Grab a notebook, go outside, and find a nearby patch of nature. What do you see, hear, feel, and smell? Are there bugs, birds, squirrels, deer, lizards, frogs, or fish, and what are they doing? What plants are in the vicinity, and in what ways are they growing? What shape are the rocks, what texture is the dirt, and what color are the bodies of water? Does the air feel hot or cold, wet or dry, windy or still? Everything you notice, write it all down. We know that the Earth's climate is changing, and that the magnitude of this change is colossal. At the same time, the world outside is still a natural world, and one we can experience on a granular level every day. Ground Truth is a guide to living in this condition of changing nature, to paying attention instead of turning away, and to gathering facts from which a fuller understanding of the natural world can emerge over time. Featuring detailed guidance for keeping records of the plants, invertebrates, amphibians, birds, and mammals in your neighborhood, this book also ponders the value of everyday observations, probes the connections between seasons and climate change, and traces the history of phenology--the study and timing of natural events--and the uses to which it can be put. An expansive yet accessible book, Ground Truth invites readers to help lay the groundwork for a better understanding of the nature of change itself.
Aquatic systems exhibit incredible diversity - from mountain streams to deep oceans, from lakes and ponds to the estuaries that link river and sea. Despite their distinct characters, however, these systems share common properties and, at the level of ecology, are not all that different after all. But how can this be? Ecology of Aquatic Systems brings together coverage of freshwater and marine systems to illustrate the principles and properties that unify aquatic systems. Using examples drawn from a wide geographical range, the book presents a broad survey of the field that acts as the ideal foundation for further study. Opening with a review of the different types of aquatic system and their interconnected nature, and the diversity of life within aquatic systems, the book goes on to explore the key types of aquatic habitat, emphasising the ecological themes that pervade each system. Written with students in the centre of the frame, Ecology of Aquatic Systems retains the succinct, lucid style for which the first edition was praised, and includes cross-references throughout, a substantial glossary, and extensive index, to help readers engage with, and fully understand, the material presented. With the global importance of aquatic systems becoming more apparent - and the need for effective management of these systems becoming increasingly clear - there has never been a more important time for students to fully grasp the fundamentals of aquatic systems. Ecology of Aquatic Systems is the ideal course companion to achieve this goal. Online Resource Centre: The Online Resource Centre features: For registered adopters of the text: - Figures from the book in electronic format, ready to download; - A testbank of multiple-choice questions, for use in formative or summative assessment For students: - Hyperlinks to literature articles cited in the text
We are in the midst of a revolution. It is a scientific revolution built upon the tools of molecular biology, with which we probe and prod the living world in ways unimaginable a few decades ago. Need to track a bacterium at the root of a hospital outbreak? No problem: the offending germ's complete genetic profile can be obtained in 24 hours. We insert human DNA into E. coli bacteria to produce our insulin. It is natural to look at biotechnology in the 21st century with a mix of wonder and fear. But biotechnology is not as 'unnatural' as one might think. All living organisms use the same molecular processes to replicate their genetic material and the same basic code to 'read' their genes. The similarities can be seen in their DNA. Here, John Archibald shows how evolution has been 'plugging-and-playing' with the subcellular components of life from the very beginning and continues to do so today. For evidence, we need look no further than the inner workings of our own cells. Molecular biology has allowed us to gaze back more than three billion years, revealing the microbial mergers and acquisitions that underpin the development of complex life. One Plus One Equals One tells the story of how we have come to this realization and its implications.
The analysis and interpretation of data is fundamental to the subject of genetics and forms a compulsory part of the undergraduate genetics curriculum. Indeed, the key skills that a genetics student requires are an ability to design and understand experimental strategies and to use problem-solving skills to interpret experimental results and data. Genetics? No Problem! provides students with a graded set of problems that aim to enthuse, challenge and entertain the reader. The book is divided into three sections introductory; intermediate and advanced each with 10 problems. For first level students there will be short genetics problems embedded in a wide range of scenarios, such as murder mysteries. As the book progresses, the stories will get longer and the science will get progressively more complex to challenge final year students and enable the reader to identify genetic disease in obscure organisms as well as designing and testing treatments and cures. Genetics? No Problem!: * Takes a unique, innovative approach that provides students with a set of graded problems designed to develop both their skills, and their ability to tackle problems with confidence * Includes problems embedded in a narrative, written in an interesting, informative and entertaining style by an Author with a proven track record in teaching, research and communication * Is well illustrated in full colour throughout. The book will prove invaluable to all students of genetics across a range of disciplines needing to get to grips with the analysis and interpretation of data that is fundamental to the subject.
The go-to resource for microscopists on biological applications of field emission gun scanning electron microscopy (FEGSEM) The evolution of scanning electron microscopy technologies and capability over the past few years has revolutionized the biological imaging capabilities of the microscope--giving it the capability to examine surface structures of cellular membranes to reveal the organization of individual proteins across a membrane bilayer and the arrangement of cell cytoskeleton at a nm scale. Most notable are their improvements for field emission scanning electron microscopy (FEGSEM), which when combined with cryo-preparation techniques, has provided insight into a wide range of biological questions including the functionality of bacteria and viruses. This full-colour, must-have book for microscopists traces the development of the biological field emission scanning electron microscopy (FEGSEM) and highlights its current value in biological research as well as its future worth. Biological Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy highlights the present capability of the technique and informs the wider biological science community of its application in basic biological research. Starting with the theory and history of FEGSEM, the book offers chapters covering: operation (strengths and weakness, sample selection, handling, limitations, and preparation); Commercial developments and principals from the major FEGSEM manufacturers (Thermo Scientific, JEOL, HITACHI, ZEISS, Tescan); technical developments essential to bioFEGSEM; cryobio FEGSEM; cryo-FIB; FEGSEM digital-tomography; array tomography; public health research; mammalian cells and tissues; digital challenges (image collection, storage, and automated data analysis); and more. Examines the creation of the biological field emission gun scanning electron microscopy (FEGSEM) and discusses its benefits to the biological research community and future value Provides insight into the design and development philosophy behind current instrument manufacturers Covers sample handling, applications, and key supporting techniques Focuses on the biological applications of field emission gun scanning electron microscopy (FEGSEM), covering both plant and animal research Presented in full colour An important part of the Wiley-Royal Microscopical Series, Biological Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy is an ideal general resource for experienced academic and industrial users of electron microscopy--specifically, those with a need to understand the application, limitations, and strengths of FEGSEM.
Current theories about human memory have been shaped by clinical observations and animal experiments. This doctrine holds that the medial temporal lobe subserves one memory system for explicit or declarative memories, while the basal ganglia subserves a separate memory system for implicit or procedural memories, including habits. Cortical areas outside the medial temporal lobe are said to function in perception, motor control, attention, or other aspects of executive function, but not in memory. 'The Evolution of Memory Systems' advances dramatically different ideas on all counts. It proposes that several memory systems arose during evolution and that they did so for the same general reason: to transcend problems and exploit opportunities encountered by specific ancestors at particular times and places in the distant past. Instead of classifying cortical areas in terms of mutually exclusive perception, executive, or memory functions, the authors show that all cortical areas contribute to memory and that they do so in their own ways-using specialized neural representations. The book also presents a proposal on the evolution of explicit memory. According to this idea, explicit (declarative) memory depends on interactions between a phylogenetically ancient navigation system and a representational system that evolved in humans to represent one's self and others. As a result, people embed representations of themselves into the events they experience and the facts they learn, which leads to the perception of participating in events and knowing facts. 'The Evolution of Memory Systems' is an important new work for students and researchers in neuroscience, psychology, and biology.
As humans evolved, we developed technologies to modify our environment, yet these innovations are increasingly affecting our behavior, biology, and society. Now we must figure out how to function in the world we've created. Over thousands of years, humans have invented ingenious ways to gain mastery over our environment. The ability to communicate, accumulate knowledge collectively, and build on previous innovations has enabled us to change nature. Innovation has allowed us to thrive. The trouble with innovation is that we can seldom go back and undo it. We invent, embrace, and exploit new technologies to modify our environment. Then we modify those technologies to cope with the resulting impacts. Gluckman and Hanson explore what happens when we innovate in a way that leads nature to bite back. To provide nourishment for a growing population, humans developed methods to process and preserve food; but easy access to these energy-dense foods results in obesity. To protect ourselves from dangerous pathogens we embraced cleanliness and invented antibiotics, which has led to rising rates of autoimmune diseases and antibiotic-resistant bacteria. More recently, our growing dependence on the internet and social media has been linked to mental health concerns and declining social cohesion. And we are only at the beginning of the digital transformation that will influence every part of our existence. Our ingenuity has not only changed our world-it has changed us. Focusing on immediate benefits, we rarely pause to consider the longer-term costs of innovation. Yet we are now starting to see how our choices affect the way our brains develop and our bodies function. The implications are profound. Ingenious opens our eyes to the dangers we face and offers solutions we cannot ignore.
Written by an international team of experts, Somatic Genome Variation presents a timely summary of the latest understanding of somatic genome development and variation in plants, animals, and microorganisms. Wide-ranging in coverage, the authors provide an updated view of somatic genomes and genetic theories while also offering interpretations of somatic genome variation. The text provides geneticists, bioinformaticians, biologist, plant scientists, crop scientists, and microbiologists with a valuable overview of this fascinating field of research.
"This user-friendly introduction to likelihood and Bayesian statistical methods for ecology students is set apart by its emphasis on implementation in R. This alone will make it more useful than previous books. In contrast to other texts, Bolker's book explains how to fit models to data in enough detail that even students with little programming experience will be able to follow along. I expect this to become an exceedingly popular textbook."--Stephan B. Munch, Stony Brook University
"Benjamin Bolker is a pioneer in helping ecology students make the leap from a casual understanding of modern statistical methods to a hands-on application of these tools to their own precious data sets. This book shows the lessons learned from teaching this material to several cohorts of graduate students. No other book I've read gives such a good feel for the compromises scientists have to make in searching for good statistical models."--Brian Inouye, Florida State University
"I have no doubt that this book will become a fixture on many ecologists' bookshelves (it certainly will be on mine). With a presentation that is gentle and encouraging rather than jargon-filled and intimidating, it empowers ecologists to develop their own statistical procedures. I strongly recommend it."--Timothy Essington, University of Washington
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