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Co-authored by a leading ophthalmology researcher and a professor with fifteen years of experience teaching writing in the biomedical sciences, The Biomedical Writer addresses ways to use psychology and neuroscience to equip researchers and clinicians with an understanding of how effects like priming, primacy, recency, framing, and apparent paradoxes can make or break your articles and grant proposals. The Biomedical Writer covers everything from making sentences readable, effective, and memorable to working with collaborators under unforgiving deadlines. Going far beyond the basic structure and content of manuscripts and proposals, this guide to writing in biomedicine also focuses on topics that include handling negative results and the most important and neglected step in submitting manuscripts to journals.
"Ecological Applications" offers a progressive examination of the
way ecological theory can be applied to remedy the many problems
confronting us. The text moves through the levels of individual
organisms, populations, communities, and ecosystems, culminating
with the macroecological scale of landscape, regional, and global
issues. The book is designed to grab the reader's interest with
real-life problems but also to instil an understanding of the
fundamentals of ecology.
Applications including species conservation, pest control,
harvest management, biosecurity, restoration, and reserve design
are explored in both terrestrial and aquatic settings. The focus is
on ecological sustainability, but economic and sociopolitical
dimensions related to the sustainable use of natural resources are
"Ecological Applications" is a current and comprehensive guide to the theory and practice of ecology for students and practitioners alike.
Ecosystem services are emerging as a key driver of conservation policy and environmental management. Delivery of ecosystem services depends on the efficient functioning of ecosystems, which in turn depends on biodiversity and environmental conditions. Many marine ecosystems are extremely productive and highly valued, but they are increasingly threatened by human activities. With contributions from leading researchers, this volume synthesises current understanding of the effects on biodiversity and ecosystem functioning caused by a variety of human activities and pressures at play in coastal marine ecosystems. The authors examine the likely consequences for ecosystem service provision, covering key topics including fisheries, aquaculture, physical structures, nutrients, chemical contaminants, marine debris and invasive species. Critically reviewing the latest developments, this is a unique resource both for environmental managers and policy-makers, and for researchers and students in marine ecology and environmental management.
Genomics has transformed the biological sciences. From epidemiology and medicine to evolution and forensics, the ability to determine an organism's complete genetic makeup has changed the way science is done and the questions that can be asked of it. Its most celebrated achievement was the Human Genome Project, a technologically challenging endeavor that took thousands of scientists around the world 13 years and over 3 billion US dollars to complete. In this Very Short Introduction John Archibald explores the science of genomics and its rapidly expanding toolbox. Sequencing a human genome now takes only a few days and costs as little as $1,000. The genomes of simple bacteria and viruses can be sequenced in a matter of hours on a device that fits in the palm of your hand. The resulting sequences can be used to better understand our biology in health and disease and to 'personalize' medicine. Archibald shows how the field of genomics is on the cusp of another quantum leap; the implications for science and society are profound. ABOUT THE SERIES: The Very Short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost every subject area. These pocket-sized books are the perfect way to get ahead in a new subject quickly. Our expert authors combine facts, analysis, perspective, new ideas, and enthusiasm to make interesting and challenging topics highly readable.
This book is a compilation of case studies from different countries and covers contemporary with future prospective for sustainable development of agriculture. The book highlights the real-world as well as future generation situations facing the challenges for the twenty first century will be production of sufficient food and highlights the strengths, weaknesses and opportunities, to meet the needs of fast growing population it is imperative to increase agricultural productivity in an environmentally sustainable manner. Due to imbalanced use of chemical fertilizers and agrochemicals has a considerable negative impact on economy and environmental sustainability of nation, for the sustainable alternative means to solve these problems, the efficient utilization of biological agents have been extensively studied. Naturally existing plant-microbe-environment interactions are utilized in many ways for enhancing plant productivity. A greater understanding of how plants and microbes live together and benefit each other can therefore provide new strategies to improve plant productivity, in most sustainable way. To achieve the objective of sustainable agricultural practices there is a need for understanding both basic and applied aspects of agriculturally important microorganisms. Focus needs to be on transforming agricultural systems from nutrient deficient to nutrient rich soil-plant system. This book is split into two parts, with an aim to provide comprehensive description and highlight a holistic approach. It elucidated various mechanisms of nutrients solubilisation and its importance in enhancement of plant growth, nutrient content, yield of various crops and vegetables as well as soil fertility and health. Unit-1 in this book explains the importance of soil microbes in sustainable crop production. It contains chapters detailing the role and mechanism of action of soil microbes which enhances the productivity via various bio-chemical and molecular channe ls. In unit-2 the role of microbes in plant protection is elaborated. With the help of case studies of food crops, multiple ways in which soil microbes help in fighting and preventing plant diseases is explained. With the given content and layout book will be an all-inclusive collection of information, which will be useful for students, academicians, researchers working in the field of rhizospheric mechanisms, agricultural microbiology, soil microbiology, biotechnology, agronomy and sustainable agriculture and also for policy makers in the area of food security and sustainable agriculture.
Taking us on an incredible journey across centuries and galaxies, accompanied by his characteristic wit, Professor Luke O'Neill explains how it all began, how it all will end and everything in between. Readers will benefit from Luke's insatiable curiosity for life when they dive into this ultimate journey through life and death. Among many fascinating facts, you'll discover the science behind how we got to be so smart, why sex with a caveman was a good idea, the science of finding love, why we follow religions, and how robots will become part of everyday life. Humanology is a humbling reminder that we're just a small speck in a big universe - so sit back and embrace the adventure. `A man who can explain 4.2 billion years of life on Earth and make me laugh at the same time - sheer genius.' Pat Kenny, Newstalk
When data from all aspects of our lives can be relevant to our health - from our habits at the grocery store and our Google searches to our FitBit data and our medical records - can we really differentiate between big data and health big data? Will health big data be used for good, such as to improve drug safety, or ill, as in insurance discrimination? Will it disrupt health care (and the health care system) as we know it? Will it be possible to protect our health privacy? What barriers will there be to collecting and utilizing health big data? What role should law play, and what ethical concerns may arise? This timely, groundbreaking volume explores these questions and more from a variety of perspectives, examining how law promotes or discourages the use of big data in the health care sphere, and also what we can learn from other sectors.
Systems biology refers to the quantitative analysis of the dynamic interactions among several components of a biological system and aims to understand the behavior of the system as a whole. Systems biology involves the development and application of systems theory concepts for the study of complex biological systems through iteration over mathematical modeling, computational simulation and biological experimentation. Systems biology could be viewed as a tool to increase our understanding of biological systems, to develop more directed experiments, and to allow accurate predictions. The Encyclopedia of Systems Biology is conceived as a comprehensive reference work covering all aspects of systems biology, in particular the investigation of living matter involving a tight coupling of biological experimentation, mathematical modeling and computational analysis and simulation. The main goal of the Encyclopedia is to provide a complete reference of established knowledge in systems biology - a `one-stop shop' for someone seeking information on key concepts of systems biology. As a result, the Encyclopedia comprises a broad range of topics relevant in the context of systems biology. The audience targeted by the Encyclopedia includes researchers, developers, teachers, students and practitioners who are interested or working in the field of systems biology. Keeping in mind the varying needs of the potential readership, we have structured and presented the content in a way that is accessible to readers from wide range of backgrounds. In contrast to encyclopedic online resources, which often rely on the general public to author their content, a key consideration in the development of the Encyclopedia of Systems Biology was to have subject matter experts define the concepts and subjects of systems biology.
Finalist for 2009 The Council on Botanical & Horticultural Libraries Literature Award! A Fresh Look at Taxonomy The most fundamental of all biological sciences, taxonomy underpins any long term strategies for reconstructing the great tree of life or salvaging as much biodiversity as possible. Yet we are still unable to say with any certainty how many species are living on the earth. The New Taxonomy describes how a confluence of theory, cyberinfrastructure, and international teamwork can meet this unprecedented research challenge and marks an emerging field, cybertaxonomy. Taxonomy Meets the Challenges of the Biodiversity Crisis An in-depth discussion of the future of descriptive taxonomy, the book examines the efforts of several international groups to catalog the world's biodiversity and make it accessible. An answer to Julien Huxley's The New Systematics, the book marks the beginning of an upward trajectory of taxonomy to meet the unprecedented challenges of the biodiversity crisis. Contemporary taxonomists reclaim the unique mission, goals, and importance of taxonomy as an independent science. They cover technologies such as DNA evidence and its applications, computer-assisted species identification, digital morphology, and E-typification. The book also provides insight into effective ways of organizing taxonomic information and discusses what benefits can be leveraged from a rapid growth of taxonomic knowledge. A Vision and A Strategy for the Future Not much has changed since E.O. Wilson pointed out how little we know of Earth's species in 1985. This book offers a vision and a strategy for changing all that. The first current, unapologetic look at morphology and descriptive taxonomy that points out their incredible importance to science and society, this book frames one of the most constructive responses to biodiversity crises. It is a call to action for the taxonomy and museum communities to come together and to organize, plan, innovate, and initiate the most ambitious period of exploration in the long history of taxonomy.
Knowledge of the origin and spread of farming has been revolutionised in recent years by the application of new scientific techniques, especially the analysis of ancient DNA from human genomes. In this book, Stephen Shennan presents the latest research on the spread of farming by archaeologists, geneticists and other archaeological scientists. He shows that it resulted from a population expansion from present-day Turkey. Using ideas from the disciplines of human behavioural ecology and cultural evolution, he explains how this process took place. The expansion was not the result of 'population pressure' but of the opportunities for increased fertility by colonising new regions that farming offered. The knowledge and resources for the farming 'niche' were passed on from parents to their children. However, Shennan demonstrates that the demographic patterns associated with the spread of farming resulted in population booms and busts, not continuous expansion.
This book is a comprehensive introduction to quantitative approaches to complex adaptive systems. Practically all areas of life on this planet are constantly confronted with complex systems, be it ecosystems, societies, traffic, financial markets, opinion formation and spreading, or the internet and social media. Complex systems are systems composed of many elements that interact strongly with each other, which makes them extremely rich dynamical systems showing a huge range of phenomena. Properties of complex systems that are of particular importance are their efficiency, robustness, resilience, and proneness to collapse. The quantitative tools and concepts needed to understand the co-evolutionary nature of networked systems and their properties are challenging. The book gives a self-contained introduction to these concepts, so that the reader will be equipped with a toolset that allows them to engage in the science of complex systems. Topics covered include random processes of path-dependent processes, co-evolutionary dynamics, dynamics of networks, the theory of scaling, and approaches from statistical mechanics and information theory. The book extends beyond the early classical literature in the field of complex systems and summarizes the methodological progress made over the past 20 years in a clear, structured, and comprehensive way.
By identifying the structure of DNA, the molecule of life, Francis Crick and James Watson revolutionized biochemistry and won themselves a Nobel Prize. At the time, Watson was only twenty-four, a young scientist hungry to make his mark. His uncompromisingly honest account of the heady days of their thrilling sprint against other world-class researchers to solve one of science's greatest mysteries gives a dazzlingly clear picture of a world of brilliant scientists with great gifts, very human ambitions, and bitter rivalries. With humility unspoiled by false modesty, Watson relates his and Crick's desperate efforts to beat Linus Pauling to the Holy Grail of life sciences, the identification of the basic building block of life. Never has a scientist been so truthful in capturing in words the flavor of his work.
A comprehensive listing of all Euphorbiaceae and Pandaceae. Laid out alphabetically by genera, it is a vital reference for botanists, students, collectors and growers. It draws attention to current systematic knowledge and research, synonyms, life forms and distribution, providing useful information on cultivation and care.
This exposition of the major ideas of Georgescu-Roegen should help readers understand his work - both the revolutionary boldness and originality of many of his ideas and the careful logic with which he developed them. Georgescu-Roegen's work encompassed environmental economics and methodology.
Would you ask a honeybee to point at a screen and recognise a facial expression? Or ask an elephant to climb a tree? While humans and non-human species may inhabit the same world, it's likely that our perceptual worlds differ significantly. Emphasising Uexkull's concept of 'umwelt', this volume offers practical advice on how animal cognition can be successfully tested while avoiding anthropomorphic conclusions. The chapters describe the capabilities of a range of animals - from ants, to lizards to chimpanzees - revealing how to successfully investigate animal cognition across a variety of taxa. The book features contributions from leading cognition researchers, each offering a series of examples and practical tips drawn from their own experience. Together, the authors synthesise information on current field and laboratory methods, providing researchers and graduate students with methodological advice on how to formulate research questions, design experiments and adapt studies to different taxa.
Throughout history, the influence of the full Moon on humans and animals has featured in folklore and myths. Yet it has become increasingly apparent that many organisms really are influenced indirectly, and in some cases directly, by the lunar cycle. Breeding behaviour among some marine animals has been demonstrated to be controlled by internal circalunar biological clocks, to the point where lunar-daily and lunar-monthly patterns of Moon-generated tides are embedded in their genes. Yet, intriguingly, Moon-related behaviours are also found in dry land and fresh water species living far beyond the influence of any tides. In Moonstruck, Ernest Naylor dismisses the myths concerning the influence of the Moon, but shows through a range of fascinating examples the remarkable real effects that we are now finding through science. He suggests that since the advent of evolution on Earth, which occurred shortly after the formation of the Moon, animals evolved adaptations to the lunar cycle, and considers whether, if Moon-clock genes occur in other animals, they also might exist in us?
Ecosystems and Nature brings together the work of leading authorities in biodiversity research. It provides readers with a broad interdisciplinary perspective on the major issues in biodiversity, including economics, natural science, management and ethics. The collection is divided into four main sections: part I introduces some fundamental scientific and socio-economic concepts and analysis in order to illustrate the complexities involved in the human-ecosystems interface; part II deals with the valuation of ecosystems with special emphasis on the main biomes, faults, wetlands, marine systems, grasslands and agriculture; part III covers the problem of value appropriation and the relevant constraints and available policy instruments; the final section focuses on the difficult ethical issues that surround utilization and conservation of biodiversity.
Introduction to Bioethics provides a comprehensive and yet concise coverage of the broad field of bioethics, dealing with the scientific, medical, social, religious and, where appropriate, political and international concerns. The book introduces the various modes of ethical thinking and then helps the reader to apply that thinking to issues relating to the environment, to plants and animals and to humans. Written in an accessible manner, Introduction to Bioethics focuses on key issues directly relevant to those studying courses ranging from medicine through to biology and agriculture. Ethical analysis is threaded throughout each chapter and supplementary examples are included to stimulate further thought. In addition there are numerous mini-case studies to aid understanding, together with key references and further reading.
This book offers a detailed review of the remarkable advances that have been made in research on the pathogenesis of a number of neuroimmunological diseases, as well as outlining novel treatments including the use of monoclonal antibodies. Written by renowned experts who have made major contributions in the field, such as identifying neuromyelitis optica as an immunopathological clinical condition, identifying the role of ganglioside and ganglioside-complex antibodies in Guillain-Barre syndrome, and developing a novel treatment for POEMS (polyneuropathy, organomegaly, endocrinopathy, M-protein, and skin changes) syndrome, the book summarizes recent advances in basic and clinical research. Neuroimmunological Diseases is a useful resource for not only researchers but also neurologists who are engaged in the management of neuroimmunological diseases.
This book presents a summary of the multimodal analysis of user-generated multimedia content (UGC). Several multimedia systems and their proposed frameworks are also discussed. First, improved tag recommendation and ranking systems for social media photos, leveraging both content and contextual information, are presented. Next, we discuss the challenges in determining semantics and sentics information from UGC to obtain multimedia summaries. Subsequently, we present a personalized music video generation system for outdoor user-generated videos. Finally, we discuss approaches for multimodal lecture video segmentation techniques. This book also explores the extension of these multimedia system with the use of heterogeneous continuous streams.
Ecologists, land managers and policymakers continue to search for the most effective ways to manage biological invasions. An emerging lesson is that proactive management can limit negative impacts, reduce risks and save money. This book explores how to detect and respond to alien plant incursions, summarising the most current literature, providing practical recommendations and reviewing the conditions and processes necessary to achieve prevention, eradication and containment. Chapter topics include assessing invasiveness and the impact of alien plants, how to improve surveillance efforts, how to make timely management decisions, and how legislation and strategic planning can support management. Each chapter includes text boxes written by international experts that discuss topical issues such as spatial predictive modelling, costing invasions, biosecurity, biofuels, and dealing with conflict species.
An account of the complex relationship between technology and romanticism that links nineteenth-century monsters, automata, and mesmerism with twenty-first-century technology's magic devices and romantic cyborgs. Romanticism and technology are widely assumed to be opposed to each other. Romanticism-understood as a reaction against rationalism and objectivity-is perhaps the last thing users and developers of information and communication technology (ICT) think about when they engage with computer programs and electronic devices. And yet, as Mark Coeckelbergh argues in this book, this way of thinking about technology is itself shaped by romanticism and obscures a better and deeper understanding of our relationship to technology. Coeckelbergh describes the complex relationship between technology and romanticism that links nineteenth-century monsters, automata, and mesmerism with twenty-first-century technology's magic devices and romantic cyborgs. Coeckelbergh argues that current uses of ICT can be interpreted as attempting a marriage of Enlightenment rationalism and romanticism. He describes the "romantic dialectic," when this new kind of material romanticism, particularly in the form of the cyborg as romantic figure, seems to turn into its opposite. He shows that both material romanticism and the objections to it are still part of modern thinking, and part of the romantic dialectic. Reflecting on what he calls "the end of the machine," Coeckelbergh argues that to achieve a more profound critique of contemporary technologies and culture, we need to explore not only different ways of thinking but also different technologies-and that to accomplish the former we require the latter.
Charles Darwin (1809-1882) is best known as a biologist and natural
historian rather than a philosopher. However, in this invaluable
book, Tim Lewens shows in a clear and accessible manner how
important Darwin is for philosophy and how his work has shaped and
challenged the very nature of the subject.
Biotechnological advancements during the last half-century have forced humanity to come to grips with the possibility of a post-human future. The ever-evolving opinions about how society should anticipate this biotechnological frontier demand a language that will describe our new future and discuss its ethics. 'After the Genome' brings together expert voices from the realms of ethics, rhetoric, religion, and science to help lead complex conversations about end-of-life care, the relationship between sin and medicine, and the protection of human rights in a post-human world. With chapters on the past and future of the science-warfare narrative, the rhetoric of care and its effect on those suffering, black rhetoric and biotechnology, planning for the end of life, regenerative medicine, and more, 'After the Genome' yields great insight into the human condition and moves us forward toward a genuinely humane approach to who we are and who we are becoming.
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