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The discovery of mirror neurons caused a revolution in neuroscience and psychology. Nevertheless, because of their profound impact within life sciences, mirror neuron are still the subject of numerous debates concerning their origins and their functions. With more than 20 years of research in this area, it is timely to synthesise the expanding literature on this topic. 'New frontiers in Mirror Neurons' provides a comprehensive overview of the latest advances in mirror neurons research - accessible both to experts and to non-experts. In the book, leading scholars draw on the latest research to examine methodological approaches, theoretical implications, and the latest findings on mirror neurons research. A broad range of topics are covered within the book: basic findings and new concepts in action-perception theory, functional properties and evolution, development, and clinical implications. In particular, the last two sections of the book outline the importance of the plasticity and development of the mirror neuron system. This knowledge will be key in future research for helping us understand possible disorders associated with impairments in the mirror neurons system, as well as in helping us design new therapeutic tools for interventions within the field of neurodevelopmental disorders and in neurorehabilitation. 'New Frontiers in Mirror Neurons' is an exciting new work for neuroscientists, psychologists, and philosophers of mind.
Knowledge of the origin and spread of farming has been revolutionised in recent years by the application of new scientific techniques, especially the analysis of ancient DNA from human genomes. In this book, Stephen Shennan presents the latest research on the spread of farming by archaeologists, geneticists and other archaeological scientists. He shows that it resulted from a population expansion from present-day Turkey. Using ideas from the disciplines of human behavioural ecology and cultural evolution, he explains how this process took place. The expansion was not the result of 'population pressure' but of the opportunities for increased fertility by colonising new regions that farming offered. The knowledge and resources for the farming 'niche' were passed on from parents to their children. However, Shennan demonstrates that the demographic patterns associated with the spread of farming resulted in population booms and busts, not continuous expansion.
To provide useful and meaningful information, long-term ecological programs need to implement solid and efficient statistical approaches for collecting and analyzing data. This volume provides rigorous guidance on quantitative issues in monitoring, with contributions from world experts in the field. These experts have extensive experience in teaching fundamental and advanced ideas and methods to natural resource managers, scientists and students. The chapters present a range of tools and approaches, including detailed coverage of variance component estimation and quantitative selection among alternative designs; spatially balanced sampling; sampling strategies integrating design- and model-based approaches; and advanced analytical approaches such as hierarchical and structural equation modelling. Making these tools more accessible to ecologists and other monitoring practitioners across numerous disciplines, this is a valuable resource for any professional whose work deals with ecological monitoring. Supplementary example software code is available online at www.cambridge.org/9780521191548.
It's a Jungle in There pursues the hypothesis that the overarching theory of biology, Darwin's theory, should be the overarching theory of cognitive psychology. David Rosenbaum, a cognitive psychologist and former editor of the Journal of Experimental Psychology, proposes that the phenomena of cognitive psychology can be understood as emergent interactions among neural elements that compete and cooperate in a kind of inner jungle. This perspective allows Rosenbaum to present cognitive psychology in a new way, both for students (for whom the book is mainly intended) and for seasoned investigators (who may be looking for a fresh way to approach and understand their material). Rather than depicting the discipline as a rag-tag collection of miscellaneous facts, as has generally been the case in textbooks, this book presents cognitive psychology under a single rubric: "It's a jungle in there." Making continual reference to hypothetical neural creatures eking out their livings in a tough environment, the book offers an over-arching principle that will both entertain readers and motivate more in-depth study of the mind and brain.
You could be a genius . . . In The Genius Within, award-winning science writer David Adam reveals how frontier neuroscience can enhance your intelligence - making you smarter, sharper and brighter than you ever thought you could be. What if you have more intelligence than you realize? What if there is a genius inside you, just waiting to be released? And what if the route to better brain power is not hard work or thousands of hours of practice but to simply swallow a pill? Sunday Times bestseller Dr David Adam, author of The Man Who Couldn't Stop, explores the ground-breaking neuroscience of cognitive enhancement that is changing the way the brain and the mind works - to make it better, sharper, more focused and, yes, more intelligent. Sharing his own experiments with revolutionary smart drugs and electrical brain stimulation, he delves into the sinister history of intelligence tests, meets savants and brain hackers and reveals how he boosted his own IQ to cheat his way into Mensa. Going to the heart of how we consider, measure and judge mental ability, The Genius Within asks difficult questions about the science that could rank and define us, and inevitably shape our future. 'Witty, sharp and enlightening . . . This book will make you smarter' Adam Rutherford, science writer and presenter of BBC Radio 4's Inside Science.
The New Benchmark for Understanding the Latest Developments of Ion Channels Ion channels control the electrical properties of neurons and cardiac cells, mediate the detection and response to sensory stimuli, and regulate the response to physical stimuli. They can often interact with the cellular environment due to their location at the surface of cells. In nonexcitable tissues, they also help regulate basic salt balance critical for homeostasis. All of these features make ion channels important targets for pharmaceuticals. Handbook of Ion Channels illustrates the fundamental importance of these membrane proteins to human health and disease. Renowned researchers from around the world introduce the technical aspects of ion channel research, provide a modern guide to the properties of major ion channels, and present powerful methods for modeling ion channel diseases and performing clinical trials for ion channel drugs. Conveniently divided into five parts, the handbook first describes the basic concepts of permeation and gating mechanisms, balancing classic theories and the latest developments. The second part covers the principles and practical issues of both traditional and new ion channel techniques and their applications to channel research. The third part organizes the material to follow the superfamilies of ion channels. This part focuses on the classification, properties, gating mechanisms, function, and pharmacology of established and novel channel types. The fourth part addresses ion channel regulation as well as trafficking and distribution. The final part examines several ion channel-related diseases, discussing genetics, mechanisms, and pharmaceutical advances.
A comprehensive survey of eleven different woods, this book is a vivid account of the flora and fauna that comprise the various habitats of our large and small woods. More than a survey though, this book looks beyond the individual stories of the trees, plants, animals and insects and constitutes a readable account of the inter-dependence of species so vital for the preservation of biodiversity. In her lively and candid style, this timely publication taps immediately into one of the major challenges faced by the environment today. Stunning photography and absorbing text combine with authoritative surveys to make this book both informative and enchanting. Invaluable reference and a visual treat.
W.D.Hamilton (1936-2000) was responsible for a revolution in thinking about evolutionary biology - a revolution that changed our understanding of life itself. He played a central role in the realization that what matters in evolution is not the survival of the individual but of the survival of its genes. This provided the solution to the long standing problem of animal altruism that vexed even Darwin himself, and in due course resulted in terms like selfish genes, kin selection, and sociobiology becoming familiar to a wider public. Hamilton went on to solve many more major problems, and open up ever new fields - he shaped much of our current understanding of central problems including the evolution of sexual reproduction and ageing. He became world famous and garnered international prizes. But this is all in hindsight. In fact, Hamilton's recognition came late - his career is a classic case of misunderstood genius. In this illuminating and moving biography Ullica Segerstrale documents Hamilton's extraordinary life and work, revealing a man of immense intellectual curiosity, an uncompromising truth-seeker, a naturalist and jungle explorer, a risk-taker, an unconventional scientist with a poet's soul and a deep concern for life on earth and mankind's future.
Provides a highly visual, readily accessible introduction to the main events that occur during neural development and their mechanisms Building Brains: An Introduction to Neural Development, 2nd Edition describes how brains construct themselves, from simple beginnings in the early embryo to become the most complex living structures on the planet. It explains how cells first become neural, how their proliferation is controlled, what regulates the types of neural cells they become, how neurons connect to each other, how these connections are later refined under the influence of neural activity, and why some neurons normally die. This student-friendly guide stresses and justifies the generally-held belief that a greater knowledge of how nervous systems construct themselves will help us find new ways of treating diseases of the nervous system that are thought to originate from faulty development, such as autism spectrum disorders, epilepsy, and schizophrenia. A concise, illustrated guide focusing on core elements and emphasizing common principles of developmental mechanisms, supplemented by suggestions for further reading Text boxes provide detail on major advances, issues of particular uncertainty or controversy, and examples of human diseases that result from abnormal development Introduces the methods for studying neural development, allowing the reader to understand the main evidence underlying research advances Offers a balanced mammalian/non-mammalian perspective (and emphasizes mechanisms that are conserved across species), drawing on examples from model organisms like the fruit fly, nematode worm, frog, zebrafish, chick, mouse and human Associated Website includes all the figures from the textbook and explanatory movies Filled with full-colorartwork that reinforces important concepts; an extensive glossary and definitions that help readers from different backgrounds; and chapter summaries that stress important points and aid revision, Building Brains: An Introduction to Neural Development, 2nd Edition is perfect for undergraduate students and postgraduates who may not have a background in neuroscience and/or molecular genetics. "This elegant book ranges with ease and authority over the vast field of developmental neuroscience. This excellent textbook should be on the shelf of every neuroscientist, as well as on the reading list of every neuroscience student." --Sir Colin Blakemore, Oxford University "With an extensive use of clear and colorful illustrations, this book makes accessible to undergraduates the beauty and complexity of neural development. The book fills a void in undergraduate neuroscience curricula." --Professor Mark Bear, Picower Institute, MIT. Highly Commended, British Medical Association Medical Book Awards 2012 Published with the New York Academy of Sciences
In recent years, a growing number of scientific careers have been brought down by scientists' failure to satisfactorily confront ethical challenges. Scientists need to learn early on what constitutes acceptable ethical behavior in their professions. Ethical Principles for the Behavioral and Brain Sciences encourages readers to engage in discussions of the diverse ethical dilemmas encountered by behavioral and brain scientists. The goal is to allow scientists to reflect on ethical issues before potentially confronting them. Each chapter is authored by a prominent scientist in the field who describes a dilemma, how it was resolved, and what the scientist would do differently if confronted with the situation again. Featuring commentary throughout and a culmination of opinions and experiences shared by leaders in the field, the goal of this book is not to provide correct answers to real-world ethical dilemmas. Instead, authors pose the dilemmas, discuss their experiences and viewpoints on them, and speculate on alternative reactions to the issues. The firsthand insights shared throughout the book will provide an important basis for reflection among students and professionals on how to resolve the kinds of ethical challenges they may face in their own careers."
The main objective of this book is to integrate environmental knowledge observed in local agriculture, based on the understanding of soils science and ecology, and to propose possible technical solutions and a more integrated approach to tropical agriculture. The chapters describe and analyze the ecological and technical countermeasures available for mitigating environmental degradation due to the increasing agricultural activities by humans, based on our scientific understanding of traditional agriculture in the tropics. This is an effective approach, as such ecological and technical tools previously involved in traditional activities are expected to be easily incorporated into present agricultural systems. The book starts with a rather classical pedological issue and analyzed traditional agricultural practices with different resource management strategies in terms of their modification of natural biological processes. It focuses on the present situation of tropical agriculture; that is, resource utilization in modern agriculture after application of technical innovation (increased application of chemical fertilizers as well as agricultural chemicals). Here, possible technical approaches to resource management that reasonably support agricultural production whilst mitigating environmental degradation are discussed. The negative impacts of agricultural development on our environment are rapidly growing, yet we are increasingly dependent on the agricultural sector for food and energy. The situation is similar in the tropics, where subsistence agriculture with low input management has long comprised most agricultural systems. Comparison of ecological and/or agronomical studies between different continents are still rare; therefore, this analysis may help clarify what is an essential problem when considering technical transportation beyond continents and/or between temperate and tropical regions.
In the new edition of this highly successful book, Malcolm Hunter
and new co-author James Gibbs offer a thorough introduction to the
fascinating and important field of conservation biology, focusing
on what can be done to maintain biodiversity through management of
ecosystems and populations.
Artwork from the book is available to instructors online at www.blackwellpublishing.com/hunter and by request on CD-ROM.
Is it possible to explain and predict the development of living things? What is development? Articulate answers to these seemingly innocuous questions are far from straightforward. To date, no systematic, targeted effort has been made to construct a unifying theory of development. This novel work offers a unique exploration of the foundations of ontogeny by asking how the development of living things should be understood. It explores the key concepts of developmental biology, asks whether general principles of development can be discovered, and examines the role of models and theories. The two editors (one a biologist with long interest in the theoretical aspects of his discipline, the other a philosopher of science who has mainly worked on biological systems) have assembled a team of leading contributors who are representative of the scientific and philosophical community within which a diversity of thoughts are growing, and out of which a theory of development may eventually emerge. They analyse a wealth of approaches to concepts, models and theories of development, such as gene regulatory networks, accounts based on systems biology and on physics of soft matter, the different articulations of evolution and development, symbiont-induced development, as well as the widely discussed concepts of positional information and morphogenetic field, the idea of a 'programme' of development and its critiques, and the long-standing opposition between preformationist and epigenetic conceptions of development. Towards a Theory of Development is primarily aimed at students and researchers in the fields of 'evo-devo', developmental biology, theoretical biology, systems biology, biophysics, and the philosophy of science.
Even experienced professionals might minimise the prevalence of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) among certain groups of patients. Decreased attention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity are sensitive but non-specific behavioural patterns, frequently reported in a wide range of children and adults with different disorders. Therefore, the existence of ADHD might become "transparent" for both the patients and the professionals. Such transparency might lead to a non-accurate diagnosis, harm the treatment aspects and have potential non beneficial prognostic aspects. Among children and adults with mental retardation, autistic spectrum disorders, and drug abuse, as well as among gifted children, children with sensory modulation disorders, and children who were born IUGR, the diagnosis of ADHD might be very challenging. It seems that among these "double-diagnosis" populations there is a higher prevalence of patients with ADHD than in the general population, yet the exact prevalence, diagnostic difficulties and treatment methods have not been clearly estimated or established. It also seems that the percentage of ADHD among adolescents and children with chronic illness is still underestimated, since its clinical characteristics tend to be different. During the last years there have been growing numbers of publications in this field, but due to the wide range of interested professionals, these studies are published in a wide range of journals, usually missing some of their "target" populations. There is a lack of volumes gathering relevant data for a broad range of interested professionals from different specialties. The objective of this book is to serve as a useful tool for a wide range of professionals with a special interest in the unusual aspects of ADHD in order to increase their knowledge, sensitivity and treatment methods among our transparent patients.
2019 Foreword Indie Silver Award Winner for Science Welcome to the biggest, fastest, deadliest science book you'll ever read. The world's largest land mammal could help us end cancer. The fastest bird is showing us how to solve a century-old engineering mystery. The oldest tree is giving us insights into climate change. The loudest whale is offering clues about the impact of solar storms. For a long time, scientists ignored superlative life forms as outliers. Increasingly, though, researchers are coming to see great value in studying plants and animals that exist on the outermost edges of the bell curve. As it turns out, there's a lot of value in paying close attention to the "oddballs" nature has to offer. Go for a swim with a ghost shark, the slowest-evolving creature known to humankind, which is teaching us new ways to think about immunity. Get to know the axolotl, which has the longest-known genome and may hold the secret to cellular regeneration. Learn about Monorhaphis chuni, the oldest discovered animal, which is providing insights into the connection between our terrestrial and aquatic worlds. Superlative is the story of extreme evolution, and what we can learn from it about ourselves, our planet, and the cosmos. It's a tale of crazy-fast cheetahs and super-strong beetles, of microbacteria and enormous plants, of whip-smart dolphins and killer snakes. This book will inspire you to change the way you think about the world and your relationship to everything in it.
Butterflies are one of the world's most beloved insects. From butterfly gardens to zoo exhibitions, they are one of the few insects we've encouraged to infiltrate our lives. Yet, what has drawn us to these creatures in the first place? And what are their lives really like? In this ground breaking book, science journalist Wendy Williams reveals the inner lives of these "flying flowers"-creatures far more intelligent and tougher than we give them credit for. Monarch butterflies migrate thousands of miles each year from Canada to Mexico. Other species have learned how to fool ants into taking care of them. Butterflies' scales are inspiring researchers to create new life-saving medical technology. Williams takes readers to butterfly habitats across the globe and introduces us to not only various species, but to the scientists who have dedicated their lives to studying them. Coupled with years of research and knowledge gained from experts in the field, this accessible "butterfly biography" explores the ancient partnership between these special creatures and humans, and why they continue to fascinate us today. Touching, eye-opening, and incredibly profound, The Language of Butterflies reveals the critical role they play in our world.
Whereas genetic studies have traditionally focused on explaining heritance of single traits and their phenotypes, recent technological advances have made it possible to comprehensively dissect the genetic architecture of complex traits and quantify how genes interact to shape phenotypes. This exciting new area has been termed systems genetics and is born out of a synthesis of multiple fields, integrating a range of approaches and exploiting our increased ability to obtain quantitative and detailed measurements on a broad spectrum of phenotypes. Gathering the contributions of leading scientists, both computational and experimental, this book shows how experimental perturbations can help us to understand the link between genotype and phenotype. A snapshot of current research activity and state-of-the-art approaches to systems genetics are provided, including work from model organisms such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Drosophila melanogaster, as well as from human studies.
In this ground-breaking work, philosopher and cognitive scientist Andy Clark turns a common view of the human mind upside down. In stark opposition to familiar models of human cognition, Surfing Uncertainty explores exciting new theories in neuroscience, psychology, and artificial intelligence that reveal minds like ours to be prediction machines-devices that have evolved to anticipate the incoming streams of sensory stimulation before they arrive. This keeps minds like ours a few steps ahead of the game, poised to respond rapidly and apparently effortlessly to threats and opportunities as (and sometimes even before) they arise. Creatures thus equipped are more than simple response machines. They are knowing agents deep in the business of understanding their worlds. Such agents cope with changing and uncertain worlds by combining sensory evidence with informed prediction. Remarkably, the learning that makes neural prediction possible can itself be accomplished by the ceaseless effort to make better and better predictions. A single fundamental trick (the trick of trying to predict your own sensory inputs) thus enables learning, empowers moment-by-moment perception, and installs a rich understanding of the surrounding world. Action itself now appears in a new and revealing light. For action is not so much a 'response to an input' as a neat and efficient way of selecting the next 'input'. As mobile embodied agents we are forever intervening, actively bringing about the very streams of sensory information that our brains are simultaneously trying to predict. This binds perception and action in a delicate dance, a virtuous circle in which neural circuits animate, and are animated by, the movements of our own bodies. Some of our actions, in turn, structure the physical, social, and technological worlds around us. This moves the goalposts by altering the very things we need to engage and predict. Surfing Uncertainty brings work on the predictive brain into full and satisfying contact with work on the embodied and culturally situated mind. What emerges is a bold new vision of what brains do that places circular causal flows and the active structuring of the environment, center-stage. In place of cognitive couch potatoes idly awaiting the next sensory inputs, Clark's journey reveals us as proactive predictavores, skilfully surfing the waves of sensory stimulation.
This volume is a collection of informative chapters on various subjects. It provides information on the effects of pesticides on avian fauna, the impact of microbial ecosystems to solve environmental problems, a detailed review on issues in membrane distillations process, microbial sensor for detection of pollutants, microbial biosurfactants, biotechnological applications of immobilised microalgae as well as a review on Biochar production. Most importantly, this book contains a critical review on microbial degradation of plastic wastes and highlights the Biodegradation and Bioremediation of Herbicides.
This volume explores the latest techniques used to better understand the brain reward system with respect to neurotransmitters, brain structures, and connectivity. This book aims to show readers tested laboratory protocols to study neural circuitry and biological processes implicated in reward, and in neuropsychiatric disorders such as substance use disorders. The chapters are organized into four parts. Part One addresses classical techniques to study the brain reward system, including the curve shift paradigm in intracranial self-stimulation, stereotaxic surgery in rodents, and the use of brain lesions. Part Two focuses on neurochemical, behavioral, and chemogenetic techniques such as immunofluorescence for assessing adult hippocampal neurogenesis, and fast-scan voltammetry. Part Three highlights methods used to assess the rewarding potential of drugs including intracranial self-stimulation combined with drug injection, and the use of viral vectors. The Fourth Part introduces imaging and electrophysiology techniques such as positron emission tomography, in vivo electrophysiology, and fiber photometry. In the Neuromethods series style, chapters include the kind of detail and key advice from the specialists needed to get successful results in your laboratory. Cutting-edge and thorough, The Brain Reward System is a valuable resource for researchers interested in learning more about the current methods used to study the delineation of the brain reward system.
Why do we grow up to look, act, and feel as we do? Through most of the twentieth century, scientists and laypeople answered this question by referring to two factors alone: our experiences and our genes. But recent discoveries about how genes work have revealed a new way to understand the developmental origins of our characteristics. These discoveries have emerged from the new science of behavioral epigenetics-and just as the whole world has now heard of DNA, "epigenetics" will be a household word in the near future. Behavioral epigenetics is important because it explains how our experiences get under our skin and influence the activity of our genes. Because of breakthroughs in this field, we now know that the genes we're born with don't determine if we'll end up easily stressed, likely to fall ill with cancer, or possessed of a powerful intellect. Instead, what matters is what our genes do. And because research in behavioral epigenetics has shown that our experiences influence how our genes function, this work has changed how scientists think about nature, nurture, and human development. Diets, environmental toxins, parenting styles, and other environmental factors all influence genetic activity through epigenetic mechanisms; this discovery has the potential to alter how doctors treat diseases, and to change how mental health professionals treat conditions from schizophrenia to post-traumatic stress disorder. These advances could also force a reworking of the theory of evolution that dominated twentieth-century biology, and even change how we think about human nature itself. In spite of the importance of this research, behavioral epigenetics is still relatively unknown to non-biologists. The Developing Genome is an introduction to this exciting new discipline; it will allow readers without a background in biology to learn about this work and its revolutionary implications.
Based on the integrated and holistic approach, the book systematically and comprehensively covers a general account of taxonomical, morphological, anatomical and physiological features of chordates. The text does not restrict discussion only to a representative genus in each class, but also provides knowledge of other important genera, and gives their general account and comparative features to help students understand animal diversity in the phylum. Besides the type study, the book also deals with the developmental and ecological aspects of the genera discussed. The book is intended to fulfill the curriculum need of B.Sc. Zoology, Life Sciences, Biological Sciences and Animal Sciences as well as M.Sc. Zoology students for their core course on chordata (chordates). Additionally, the students appearing for various competitive examinations and entrance test for postgraduate courses in the related fields will find this book useful. KEY FEATURES: Incorporates the topics of modern research such as Fish as Biocontrol Agents, Mimicry in Birds, Nesting and Brooding Behaviour of Birds, and so on. Compares important genera of the class-morphological, anatomical and adaptive features. Well-illustrated coloured diagrams with meticulous details and labelling for clear understanding of anatomy. Important information nested in boxes, points to remember and classification in the form of flow charts add strength to each chapter. Provides a variety of pedagogically arranged interactive exercises for self assessment-from fill in the blanks, true/false statements, give reasons to MCQs. Also, the readers can check their answers online at www.phindia/pandey-mathur.
SHORTLISTED FOR THE GOODREADS BEST SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY BOOK AWARD Motion sickness. Nightmares. Forgetting people's names. Why did I walk into this room?? For something supposedly so brilliant and evolutionarily advanced, the human brain is pretty messy, fallible and disorganised. In The Idiot Brain neuroscientist Dean Burnett celebrates the imperfections of the human brain in all their glory, and the impact of these quirks on our daily lives. Expertly researched and entertainingly written, this book is for anyone who has wondered why their brain seems to be sabotaging their life, and what on earth it is really up to.
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