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What teeth can teach us about the evolution of the human species Whether we realize it or not, we carry in our mouths the legacy of our evolution. Our teeth are like living fossils that can be studied and compared to those of our ancestors to teach us how we became human. In Evolution's Bite, noted paleoanthropologist Peter Ungar brings together for the first time cutting-edge advances in understanding human evolution and climate change with new approaches to uncovering dietary clues from fossil teeth to present a remarkable investigation into the ways that teeth--their shape, chemistry, and wear--reveal how we came to be. Ungar describes how a tooth's "foodprints"--distinctive patterns of microscopic wear and tear--provide telltale details about what an animal actually ate in the past. These clues, combined with groundbreaking research in paleoclimatology, demonstrate how a changing climate altered the food options available to our ancestors, what Ungar calls the biospheric buffet. When diets change, species change, and Ungar traces how diet and an unpredictable climate determined who among our ancestors was winnowed out and who survived, as well as why we transitioned from the role of forager to farmer. By sifting through the evidence--and the scars on our teeth--Ungar makes the important case for what might or might not be the most natural diet for humans. Traveling the four corners of the globe and combining scientific breakthroughs with vivid narrative, Evolution's Bite presents a unique dental perspective on our astonishing human development.
Signs, artwork, stories, and photographs from the March for Science Movement and community. In January 2017, an idea on social media launched the global March for Science movement. In a few short months, more than 600 cities, 250 partners, and countless volunteers banded together to organize a historical event that drew people of all backgrounds, interests, and political leanings. On April 22, 2017, more than one million marchers worldwide took to the streets to stand up for the importance of science in society and their own lives-and each of them has a story to tell. Through signs, artwork, stories, and photographs, Science Not Silence shares some of the voices from the March for Science movement. From Antarctica to the North Pole, from under the sea to the tops of mountains, whether alone or alongside thousands, people marched for science. A citizen scientist with advanced ALS spent countless hours creating an avatar using technology that tracks his eye movements so that he could give a speech. Couples carrying babies born using in vitro fertilization dressed them in shirts that said "Made By Science." The former U.S. Chief Data Scientist spoke about what really makes America great. Activists championed the ways science should serve marginalized communities. Artists created stunning signs, patients marched with the doctors who saved them, and scientists marched with the community that supports them. Every story is a call to action. The march was just the beginning. Now the real work begins. Science Not Silence celebrates the success of the movement, amplifies the passion and creativity of its supporters, and reminds everyone how important it is to keep marching.
Developed by internationally renowned neurosurgeons, this unique book is designed for students of psychology and the biological sciences, and medical, dental, and nursing students.
The ideal textbook for non-science majors, this lively and engaging introduction encourages students to ask questions, assess data critically and think like a scientist. Building on the success of the previous editions, Dinosaurs has been reorganised and extensively rewritten in response to instructor and student feedback. It continues to make science accessible and relevant through its clear explanations and extensive illustrations. Updated to reflect recent fossil discoveries and to include new taxa, the text guides students through the dinosaur groups, emphasising scientific concepts rather than presenting endless facts. It is grounded in the common language of modern evolutionary biology - phylogenetic systematics - so that students examine dinosaurs as professional paleontologists do. The key emerging theme of feathered dinosaurs, and the many implications of feathers, have been integrated throughout the book, highlighted by the inclusion of stunning new photographs in this beautifully illustrated text, now in full colour throughout.
What is 'legal' about bioethics? What are the ideas and artefacts that bioethics encompasses, and how are they related to law? What is the role of law in bioethics? In this work, Calvin Ho attempts to address these questions in the context of the governance of human pluripotent stem cell research. In essence, he argues that the hybridization of law, through processes, devices and techniques of juridification, has helped to constitute bioethics as a public sphere and an emergent civic epistemology.Drawing on his multi-sited ethnographic fieldwork and on Actor-Network-Theory, Ho explains how the law has, through bioethics, contributed to the scientific and public understanding of human pluripotent stem cell research and its artefacts, particularly the embryo and human-animal combinations. Although the focus of his work is on bioethical developments in Singapore over a period of more than 15 years, parallel developments in key jurisdictions (especially the United States of America and the United Kingdom) and in international science policy are also evaluated. It is through appreciating how it has progressed that bioethics will be better able to engage with future challenges presented by advances in human embryo research and gene editing techniques, among others.
An authoritative guide to theory and applications of heat transfer in humans Theory and Applications of Heat Transfer in Humans 2V Set offers a reference to the field of heating and cooling of tissue, and associated damage. The author a noted expert in the field presents, in this book, the fundamental physics and physiology related to the field, along with some of the recent applications, all in one place, in such a way as to enable and enrich both beginner and advanced readers. The book provides a basic framework that can be used to obtain decent estimates of tissue temperatures for various applications involving tissue heating and/or cooling, and also presents ways to further develop more complex methods, if needed, to obtain more accurate results. The book is arranged in three sections: The first section, named Physics , presents fundamental mathematical frameworks that can be used as is or combined together forming more complex tools to determine tissue temperatures; the second section, named Physiology , presents ideas and data that provide the basis for the physiological assumptions needed to develop successful mathematical tools; and finally, the third section, named Applications , presents examples of how the marriage of the first two sections are used to solve problems of today and tomorrow. This important text is the vital resource that: * Offers a reference book in the field of heating and cooling of tissue, and associated damage. * Provides a comprehensive theoretical and experimental basis with biomedical applications * Shows how to develop and implement both, simple and complex mathematical models to predict tissue temperatures * Includes simple examples and results so readers can use those results directly or adapt them for their applications Designed for students, engineers, and other professionals, a comprehensive text to the field of heating and cooling of tissue that includes proven theories with applications. The author reveals how to develop simple and complex mathematical models, to predict tissue heating and/or cooling, and associated damage.
This engaging book explores the dynamic relationship between evolutionary science and musical culture in Victorian Britain, drawing upon a wealth of popular scientific and musical literature to contextualize evolutionary theories of the Darwinian and non-Darwinian revolutions. Bennett Zon uses musical culture to question the hegemonic role ascribed to Darwin by later thinkers, and interrogates the conceptual premise of modern debates in evolutionary musicology. Structured around the Great Chain of Being, chapters are organized by discipline in successively ascending order according to their object of study, from zoology and the study of animal music to theology and the music of God. Evolution and Victorian Musical Culture takes a non-Darwinian approach to the interpretation of Victorian scientific and musical interrelationships, debunking the idea that the arts had little influence on contemporary scientific ideas and, by probing the origins of musical interdisciplinarity, the volume shows how music helped ideas about evolution to evolve.
The Cerebellum: Disorders and Treatment, Volume 155 updates readers on the latest and clinically relevant advances in the study of cerebellar diseases in children and adults. It is organized into sections detailing: (1) Disorders (starting from the fetal cerebellum, to adult cerebellum) encountered during daily practice, and (2) Therapy (including insights into innovative drug and rehabilitative approaches). The book's innovative structure discusses cerebellar disorders in children and adults as a continuum, with its companion volume, The Cerebellum: From Embryology to Diagnostic Investigations detailing embryology, anatomy, function and diagnostic investigations and neuroimaging, including conventional sequences, diffusion tensor imaging, functional MRI, and connectivity studies.
Liqun Luo is the recipient of the 2019 Pradel Research Award from the National Academy of Science https://twitter.com/CRCPress/status/1089903325733097472 Principles of Neurobiology presents the major concepts of neuroscience with an emphasis on how we know what we know. The text is organized around a series of key experiments to illustrate how scientific progress is made and helps upper-level undergraduate and graduate students discover the relevant primary literature. Written by a single author in a clear and consistent writing style, each topic builds in complexity from electrophysiology to molecular genetics to systems level in a highly integrative approach. Students can fully engage with the content via thematically linked chapters and will be able to read the book in its entirety in a semester-long course. Principles of Neurobiology is accompanied by a rich package of online student and instructor resources including animations, journal club suggestions, figures in PowerPoint, and a Question Bank for adopting instructors. Principles of Neurobiology is additionally supported by the Garland Science Learning System. This homework platform is designed to evaluate and improve student performance and allows instructors to select assignments on specific topics and review the performance of the entire class, as well as individual students, via the instructor dashboard. Students receive immediate feedback on their mastery of the topics, and will be better prepared for lectures and classroom discussions. The user-friendly system provides a convenient way to engage students while assessing progress. Performance data can be used to tailor classroom discussion, activities, and lectures to address students' needs precisely and efficiently. For more information and sample material, visit http://garlandscience.rocketmix.com/.
Reflecting the rapid progress in the field, the book presents the current understanding of molecular mechanisms of post-transcriptional gene regulation thereby focusing on RNA processing mechanisms in eucaryotic cells. With chapters on mechanisms as RNA splicing, RNA interference, MicroRNAs, RNA editing and others, the book also discusses the critical role of RNA processing for the pathogenesis of a wide range of human diseases. The interdisciplinary importance of the topic makes the title a useful resource for a wide reader group in science, clinics as well as pharmaceutical industry.
A good research paper is more than just a clear, concise, scientific expose. It is a document that needs to go beyond the science to attract attention. There are both strict and less definable norms for doing this, but many authors are unaware as to what they are or their use. Publishing is rapidly changing, and needs to be explained with a fresh perspective. Simply writing good, clear, concise, science is no longer enough-there is a different mind-set now required that students need to adopt if they are to succeed. The purpose of this book is to provide the foundations of this new approach for both young scientists at the start of their careers, as well as for more experienced scientists to teach the younger generation. Most importantly, the book will make the reader think in a fresh, creative, and novel way about writing and publishing science. This is an introductory guide suitable for advanced undergraduates, graduate students, and professional researchers in both the life and physical sciences.
For quite some time textbooks have steered the teaching of genetics down a fairly narrow path - transmissions genetics first, followed by molecular genetics. In Genetics: The Continuity of Life, Fairbanks and Andersen modernize the study of genetics for students. With a clear, robust style, the authors approach genetics at its most fundamental molecular level, building on students' previous exposure from other courses. Once the molecular concepts are in place, transmission genetics is more easily understood. The result is a textbook that reflects the way geneticists think about solving genetics problems in a completely integrative manner. Students relate to the organization and are able to grasp the larger concepts and their applications.
The monograph offers a comprehensive discussion of the role of evaporites in hydrocarbon generation and trapping, and new information on low temperature and high temperature ores. It also provides a wealth of information on exploitable salts, in a comprehensive volume has been assembled and organized to provide quick access to relevant information on all matters related to evaporites and associated brines. In addition, there are summaries of evaporite karst hazards, exploitative methods and problems that can arise in dealing with evaporites in conventional and solution mining. This second edition has been revised and extended, with three new chapters focusing on ore minerals in different temperature settings and a chapter on meta-evaporites. Written by a field specialist in research and exploration, the book presents a comprehensive overview of the realms of low- and high-temperature evaporite evolution. It is aimed at earth science professionals, sedimentologists, oil and gas explorers, mining geologists as well as environmental geologists.
"Marvelous. . . . Wonderfully imaginative. . . . Sparkling."--Wall Street Journal "Stunning. . . . Read this book: in equal measure it will give you hope and trouble your dreams."--Laura Dassow Walls, author of Henry David Thoreau: A Life and Passage to Cosmos: Alexander von Humboldt's Shaping of America Georg Forster (1754-94) was in many ways self-taught and rarely had two cents to rub together, but he became one of the most dynamic figures of the Enlightenment: a brilliant writer, naturalist, explorer, illustrator, translator--and a revolutionary. Granted the extraordinary opportunity to sail around the world as part of Captain James Cook's fabled crew, Forster touched icebergs, walked the beaches of Tahiti, visited far-flung foreign nations, lived with purported cannibals, and crossed oceans and the equator. Forster recounted the journey in his 1777 book A Voyage Round the World, a work of travel and science that not only established Forster as one of the most accomplished stylists of the time--and led some to credit him as the inventor of the literary travel narrative--but also influenced other German trailblazers of scientific and literary writing, most notably Alexander von Humboldt. A superb essayist, Forster made lasting contributions to our scientific--and especially botanical and ornithological--knowledge of the South Seas. Having witnessed more egalitarian societies in the southern hemisphere, Forster returned after more than three years at sea to a monarchist Europe entering the era of revolution. When, following the French Revolution of 1789, French forces occupied the German city of Mainz, Forster became a leading political actor in the founding of the Republic of Mainz--the first democratic state on German soil. In an age of Kantian reason, Forster privileged experience. He claimed a deep connection between nature and reason, nature and politics, nature and revolution. His politics was radical in its understanding of revolution as a natural phenomenon, and in this often overlooked way his many facets--as voyager, naturalist, and revolutionary--were intertwined. Yet, in the constellation of the Enlightenment's trailblazing naturalists, scientists, political thinkers, and writers, Forster's star remains relatively dim today: the Republic of Mainz was crushed, and Forster died in exile in Paris. This book is the source of illumination that Forster's journey so greatly deserves. Tracing the arc of this unheralded polymath's short life, Georg Forster explores both his contributions to literature and science and the enduring relationship between nature and politics that threaded through his extraordinary four decades.
If we've done our job well and, let's be honest, if we're lucky you'll read to the end of this description. Most likely, however, you won't. Somewhere in the middle of the next paragraph, your mind will wander off. Minds wander. That's just how it is. That may be bad news for me, but is it bad news for people in general? Does the fact that as much as fifty percent of our waking hours find us failing to focus on the task at hand represent a problem? Michael Corballis doesn't think so, and with The Wandering Mind, he shows us why, rehabilitating woolgathering and revealing its incredibly useful effects. Drawing on the latest research from cognitive science and evolutionary biology, Corballis shows us how mind-wandering not only frees us from moment-to-moment drudgery, but also from the limitations of our immediate selves. Mind-wandering strengthens our imagination, fueling the flights of invention, storytelling, and empathy that underlie our shared humanity; furthermore, he explains, our tendency to wander back and forth through the timeline of our lives is fundamental to our very sense of ourselves as coherent, continuing personalities. Full of unusual examples and surprising discoveries, The Wandering Mind mounts a vigorous defense of inattention even as it never fails to hold the reader's.
Now updated and expanded in its third edition, and featuring revised genograms for easier reading, reflecting the growing and widespread use of genograms for clinical intervention, this best-selling text provides a standard method for constructing a genogram, doing a genogram interview, and interpreting the results. Genograms of famous families Sigmund Freud, Woody Allen and Mia Farrow, the Kennedys, Jane Fonda and Ted Turner, Bill Clinton, Princess Diana, the Roosevelts, and Thomas Jefferson, to name a few bring the text to life, and help to elucidate the principles of family systems theory and systemic interviewing, which form the basis of genogram work. Once these principles have been explained, the authors go on to present the important clinical applications of genograms in both family therapy and family medicine. These applications include the effective assessment of patients risk for emotional problems such as anxiety or depression; structural patterns among families such as divorce and remarriage; relationship patterns such as enmeshment, conflicts, and cut-offs; recent and chronic life stressors such as pregnancy, acute illness, poverty, and racism; and family life cycle transitions and developmental crises, among other uses. By providing a fascinating view into the richness of family dynamics, McGoldrick and her coauthors provide an invaluable guide to clinicians for accurately charting a family s structure, making it easier to scan for potential problems and take proactive steps to utilize resources when necessary."
This volume provides an overview of (1) the physical and chemical foundations of dating methods and (2) the applications of dating methods in the geological sciences, biology, and archaeology, in almost 200 articles from over 200 international authors. It will serve as the most comprehensive treatise on widely accepted dating methods in the earth sciences and related fields. No other volume has a similar scope, in terms of methods and applications and particularly time range. Dating methods are used to determine the timing and rate of various processes, such as sedimentation (terrestrial and marine), tectonics, volcanism, geomorphological change, cooling rates, crystallization, fluid flow, glaciation, climate change and evolution. The volume includes applications in terrestrial and extraterrestrial settings, the burgeoning field of molecular-clock dating and topics in the intersection of earth sciences with forensics. The content covers a broad range of techniques and applications. All major accepted dating techniques are included, as well as all major datable materials.
This volume is a complete review and reference work for scientists, engineers, and students concerned with coral reefs in the Red Sea. It provides an up-to-date review on the geology, ecology, and physiology of coral reef ecosystems in the Red Sea, including data from most recent molecular studies. The Red Sea harbours a set of unique ecological characteristics, such as high temperature, high alkalinity, and high salinity, in a quasi-isolated environment. This makes it a perfect laboratory to study and understand adaptation in regard to the impact of climate change on marine ecosystems. This book can be used as a general reference, guide, or textbook.
Torture is banned because it is cruel and inhumane. But as Shane O'Mara writes in this account of the human brain under stress, another reason torture should never be condoned is because it does not work the way torturers assume it does. In countless films and TV shows such as Homeland and 24, torture is portrayed as a harsh necessity. If cruelty can extract secrets that will save lives, so be it. CIA officers and others conducted torture using precisely this justification. But does torture accomplish what its defenders say it does? For ethical reasons, there are no scientific studies of torture. But neuroscientists know a lot about how the brain reacts to fear, extreme temperatures, starvation, thirst, sleep deprivation, and immersion in freezing water, all tools of the torturer's trade. These stressors create problems for memory, mood, and thinking, and sufferers predictably produce information that is deeply unreliable-and, for intelligence purposes, even counterproductive. As O'Mara guides us through the neuroscience of suffering, he reveals the brain to be much more complex than the brute calculations of torturers have allowed, and he points the way to a humane approach to interrogation, founded in the science of brain and behavior. Torture may be effective in forcing confessions, as in Stalin's Russia. But if we want information that we can depend on to save lives, O'Mara writes, our model should be Napoleon: "It has always been recognized that this way of interrogating men, by putting them to torture, produces nothing worthwhile."
Forthcoming from the MIT Press.
The bestselling introduction to bioinformatics and genomics now in its third edition Widely received in its previous editions, Bioinformatics and Functional Genomics offers the most broad-based introduction to this explosive new discipline. Now in a thoroughly updated and expanded third edition, it continues to be the go-to source for students and professionals involved in biomedical research. This book provides up-to-the-minute coverage of the fields of bioinformatics and genomics. Features new to this edition include: * Extensive revisions and a slight reorder of chapters for a more effective organization * A brand new chapter on next-generation sequencing * An expanded companion website, also updated as and when new information becomes available * Greater emphasis on a computational approach, with clear guidance of how software tools work and introductions to the use of command-line tools such as software for next-generation sequence analysis, the R programming language, and NCBI search utilities The book is complemented by lavish illustrations and more than 500 figures and tables - many newly-created for the third edition to enhance clarity and understanding. Each chapter includes learning objectives, a problem set, pitfalls section, boxes explaining key techniques and mathematics/statistics principles, a summary, recommended reading, and a list of freely available software. Readers may visit a related Web page for supplemental information such as PowerPoints and audiovisual files of lectures, and videocasts of how to perform many basic operations: www.wiley.com/go/pevsnerbioinformatics. Bioinformatics and Functional Genomics, Third Edition serves as an excellent single-source textbook for advanced undergraduate and beginning graduate-level courses in the biological sciences and computer sciences. It is also an indispensable resource for biologists in a broad variety of disciplines who use the tools of bioinformatics and genomics to study particular research problems; bioinformaticists and computer scientists who develop computer algorithms and databases; and medical researchers and clinicians who want to understand the genomic basis of viral, bacterial, parasitic, or other diseases.
Both natural and cultural selection played an important role in shaping human evolution. Since cultural change can itself be regarded as evolutionary, a process of gene-culture coevolution is operative. The study of human evolution - in past, present and future - is therefore not restricted to biology. An inclusive comprehension of human evolution relies on integrating insights about cultural, economic and technological evolution with relevant elements of evolutionary biology. In addition, proximate causes and effects of cultures need to be added to the picture - issues which are at the forefront of social sciences like anthropology, economics, geography and innovation studies. This book highlights discussions on the many topics to which such generalised evolutionary thought has been applied: the arts, the brain, climate change, cooking, criminality, environmental problems, futurism, gender issues, group processes, humour, industrial dynamics, institutions, languages, medicine, music, psychology, public policy, religion, sex, sociality and sports.
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