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This book describes state-of-the-art approaches to Fog Computing, including the background of innovations achieved in recent years. Coverage includes various aspects of fog computing architectures for Internet of Things, driving reasons, variations and case studies. The authors discuss in detail key topics, such as meeting low latency and real-time requirements of applications, interoperability, federation and heterogeneous computing, energy efficiency and mobility, fog and cloud interplay, geo-distribution and location awareness, and case studies in healthcare and smart space applications.
Thomas Ludwig reveals design characteristics when aiming at researching information infrastructures and their diverse information resources, types of users and systems as well as divergent practices. By conducting empirically-based design case studies in the domain of crisis management, the author uncovers methodological and design challenges in understanding new kinds of interconnected information infrastructures from a praxeological perspective. Based on implemented novel ICT tools, he derives design characteristics that focus on integrating objective and subjective queried insights into situated activities of people as well as emphasizing the subjective nature of information quality.
This book questions the relevance of computation to the physical universe. Our theories deliver computational descriptions, but the gaps and discontinuities in our grasp suggest a need for continued discourse between researchers from different disciplines, and this book is unique in its focus on the mathematical theory of incomputability and its relevance for the real world. The core of the book consists of thirteen chapters in five parts on extended models of computation; the search for natural examples of incomputable objects; mind, matter, and computation; the nature of information, complexity, and randomness; and the mathematics of emergence and morphogenesis. This book will be of interest to researchers in the areas of theoretical computer science, mathematical logic, and philosophy.
This book provides a comprehensive overview of flow-based, microfluidic VLSI. The authors describe and solve in a comprehensive and holistic manner practical challenges such as control synthesis, wash optimization, design for testability, and diagnosis of modern flow-based microfluidic biochips. They introduce practical solutions, based on rigorous optimization and formal models. The technical contributions presented in this book will not only shorten the product development cycle, but also accelerate the adoption and further development of modern flow-based microfluidic biochips, by facilitating the full exploitation of design complexities that are possible with current fabrication techniques.
This book describes algorithmic methods and parallelization techniques to design a parallel sparse direct solver which is specifically targeted at integrated circuit simulation problems. The authors describe a complete flow and detailed parallel algorithms of the sparse direct solver. They also show how to improve the performance by simple but effective numerical techniques. The sparse direct solver techniques described can be applied to any SPICE-like integrated circuit simulator and have been proven to be high-performance in actual circuit simulation. Readers will benefit from the state-of-the-art parallel integrated circuit simulation techniques described in this book, especially the latest parallel sparse matrix solution techniques.
1 2 Per Stenstro ..m and David Whalley 1 Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden 2 Florida State University, U.S.A. In January2007,the secondedition in the series of International Conferenceson High-Performance Embedded Architectures andCompilers (HiPEAC'2007)was held in Ghent,Belgium.We were fortunate to attract around70 submissions of whichonly19wereselected forpresentation.Amongthese,weaskedtheauthors ofthe?vemost highly rated contributionsto make extended versions ofthem. They all accepted to do that andtheirarticles appear in this section ofthe second volume. The?rstarticlebyKeramidas,Xekalakis,andKaxirasfocusesontheincreased power consumption in set-associativecaches.They presenta novel approach to reduce dynamicpower that leverages on the previously proposed cache decay approach that has been shown to reduce static (or leakage) power. In the secondarticlebyMagarajan,Gupta,andKrishnaswamythe focus ison techniques to encrypt data in memory to preservedata integrity. The problem with previous techniques is that the decryption latency ends up on the critical memory access path. Especially in embedded processors,caches are small and it isdi?cultto hide the decryption latency. The authors propose a compiler-based strategy that manages to reduce the impact of the decryption time signi?cantly. The thirdarticlebyKluyskensandEeckhoutfocusesondetailedarchitectural simulation techniques.It is well-known that they are ine?cientandaremedy to the problem isto use sampling.When usingsampling,onehastowarm up memory structures such as caches andbranch predictors.Thispaper introduces a noveltechnique calledBranchHistoryMatchingfore?cient warmupofbranch predictors. The fourth articlebyBhadauria,McKee,Singh, and Tyson focuses on static power consumptioninlarge caches.Theyintroduce a reuse-distance drowsy cache mechanism that issimpleas well as e?ective in reducingthestaticpower in caches.
This book discusses major milestones in Rohit Jivanlal Parikh's scholarly work. Highlighting the transition in Parikh's interest from formal languages to natural languages, and how he approached Wittgenstein's philosophy of language, it traces the academic trajectory of a brilliant scholar whose work opened up various new avenues in research. This volume is part of Springer's book series Outstanding Contributions to Logic, and honours Rohit Parikh and his works in many ways. Parikh is a leader in the realm of ideas, offering concepts and definitions that enrich the field and lead to new research directions. Parikh has contributed to a variety of areas in logic, computer science and game theory. In mathematical logic his contributions have been in recursive function theory, proof theory and non-standard analysis; in computer science, in the areas of modal, temporal and dynamic logics of programs and semantics of programs, as well as logics of knowledge; in artificial intelligence in the area of belief revision; and in game theory in the formal analysis of social procedures, with a strong undercurrent of philosophy running through all his work.This is not a collection of articles limited to one theme, or even directly connected to specific works by Parikh, but instead all papers are inspired and influenced by Parikh in some way, adding structures to and enriching "Parikh-land". The book presents a brochure-like overview of Parikh-land before providing an "introductory video" on the sights and sounds that you experience when reading the book.
"I highly recommend Mr. Hobbs' book." - Stephen Thomas, PE, Founder and Editor of FunctionalSafetyEngineer.com Safety-critical devices, whether medical, automotive, or industrial, are increasingly dependent on the correct operation of sophisticated software. Many standards have appeared in the last decade on how such systems should be designed and built. Developers, who previously only had to know how to program devices for their industry, must now understand remarkably esoteric development practices and be prepared to justify their work to external auditors. Embedded Software Development for Safety-Critical Systems discusses the development of safety-critical systems under the following standards: IEC 61508; ISO 26262; EN 50128; and IEC 62304. It details the advantages and disadvantages of many architectural and design practices recommended in the standards, ranging from replication and diversification, through anomaly detection to the so-called "safety bag" systems. Reviewing the use of open-source components in safety-critical systems, this book has evolved from a course text used by QNX Software Systems for a training module on building embedded software for safety-critical devices, including medical devices, railway systems, industrial systems, and driver assistance devices in cars. Although the book describes open-source tools for the most part, it also provides enough information for you to seek out commercial vendors if that's the route you decide to pursue. All of the techniques described in this book may be further explored through hundreds of learned articles. In order to provide you with a way in, the author supplies references he has found helpful as a working software developer. Most of these references are available to download for free.
This book describes the benefits and drawbacks inherent in the use of virtual platforms (VPs) to perform fast and early soft error assessment of multicore systems. The authors show that VPs provide engineers with appropriate means to investigate new and more efficient fault injection and mitigation techniques. Coverage also includes the use of machine learning techniques (e.g., linear regression) to speed-up the soft error evaluation process by pinpointing parameters (e.g., architectural) with the most substantial impact on the software stack dependability. This book provides valuable information and insight through more than 3 million individual scenarios and 2 million simulation-hours. Further, this book explores machine learning techniques usage to navigate large fault injection datasets.
This book provides a comprehensive treatment of security in the widely adopted, Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technology. The authors present the fundamental principles of RFID cryptography in a manner accessible to a broad range of readers, enabling them to improve their RFID security design. This book also offers the reader a range of interesting topics portraying the current state-of-the-art in RFID technology and how it can be integrated with today's Internet of Things (IoT) vision. The authors describe a first-of-its-kind, lightweight symmetric authenticated encryption cipher called Redundant Bit Security (RBS), which enables significant, multi-faceted performance improvements compared to existing cryptosystems. This book is a must-read for anyone aiming to overcome the constraints of practical implementation in RFID security technologies.
This book presents a design methodology that is practically applicable to the architectural design of a broad range of systems. It is based on fundamental design concepts to conceive and specify the required functional properties of a system, while abstracting from the specific implementation functions and technologies that can be chosen to build the system. Abstraction and precision are indispensable when it comes to understanding complex systems and precisely creating and representing them at a high functional level. Once understood, these concepts appear natural, self-evident and extremely powerful, since they can directly, precisely and concisely reflect what is considered essential for the functional behavior of a system. The first two chapters present the global views on how to design systems and how to interpret terms and meta-concepts. This informal introduction provides the general context for the remainder of the book. On a more formal level, Chapters 3 through 6 present the main basic design concepts, illustrating them with examples. Language notations are introduced along with the basic design concepts. Lastly, Chapters 7 to 12 discuss the more intricate basic design concepts of interactive systems by focusing on their common functional goal. These chapters are recommended to readers who have a particular interest in the design of protocols and interfaces for various systems. The didactic approach makes it suitable for graduate students who want to develop insights into and skills in developing complex systems, as well as practitioners in industry and large organizations who are responsible for the design and development of large and complex systems. It includes numerous tangible examples from various fields, and several appealing exercises with their solutions.
Computational Thinking (CT) involves fundamental concepts and reasoning, distilled from computer science and other computational sciences, which become powerful general mental tools for solving problems, increasing efficiency, reducing complexity, designing procedures, or interacting with humans and machines. An easy-to-understand guidebook, From Computing to Computational Thinking gives you the tools for understanding and using CT. It does not assume experience or knowledge of programming or of a programming language, but explains concepts and methods for CT with clarity and depth. Successful applications in diverse disciplines have shown the power of CT in problem solving. The book uses puzzles, games, and everyday examples as starting points for discussion and for connecting abstract thinking patterns to real-life situations. It provides an interesting and thought-provoking way to gain general knowledge about modern computing and the concepts and thinking processes underlying modern digital technologies.
Advances in GPU Research and Practice focuses on research and practices in GPU based systems. The topics treated cover a range of issues, ranging from hardware and architectural issues, to high level issues, such as application systems, parallel programming, middleware, and power and energy issues. Divided into six parts, this edited volume provides the latest research on GPU computing. Part I: Architectural Solutions focuses on the architectural topics that improve on performance of GPUs, Part II: System Software discusses OS, compilers, libraries, programming environment, languages, and paradigms that are proposed and analyzed to help and support GPU programmers. Part III: Power and Reliability Issues covers different aspects of energy, power, and reliability concerns in GPUs. Part IV: Performance Analysis illustrates mathematical and analytical techniques to predict different performance metrics in GPUs. Part V: Algorithms presents how to design efficient algorithms and analyze their complexity for GPUs. Part VI: Applications and Related Topics provides use cases and examples of how GPUs are used across many sectors.
This book introduces a modern approach to embedded system design, presenting software design and hardware design in a unified manner. It covers trends and challenges, introduces the design and use of single-purpose processors ("hardware") and general-purpose processors ("software"), describes memories and buses, illustrates hardware/software tradeoffs using a digital camera example, and discusses advanced computation models, controls systems, chip technologies, and modern design tools. For courses found in EE, CS and other engineering departments.
Author Peter Pacheco uses a tutorial approach to show students
how to develop effective parallel programs with MPI, Pthreads, and
OpenMP. The first undergraduate text to directly address compiling
and running parallel programs on the new multi-core and cluster
architecture, " An Introduction to Parallel Programming" explains
how to design, debug, and evaluate the performance of distributed
and shared-memory programs. User-friendly exercises teach students
how to compile, run and modify example programs.
This book introduces readers to the most advanced research results on Design for Manufacturability (DFM) with multiple patterning lithography (MPL) and electron beam lithography (EBL). The authors describe in detail a set of algorithms/methodologies to resolve issues in modern design for manufacturability problems with advanced lithography. Unlike books that discuss DFM from the product level or physical manufacturing level, this book describes DFM solutions from a circuit design level, such that most of the critical problems can be formulated and solved through combinatorial algorithms.
This book opens the door to a new interesting and ambitious world of reversible and quantum computing research. It presents the state of the art required to travel around that world safely. Top world universities, companies and government institutions are in a race of developing new methodologies, algorithms and circuits on reversible logic, quantum logic, reversible and quantum computing and nano-technologies. In this book, twelve reversible logic synthesis methodologies are presented for the first time in a single literature with some new proposals. Also, the sequential reversible logic circuitries are discussed for the first time in a book. Reversible logic plays an important role in quantum computing. Any progress in the domain of reversible logic can be directly applied to quantum logic. One of the goals of this book is to show the application of reversible logic in quantum computing. A new implementation of wavelet and multiwavelet transforms using quantum computing is performed for this purpose. Researchers in academia or industry and graduate students, who work in logic synthesis, quantum computing, nano-technology, and low power VLSI circuit design, will be interested in this book.
This book demonstrates how to design a wideband receiver operating in current mode, in which the noise and non-linearity are reduced, implemented in a low cost single chip, using standard CMOS technology. The authors present a solution to remove the transimpedance amplifier (TIA) block and connect directly the mixer's output to a passive second-order continuous-time analog to digital converter (ADC), which operates in current-mode. These techniques enable the reduction of area, power consumption, and cost in modern CMOS receivers.
This book focuses on the development of 3D design and implementation methodologies for Tree-based FPGA architecture. It also stresses the needs for new and augmented 3D CAD tools to support designs such as, the design for 3D, to manufacture high performance 3D integrated circuits and reconfigurable FPGA-based systems. This book was written as a text that covers the foundations of 3D integrated system design and FPGA architecture design. It was written for the use in an elective or core course at the graduate level in field of Electrical Engineering, Computer Engineering and Doctoral Research programs. No previous background on 3D integration is required, nevertheless fundamental understanding of 2D CMOS VLSI design is required. It is assumed that reader has taken the core curriculum in Electrical Engineering or Computer Engineering, with courses like CMOS VLSI design, Digital System Design and Microelectronics Circuits being the most important. It is accessible for self-study by both senior students and professionals alike.
This book presents some of the latest applications of new theories based on the concept of paraconsistency and correlated topics in informatics, such as pattern recognition (bioinformatics), robotics, decision-making themes, and sample size. Each chapter is self-contained, and an introductory chapter covering the logic theoretical basis is also included. The aim of the text is twofold: to serve as an introductory text on the theories and applications of new logic, and as a textbook for undergraduate or graduate-level courses in AI. Today AI frequently has to cope with problems of vagueness, incomplete and conflicting (inconsistent) information. One of the most notable formal theories for addressing them is paraconsistent (paracomplete and non-alethic) logic.
This book provides practical solutions for delay and power reduction for on-chip interconnects and buses. It provides an in depth description of the problem of signal delay and extra power consumption, possible solutions for delay and glitch removal, while considering the power reduction of the total system. Coverage focuses on use of the Schmitt Trigger as an alternative approach to buffer insertion for delay and power reduction in VLSI interconnects. In the last section of the book, various bus coding techniques are discussed to minimize delay and power in address and data buses.
The book addresses the need to investigate new approaches to lower energy requirement in multiple application areas and serves as a guide into emerging circuit technologies. It explores revolutionary device concepts, sensors, and associated circuits and architectures that will greatly extend the practical engineering limits of energy-efficient computation. The book responds to the need to develop disruptive new system architectures and semiconductor processes aimed at achieving the highest level of computational energy efficiency for general purpose computing systems. Discusses unique technologies and material only available in specialized journal and conferences. Covers emerging materials and device structures, such as ultra-low power technologies, nanoelectronics, and microsystem manufacturing. Explores semiconductor processing and manufacturing, device design, and performance. Contains practical applications in the engineering field, as well as graduate studies. Written by international experts from both academia and industry.
This book provides a comprehensive overview of key technologies being used to address challenges raised by continued device scaling and the extending gap between memory and central processing unit performance. Authors discuss in detail what are known commonly as "More than Moore" (MtM), technologies, which add value to devices by incorporating functionalities that do not necessarily scale according to "Moore's Law". Coverage focuses on three key technologies needed for efficient power management and cost per performance: novel memories, 3D integration and photonic on-chip interconnect.
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