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Modern consumers carry many electronic devices, like a mobile phone, digital camera, GPS, PDA and an MP3 player. The functionality of each of these devices has gone through an important evolution over recent years, with a steep increase in both the number of features as in the quality of the services that they provide. However, providing the required compute power to support (an uncompromised combination of) all this functionality is highly non-trivial. Designing processors that meet the demanding requirements of future mobile devices requires the optimization of the embedded system in general and of the embedded processors in particular, as they should strike the correct balance between flexibility, energy efficiency and performance. In general, a designer will try to minimize the energy consumption (as far as needed) for a given performance, with a sufficient flexibility. However, achieving this goal is already complex when looking at the processor in isolation, but, in reality, the processor is a single component in a more complex system. In order to design such complex system successfully, critical decisions during the design of each individual component should take into account effect on the other parts, with a clear goal to move to a global Pareto optimum in the complete multi-dimensional exploration space.
In the complex, global design of battery-operated embedded systems, the focus of Ultra-Low Energy Domain-Specific Instruction-Set Processors is on the energy-aware architecture exploration of domain-specific instruction-set processors and the co-optimization of the datapath architecture, foreground memory, and instruction memory organisation with a link to the required mapping techniques or compiler steps at the early stages of the design. By performing an extensive energy breakdown experiment for a complete embedded platform, both energy and performance bottlenecks have been identified, together with the important relations between the different components. Based on this knowledge, architecture extensions are proposed for all the bottlenecks.
A cutting-edge guide to the theory and practice of high-speed digital system design
An understanding of high-speed interconnect phenomena is essential for digital designers who must deal with the challenges posed by the ever-increasing operating speeds of today’s microprocessors. This book provides a much-needed, practical guide to the state of the art of modern digital system design, combining easily accessible explanations with immensely useful problem-solving strategies. Written by three leading Intel engineers, High-Speed Digital System Design clarifies difficult and often neglected topics involving the effects of high frequencies on digital buses and presents a variety of proven techniques and application examples. Extensive appendices, formulas, modeling techniques as well as hundreds of figures are also provided.
Debugging becomes more and more the bottleneck to chip design productivity, especially while developing modern complex integrated circuits and systems at the Electronic System Level (ESL). Today, debugging is still an unsystematic and lengthy process. Here, a simple reporting of a failure is not enough, anymore. Rather, it becomes more and more important not only to find many errors early during development but also to provide efficient methods for their isolation. In Debugging at the Electronic System Level the state-of-the-art of modeling and verification of ESL designs is reviewed. There, a particular focus is taken onto SystemC. Then, a reasoning hierarchy is introduced. The hierarchy combines well-known debugging techniques with whole new techniques to improve the verification efficiency at ESL. The proposed systematic debugging approach is supported amongst others by static code analysis, debug patterns, dynamic program slicing, design visualization, property generation, and automatic failure isolation. All techniques were empirically evaluated using real-world industrial designs. Summarized, the introduced approach enables a systematic search for errors in ESL designs. Here, the debugging techniques improve and accelerate error detection, observation, and isolation as well as design understanding.
A quality-driven design and verification flow for digital systems is developed and presented in Quality-Driven SystemC Design. Two major enhancements characterize the new flow: First, dedicated verification techniques are integrated which target the different levels of abstraction. Second, each verification technique is complemented by an approach to measure the achieved verification quality. The new flow distinguishes three levels of abstraction (namely system level, top level and block level) and can be incorporated in existing approaches. After reviewing the preliminary concepts, in the following chapters the three levels for modeling and verification are considered in detail. At each level the verification quality is measured. In summary, following the new design and verification flow a high overall quality results.
Multicore Processors and Systems provides a comprehensive overview of emerging multicore processors and systems. It covers technology trends affecting multicores, multicore architecture innovations, multicore software innovations, and case studies of state-of-the-art commercial multicore systems. A cross-cutting theme of the book is the challenges associated with scaling up multicore systems to hundreds of cores.
The book provides an overview of significant developments in the architectures for multicore processors and systems. It includes chapters on fundamental requirements for multicore systems, including processing, memory systems, and interconnect. It also includes several case studies on commercial multicore systems that have recently been developed and deployed across multiple application domains. The architecture chapters focus on innovative multicore execution models as well as infrastructure for multicores, including memory systems and on-chip interconnections. The case studies examine multicore implementations across different application domains, including general purpose, server, media/broadband, network processing, and signal processing.
Multicore Processors and Systems is the first book that focuses solely on multicore processors and systems, and in particular on the unique technology implications, architectures, and implementations. The book has contributing authors that are from both the academic and industrial communities.
Fundamental Problems in Computing is in honor of Professor Daniel J. Rosenkrantz, a distinguished researcher in Computer Science. Professor Rosenkrantz has made seminal contributions to many subareas of Computer Science including formal languages and compilers, automata theory, algorithms, database systems, very large scale integrated systems, fault-tolerant computing and discrete dynamical systems. For many years, Professor Rosenkrantz served as the Editor-in-Chief of the Journal of the Association for Computing Machinery (JACM), a very prestigious archival journal in Computer Science. His contributions to Computer Science have earned him many awards including the Fellowship from ACM and the ACM SIGMOD Contributions Award.
Many modern computer systems, including homogeneous and heterogeneous architectures, support shared memory in hardware.In a shared memory system, each of the processor cores may read and write to a single shared address space. For a shared memory machine, the memory consistency model defines the architecturally visible behavior of its memory system. Consistency definitions provide rules about loads and stores (or memory reads and writes) and how they act upon memory. As part of supporting a memory consistency model, many machines also provide cache coherence protocols that ensure that multiple cached copies of data are kept up-to-date. The goal of this primer is to provide readers with a basic understanding of consistency and coherence. This understanding includes both the issues that must be solved as well as a variety of solutions. We present both high-level concepts as well as specific, concrete examples from real-world systems. This second edition reflects a decade of advancements since the first edition and includes, among other more modest changes, two new chapters: one on consistency and coherence for non-CPU accelerators (with a focus on GPUs) and one that points to formal work and tools on consistency and coherence.
HiPEAC2009wasthe fourthedition ofthe HiPEACconferenceseries.This c- ferenceseriesislargelyassociatedwiththeFP7NetworkofExcellenceHiPEAC2. The ?rst three editions of the conference in Barcelona (2005), Ghent (2007) and G] oteborg (2008) attracted a lot of interest with more than 200 attendees at the last two editions and satellite events. It is a great privilege for us to welcome you to the fourth HiPEAC conference in the beautiful, touristic city of Paphos, Cyprus. The o?erings of this conference are rich and diverse. We o?er attendees a set of seven workshopson topics that are central to the HiPEAC network roadmap: multi-cores, simulation and performance evaluation, compiler optimizations, - sign reliability, recon?gurable computing, and interconnection networks. Ad- tionally, a tutorial on design reliability is o?ered. Theconferenceprogramwasasrichaslastyear's.Itfeaturedmanyimportant andtimelytopicssuchasmulti-coreprocessors, recon?gurablesystems, compiler optimization, power-awaretechniquesand more.The conferencealso o?ered two keynote speeches: Tilak Agerwala from IBM Research presenting the view from a major industry player, and Fran, cois Bodin from CAPS-Entreprise presenting the view of a start-up. There were several social activities during the conference o?ering ample - portunity for informal interaction. These included a reception, an excursion to various archeological sites and a banquet at a traditional tavern. Thisyearwereceived97papersubmissions, ofwhich14wereco-authoredbya Program Committee member. Papers were submitted from 20 di?erent nations (approximately 46% from Europe, 15% from Asia, 32% from North America, 4% from Africa and the Middle East, and 3% from South America), which is an indicator of the global visibility of the conference."
This volume presents new directions and solutions in broadly perceived intelligent systems. An urgent need this volume has occurred as a result of vivid discussions and presentations at the "IEEE-IS 2006 The 2006 Third International IEEE Conference on Intelligent Systems" held in London, UK, September, 2006. This book is a compilation of many valuable inspiring works written by both the conference participants and some other experts in this new and challenging field.
VLSI is an important area of electronic and computer engineering. However, there are few textbooks available for undergraduate/postgraduate study of VLSI design automation and chip layout. VLSI Physical Design Automation: Theory and Practice fills the void and is an essential introduction for senior undergraduates, postgraduates and anyone starting work in the field of CAD for VLSI. It covers all aspects of physical design, together with such related areas as automatic cell generation, silicon compilation, layout editors and compaction. A problem-solving approach is adopted and each solution is illustrated with examples. Each topic is treated in a standard format: Problem Definition, Cost Functions and Constraints, Possible Approaches and Latest Developments.Special features: The book deals with all aspects of VLSI physical design, from partitioning and floorplanning to layout generation and silicon compilation; provides a comprehensive treatment of most of the popular algorithms; covers the latest developments and gives a bibliography for further research; offers numerous fully described examples, problems and programming exercises.
This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the Third International Conference on High Performance Embedded Architectures and Compilers, HiPEAC 2008, held in GAteborg, Sweden, January 27-29, 2008.
The 25 revised full papers presented together with 1 invited keynote paper were carefully reviewed and selected from 77 submissions. The papers are organized in topical sections on Multithreaded and Multicore Processors, Reconfigurable - ASIP, Compiler Optimizations, Industrial Processors and Application Parallelization, Power-Aware Techniques, High-Performance Processors, Profiles: Collection and Analysis as well as Optimizing Memory Performance.
The book addresses the need to investigate new approaches to lower energy requirement in multiple application areas and serves as a guide into emerging circuit technologies. It explores revolutionary device concepts, sensors, and associated circuits and architectures that will greatly extend the practical engineering limits of energy-efficient computation. The book responds to the need to develop disruptive new system architecutres, circuit microarchitectures, and attendant device and interconnect technology aimed at achieving the highest level of computational energy efficiency for general purpose computing systems. Features Discusses unique technologies and material only available in specialized journal and conferences Covers emerging applications areas, such as ultra low power communications, emerging bio-electronics, and operation in extreme environments Explores broad circuit operation, ex. analog, RF, memory, and digital circuits Contains practical applications in the engineering field, as well as graduate studies Written by international experts from both academia and industry
This book is the fifth volume of the CoreGRID series. Organized jointly with the Euro-Par 2007 conference, The CoreGRID Symposium intends to become the premiere European event on Grid Computing. The aim of this symposium is to strengthen and advance scientific and technological excellence in the area of Grid and Peer-to-Peer Computing. The book includes all aspects of Grid Computing including service infrastructure. It is designed for a professional audience composed of researchers and practitioners in industry. This volume is also suitable for advanced-level students in computer science.
As software systems become ubiquitous, the issues of dependability become more and more crucial. Given that solutions to these issues must be considered from the very beginning of the design process, it is reasonable that dependability is addressed at the architectural level. This book was born of an effort to bring together the research communities of software architectures and dependability.
This state-of-the-art survey contains 18 expanded and peer-reviewed papers based on the carefully selected contributions to the Workshop on Architecting Dependable Systems (WADS 2006), organized at the 2006 International Conference on Dependable Systems and Networks (DSN 2006), held in Philadelphia, PA, USA, in June 2006. It also contains a number of invited papers written by recognized experts in the area. The papers are organized in topical sections on architectural description languages, architectural components and patterns, architecting distributed systems, and architectural assurances for dependability.
This text is intended for a first course in digital logic design, at the sophomore or junior level, for electrical engineering, computer engineering and computer science programs, as well as for a number of other disciplines such as physics and mathematics. The book can also be used for self-study or for review by practicing engineers and computer scientists not intimately familiar with the subject. After completing this text, the student should be prepared for a second (advanced) course in digital design, switching and automata theory, microprocessors or computer organization.
This book contains the revised selected papers of 4 workshops held in conjunction with the International Conference on High Performance Computing, Networking, Storage and Analysis (SC) in November 2017 in Denver, CO, USA, and in November 2018 in Dallas, TX, USA: the 6th and 7th International Workshop on Extreme-Scale Programming Tools, ESPT 2017 and ESPT 2018, and the 4th and 5th International Workshop on Visual Performance Analysis, VPA 2017 and VPA 2018. The 11 full papers of ESPT 2017 and ESPT 2018 and the 6 full papers of VPA 2017 and VPA 2018 were carefully reviewed and selected for inclusion in this book. The papers discuss the requirements for exascale-enabled tools as well as new approaches of applying visualization and visual analytic techniques to large-scale applications. Topics of interest include: programming tools; methodologies for performance engineering; tool technologies for extreme-scale challenges (e.g., scalability, resilience, power); tool support for accelerated architectures and large-scale multi-cores; tool infrastructures and environments; evolving/future application requirements for programming tools and technologies; application developer experiences with programming and performance tools; scalable displays of performance data; case studies demonstrating the use of performance visualization in practice; data models to enable scalable visualization; graph representation of unstructured performance data; presentation of high-dimensional data; visual correlations between multiple data sources; human-computer interfaces for exploring performance data; and multi-scale representations of performance data for visual exploration.
This book constitutes the proceedings of the 5th OpenSHMEM Workshop, held in Baltimore, MD, USA, in August 2018. The 14 full papers presented in this book were carefully reviewed and selected for inclusion in this volume. The papers discuss a variety of ideas for extending the OpenSHMEM specification and discuss a variety of concepts, including interesting use of OpenSHMEM in HOOVER - a distributed, flexible, and scalable streaming graph processor and scaling OpenSHMEM to handle massively parallel processor arrays. The papers are organized in the following topical sections: OpenSHMEM library extensions and implementations; OpenSHMEM use and applications; and OpenSHMEM simulators, tools, and benchmarks.
This book provides an insightful guide to the design, testing and optimization of micro-electrode-dot-array (MEDA) digital microfluidic biochips. The authors focus on the characteristics specific for MEDA biochips, e.g., real-time sensing and advanced microfluidic operations like lamination mixing and droplet shape morphing. Readers will be enabled to enhance the automated design and use of MEDA and to develop a set of solutions to facilitate the full exploitation of design complexities that are possible with standard CMOS fabrication techniques. The book provides the first set of design automation and test techniques for MEDA biochips. The methods described in this book have been validated using fabricated MEDA biochips in the laboratory. Readers will benefit from an in-depth look at the MEDA platform and how to combine microfluidics with software, e.g., applying biomolecular protocols to software-controlled and cyberphysical microfluidic biochips.
This book shares with readers practical design knowledge gained from the author's 24 years of IC design experience. The author addresses issues and challenges faced commonly by IC designers, along with solutions and workarounds. Guidelines are described for tackling issues such as clock domain crossing, using lockup latch to cross clock domains during scan shift, implementation of scan chains across power domain, optimization methods to improve timing, how standard cell libraries can aid in synthesis optimization, BKM (best known method) for RTL coding, test compression, memory BIST, usage of signed Verilog for design requiring +ve and -ve calculations, state machine, code coverage and much more. Numerous figures and examples are provided to aid the reader in understanding the issues and their workarounds.
This CD contains eight lectures focusing on programming languages, algorithms, and other research topics in the general area of parallel computing. Also included are additional materials such as animations, videos, programs, and software, including the code for building the Parallaxis-III compiler.Lectures on Parallel Programming Languages: Programming in Parallaxis III, Introduction to NESL, Data Parallel Programming Using MPL (with code of the programming examples), Data-parallel Programming in C*, Lectures on Parallel Algorithms, Computing Connected Components in Parallel, Data-Parallel Algorithms in Parallaxis * Research Topics: The Role of Randomness in the Design of Parallel Architectures, Parallel File Systems
This book fills a gap between high-level overview texts that are often too general and low-level detail oriented technical handbooks that lose sight the "big picture". This book discusses SOA from the low-level perspective of middleware, various XML-based technologies, and basic service design. It also examines broader implications of SOA, particularly where it intersects with business process management and process modeling. Concrete overviews will be provided of the methodologies in those fields, so that students will have a hands-on grasp of how they may be used in the context of SOA.
Parallel Computing Architectures and APIs: IoT Big Data Stream Processing commences from the point high-performance uniprocessors were becoming increasingly complex, expensive, and power-hungry. A basic trade-off exists between the use of one or a small number of such complex processors, at one extreme, and a moderate to very large number of simpler processors, at the other. When combined with a high-bandwidth, interprocessor communication facility leads to significant simplification of the design process. However, two major roadblocks prevent the widespread adoption of such moderately to massively parallel architectures: the interprocessor communication bottleneck, and the difficulty and high cost of algorithm/software development. One of the most important reasons for studying parallel computing architectures is to learn how to extract the best performance from parallel systems. Specifically, you must understand its architectures so that you will be able to exploit those architectures during programming via the standardized APIs. This book would be useful for analysts, designers and developers of high-throughput computing systems essential for big data stream processing emanating from IoT-driven cyber-physical systems (CPS). This pragmatic book: Devolves uniprocessors in terms of a ladder of abstractions to ascertain (say) performance characteristics at a particular level of abstraction Explains limitations of uniprocessor high performance because of Moore's Law Introduces basics of processors, networks and distributed systems Explains characteristics of parallel systems, parallel computing models and parallel algorithms Explains the three primary categorical representatives of parallel computing architectures, namely, shared memory, message passing and stream processing Introduces the three primary categorical representatives of parallel programming APIs, namely, OpenMP, MPI and CUDA Provides an overview of Internet of Things (IoT), wireless sensor networks (WSN), sensor data processing, Big Data and stream processing Provides introduction to 5G communications, Edge and Fog computing Parallel Computing Architectures and APIs: IoT Big Data Stream Processing discusses stream processing that enables the gathering, processing and analysis of high-volume, heterogeneous, continuous Internet of Things (IoT) big data streams, to extract insights and actionable results in real time. Application domains requiring data stream management include military, homeland security, sensor networks, financial applications, network management, web site performance tracking, real-time credit card fraud detection, etc.
This book constitutes the thoroughly refereed post-conference proceedings of the 22nd International Workshop on Job Scheduling Strategies for Parallel Processing, JSSPP 2018, held in Vancouver, Canada, in May 2018. The 7 revised full papers presented were carefully reviewed and selected from12 submissions. The papers cover topics in the fields of design and evaluation of new scheduling approaches. They focus on several interesting problems in resource management and scheduling.
This book describes RTL design using Verilog, synthesis and timing closure for System On Chip (SOC) design blocks. It covers the complex RTL design scenarios and challenges for SOC designs and provides practical information on performance improvements in SOC, as well as Application Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC) designs. Prototyping using modern high density Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) is discussed in this book with the practical examples and case studies. The book discusses SOC design, performance improvement techniques, testing and system level verification, while also describing the modern Intel FPGA/XILINX FPGA architectures and their use in SOC prototyping. Further, the book covers the Synopsys Design Compiler (DC) and Prime Time (PT) commands, and how they can be used to optimize complex ASIC/SOC designs. The contents of this book will be useful to students and professionals alike.
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