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The development of electric power systems has been made up of incremental innovations from the end of the 19th century and throughout the 20th century. The creation of deregulated electricity markets has brought about an emerging paradigm in which the relationships between producers, power system operators and consumers have changed enormously compared to the monopolistic case.
The scope of this book is to provide fundamental concepts of the physics and operation of transmission and distribution lines, which is the content of Part 1, followed by the models and tools for the description and simulation of large electrical grids for steady state and transient operation. These advanced tools allow the physics and technology of power systems to be described and the algorithms of Ybus and Zbus matrices to be built for various studies such as short-circuit studies and load flow or transient phenomena analysis.
Part 3 deals with the new organization concepts in the frame of deregulated markets. In this part the restructuring of the power industry is presented where various actors interact together through market places or bilateral contracts. In addition, the operation of the power grids under this deregulated context is detailed and the relationships between power system operators and market actors (energy producers and providers, traders, etc.) is explained with several examples. The ancillary services, congestion management and grid access concepts are also described.
A large number of exercises and problems disseminated throughout the book with solutions at the end enable the reader to check his understanding of the content at any time.
The understanding of hydrogen/lithium insertion phenomena is of great importance for the development of the next generation of functional electrochemical devices such as rechargeable batteries, electrochromic devices, and fuel cells. This volume introduces a variety of viable electrochemical methods to identify reaction mechanisms and evaluate relevant kinetic properties of insertion electrodes. The authors also outline various ways to analyze anomalous behaviour of hydrogen/lithium transport through insertion electrodes.
The definitive biography of the century's godfather of invention-from the preeminent Edison scholar
This book includes the volume 3 of the proceedings of the 2012 International Conference on Mechanical and Electronic Engineering(ICMEE2012), held at June 23-24,2012 in Hefei, China. The conference provided a rare opportunity to bring together worldwide researchers who are working in the fields. This volume 3 is focusing on Electronic Engineering and Electronic Communication; Electronic Engineering and Electronic Image Processing.
This volume collects the research papers presented at the 6th International Conference on Sustainable Automotive Technologies (ICSAT), Gothenburg, 2014. The topical focus lies on latest advances in vehicle technology related to sustainable mobility. ICSAT is the core and state-of-the-art conference in the field of new technologies for transportation. Research contributions from the US, Australia, Europe and Asia illustrate the pivotal role of the conference. The book provides an excellent overview of R&D activities at OEMs as well as in leading universities and laboratories.
The purpose of the book is to provide an exposition of recently developed adaptive and fault-tolerant control of underactuated nonlinear systems. Underactuated systems are abundant in real life, ranging from landing vehicles to surface ships and underwater vehicles to spacecrafts. For the tracking and stabilization control of underactuated mechanical systems, many methodologies have been proposed. However, a number of important issues deserve further investigation. In response to these issues, four important problems are solved in this book, including control of underactuated nonlinear systems with input saturation, output-feedback control in the presence of parametric uncertainties, fault-tolerant control of underactuated ships with or without actuator redundancy, and adaptive control of multiple underactauted nonlinear systems, including formation control and flocking control of multiple underactuated systems.
The present book maximizes reader insights into the current and future roles to be played by different types of renewable energy sources and nuclear energy for the purpose of electricity generation in the European region as a whole and in a select group of European countries specifically. This book includes detailed analysis of the different types of renewable energy sources available in different European countries; the pros and cons of the use of the different types of renewables and nuclear energy for electricity generation; which energy options are available in the different European countries to expand their energy sector in the coming years; the impact on the climate and the environment; levels of production and consumption and the level of electricity generated by these energy sources, amongst others. Designed to inform government officials, economists, scientists and the private and public power industry of the key issues surrounding the future role of different renewable energy sources and nuclear energy in the production of electricity within the European region, this book will also describe in detail the evolution of the electrical energy sector in the chosen European region and the problems that several countries are now experiencing in the face of increasing demand for electricity.
This book uses the metaphor "The economy is society's metabolism" as a springboard to develop a rigorous theoretical framework for a better system of national accounts which goes "Beyond GDP" and is relevant to the age of resource depletion. Society is entering a new era in which biophysical limits related to natural resource extraction rates and the biosphere's waste assimilation capacity are becoming binding constraints on mature economies. Unfortunately, the data needed for policy-makers to understand and manage economic growth in this new era are not universally available. All stakeholders need a new way to understand our economy in the context of the biosphere's ability to provide essential natural capital, and we suggest that detailed information about materials, energy, embodied energy, and energy intensity should be routinely gathered, analyzed, and disseminated from a centralized location to provide markets and policymakers with a more comprehensive understanding of the biophysical economy. However, a firm theoretical foundation is needed before proceeding along this new path, which this book is intended to provide. After arguing that the stock of manufactured capital is an important driver of material and energy demands imposed upon the biosphere, a new accounting framework is derived from the laws of thermodynamics to reflect the fact that material and embodied energy accumulate within the capital stock of economic sectors. This framework extends the Energy Input-Output (EI-O) techniques first developed by Bullard, Herendeen, and others to estimate energy intensity of economic products. Implications from the new framework are discussed, including the value of economic metrics for policy-making, the need for physically-based rather than product-based EI-O formulations, a re-assessment of the concept of economic "growth," and an evaluation of recycling, reuse, and dematerialization. The framework also provides an opportunity to assess an array of definitions for Daly's "steady-state economy" in relation to the ideal of a sustainable economy. The book ends with a list of steps to be taken in creating a more comprehensive system of national accounts: National accounting agencies worldwide should develop and maintain balance sheets of both natural and manufactured capital in addition to national income statements All stocks and inter-sector flows should be provided in physical as well as financial units In the US, the Bureau for Economic Analysis (BEA) should restart detailed Capital, Labor, Energy, Material, and Services (KLEMS) reporting National accounting agencies should routinely estimate the energy intensity of economic products, and all of the above should be estimated and disseminated on an annual basis.
Metamaterials is a young subject born in the 21st century. It is concerned with artificial materials which can have electrical and magnetic properties difficult or impossible to find in nature. The building blocks in most cases are resonant elements much smaller than the wavelength of the electromagnetic wave. The book offers a comprehensive treatment of all aspects of research in this field at a level that should appeal to final year undergraduates in physics or in electrical and electronic engineering. The mathematics is kept at a minimum; the aim is to explain the physics in simple terms and enumerate the major advances. It can be profitably read by graduate and post-graduate students in order to find out what has been done in the field outside their speciality, and by experts who may gain new insight about the inter-relationship of the physical phenomena involved.
The myth of light and progress has blinded us. In our electric world, we are everywhere surrounded by effortlessly glowing lights that simply exist, as they should, seemingly clear and comforting proof that human genius means the present will always be better than the past, and the future better still. At best, this is half the story. At worst, it is a lie. From whale oil to kerosene, from the colonial period to the end of the U.S. Civil War, modern, industrial lights brought wonderful improvements and incredible wealth to some. But for most workers, free and unfree, human and nonhuman, these lights were catastrophes. This book tells their stories. The surprisingly violent struggle to produce, control, and consume the changing means of illumination over the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries transformed slavery, industrial capitalism, and urban families in profound, often hidden ways. Only by taking the lives of whalers and enslaved turpentine makers, match-manufacturing children and coal miners, night-working seamstresses and the streetlamp-lit poor--those American lucifers--as seriously as those of inventors and businessmen can the full significance of the revolution of artificial light be understood.
Manual calculations are still extensively used and in particular are necessary for checking and verifying various software calculation design packages. It is highly recommended that users of such software familiarise themselves with the rudiments of these calculations prior to using the software packages.
This essential book fills the gap between software and manual calculations. It provides the reader with all the necessary tools to enable accurate calculations of circuit designs. Rather than complex equations, this book uses extensive worked examples to make understanding the calculations simpler. The focus on worked examples furnishes the reader with the knowledge to carry out the necessary checks to electrical cable sizing software programmes.
Other key features include: Updated information on 230 volt references and voltage drop under normal load conditions New sections on buried cables that take into account soil thermal conductivity, trenches and grouping, allowing readers to carry out accurate cables sizing Information and examples of steel wired armour cables, new to this edition. This includes sufficiency during short circuits and, for cables with externally run CPCs, gives unique fault conditions. Covers calculations of cross-sectional areas of circuit live conductors Earth fault loop impedances Protective conductor cross-sectional areas and short circuit conditions Short circuit protection.
The last chapter combines all of the calculations of the previous chapters to enable the reader to complete an accurate design of an installation circuit under all conditions.
A unique tool for detailed electrical installation trade, "Electrical Installation Calculations, Fourth Edition" is invaluable to electricians, electrical designers, installers, technicians, contractors, and plant engineers. Senior electrical engineering students and technical colleges, junior engineers, and contracts managers will also find this text useful.
CSIE 2011 is an international scientific Congress for distinguished scholars engaged in scientific, engineering and technological research, dedicated to build a platform for exploring and discussing the future of Computer Science and Information Engineering with existing and potential application scenarios. The congress has been held twice, in Los Angeles, USA for the first and in Changchun, China for the second time, each of which attracted a large number of researchers from all over the world. The congress turns out to develop a spirit of cooperation that leads to new friendship for addressing a wide variety of ongoing problems in this vibrant area of technology and fostering more collaboration over the world.
The congress, CSIE 2011, received 2483 full paper and abstract submissions from 27 countries and regions over the world. Through a rigorous peer review process, all submissions were refereed based on their quality of content, level of innovation, significance, originality and legibility. 688 papers have been accepted for the international congress proceedings ultimately. "
Introduces the concept of combined cycles for next generation nuclear power plants, explaining how recent advances in gas turbines have made these systems increasingly desirable for efficiency gains and cost-of-ownership reduction. Promulgates modelling and analysis techniques to identify opportunities for increased thermodynamic efficiency and decreased water usage over current Light Water Reactor (LWR) systems. Examines all power conversion aspects, from the fluid exiting the reactor to energy releases into the environment, with special focus on heat exchangers and turbo-machinery. Provides examples of small projects to facilitate nuanced understanding of the theories and implementation of combined-cycle nuclear plants. This book explores combined cycle driven efficiency of new nuclear power plants and describes how to model and analyze a nuclear heated multi-turbine power conversion system operating with atmospheric air as the working fluid. The included studies are intended to identify paths for future work on next generation nuclear power plants (GEN-IV), leveraging advances in natural-gas-fired turbines that enable coupling salt-cooled, helium-cooled, and sodium-cooled reactors to a Nuclear Air-Brayton Combined Cycle (NACC). These reactors provide the option of operating base-load nuclear plants with variable electricity output to the grid using natural gas or stored heat to produce peak power. The author describes overall system architecture, components and detailed modelling results of Brayton-Rankine Combined Cycle power conversion systems and Recuperated Brayton Cycle systems, since they offer the highest overall energy conversion efficiencies. With ever-higher temperatures predicted in GEN-IV plants, this book's investigation of potential avenues for thermodynamic efficiency gains will be of great interest to nuclear engineers and researchers, as well as power plant operators and students.
This volume investigates the impact of energy technology innovations on economic development and presents new areas of research into the financial economics of energy as well as new studies into valuation, electricity pricing and the economic, regulatory and environmental costs of alternative energy sources. Academics and practitioners take a global perspective and present cases from several countries. The book concentrates on three issues: 1) innovation and shocks in energy markets; 2) environment and renewables and 3) fossil fuel regulation. The book will provide a useful resource for anyone with an academic or business interest in energy and value issues. This is the fourth volume in a series on energy organized by the Center for Energy and Value Issues (CEVI). The previous volumes in the series include Financial Aspects in Energy (2011), Energy Economics and Financial Markets (2012) and Perspectives on Energy Risk (2014).
Thermophotovoltaics is the science and technology associated with the direct generation of electricity from high temperature heat. Potential applications include combined heat and power, portable and auxiliary power, radioisotope space power, industrial waste heat recovery and concentrated solar power. This book aims at serving as an introduction to the underlying theory, overview of present day components and system arrangements, and update of the latest developments in the field. The emphasis is placed on the understanding of the critical aspects of efficient thermophotovoltaic system design. The aim is to assist researchers in the field.
The subject of Discrete Signals and Systems is broad and deserves a single book devoted to it. The objective of this textbook is to present all the required material that an undergraduate student will need to master this subject matter and the use of MATLAB. This book is primarily intended for electrical and computer engineering students, and especially for use by juniors or seniors in these undergraduate engineering disciplines. It can also be very useful to practicing engineers. It is detailed, broad, based on mathematical basic principles, focused, and it also contains many solved problems using analytical tools as well as MATLAB. The book is ideal for a one-semester course in the area of discrete linear systems or digital signal processing, where the instructor can cover all chapters with ease. Numerous examples are presented within each chapter to illustrate each concept when and where it is presented. Most of the worked-out examples are first solved analytically and then solved using MATLAB in a clear and understandable fashion.
Climate change, energy production and consumption, and the need to improve the sustainability of all aspects of human activity are key inter-related issues for which solutions must be found and implemented quickly and efficiently. To be successfully implemented, solutions must recognize the rapidly changing socio-techno-political environment and multi-dimensional constraints presented by today's interconnected world. As part of this global effort, considerations of climate change impacts, energy demands, and incorporation of sustainability concepts have increasing importance in the design, construction, and maintenance of highway and airport pavement systems. To prepare the human capacity to develop and implement these solutions, many educators, policy-makers and practitioners have stressed the paramount importance of formally incorporating sustainability concepts in the civil engineering curriculum to educate and train future civil engineers well-equipped to address our current and future sustainability challenges. This book will prove a valuable resource in the hands of researchers, educators and future engineering leaders, most of whom will be working in multidisciplinary environments to address a host of next-generation sustainable transportation infrastructure challenges. "This book proposes a broad detailed overview of the actual scientific knowledge about pavements linked to climate change, energy and sustainability at the international level in an original multidimensional/multi-effects way. By the end, the reader will be aware of the whole global issues to care about for various pavement technical features around the world, among which the implications of modelling including data collection, challenging resources saving and infrastructures services optimisation. This is a complete and varied work, rare in the domain." Dr. Agnes Jullien Research Director Director of Environmental, Development, Safety and Eco-Design Laboratory (EASE) Department of Development, Mobility and Environment Ifsttar Centre de Nantes Cedex- France "An excellent compilation of latest developments in the field of sustainable pavements. The chapter topics have been carefully chosen and are very well-organized with the intention of equipping the reader with the state-of-the-art knowledge on all aspects of pavement sustainability. Topics covered include pavement Life Cycle Analysis (LCA), pervious pavements, cool pavements, photocatalytic pavements, energy harvesting pavements, etc. which will all be of significant interest to students, researchers, and practitioners of pavement engineering. This book will no doubt serve as an excellent reference on the topic of sustainable pavements." Dr. Wei-Hsing Huang Editor-in-Chief of International Journal of Pavement Research and Technology (IJPRT) and Professor of Civil Engineering National Central University Taiwan
Vehicular communication is a key technology in intelligent transportation systems. For many years now, the academic and industrial research communities have been investigating these communications in order to improve efficiency and safety of future transportation. Vehicular networking offers a wide variety of applications, including safety applications as well as infotainment applications. This book highlights the recent developments in vehicular networking technologies and their interaction with future smart cities in order to promote further research activities and challenges. SAADI BOUDJIT, University of Paris 13, France HAKIMA CHAOUCHI, Telecom SudParis, France YACINE GHAMRI, University La Rochelle, France HALABI HASBULLAH, Universiti Teknologi Petronas, Malaysia ANIS LAOUITI, Telecom SudParis, France SAOUCENE MAHFOUDH, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia PAUL MUHLETHALER, INRIA, France AMIR QAYYUM, Mohamad Ali Jinnah University, Pakistan NAUFAL SAAD, Universiti Teknologi Petronas, Malaysia AHMED SOUA, NIST, USA HAJIME TAZAKI, University of Tokyo, Japan APINUN TUNPAN, Aintec, Thailand WEI WEI, Xi'an University, China RACHID ZAGROUBA, ENSI, Tunisia.
The Proceedings of the 11th European Conference on Thermoelectrics contains manuscripts from leading experts on topics spanning from material processing to applications in the field of thermoelectrics. The selected manuscripts also describe recent developments on measurement systems of thermoelectric properties, and the design and modelling of thermoelectric generators.
This popular guide provides an understanding of basic design criteria and calculations, along with current inspection and testing requirements and explains how to meet the requirements of the IET Wiring Regulations. The book explains in clear language those parts of the regulations that most need simplifying. There are common misconceptions regarding bonding, voltages, disconnection times and sizes of earthing conductors. This book clarifies the requirements and outlines the correct procedures to follow. This provides an affordable reference for all electrical contractors, technicians and other workers involved in designing and testing electrical installations. The content covers the requirements for both City & Guilds and EAL courses, and contains sample exam questions and answers. It also makes an ideal revision guide. Fully up to date with the 18th Edition of IET Wiring Regulations. Simplifies the advice found in the Wiring Regulations, explaining what they mean in actual working practice for design and testing. Expert advice from an engineering training consultant, supported with colour diagrams, examples and key data.
This text seeks to illuminate, mainly for the electrical power engineers of the future, the topic of large scale solar flux gathering schemes, which arguably represent the major source of renewable power available. The aim of the content is to impart, from an electromagnetic perspective, a deep and sound understanding of the topic of solar flux collection, ranging from the characteristics of light to the properties of antennas. To do this five chapters are employed to provide a thorough grounding in relevant aspects of electromagnetism and electromagnetic waves including optics, electromagnetic radiation and reception, aperture antennas and array antennas and the quantum electrodynamics aspects of optical absorption, as it relates to photovoltaic techniques. The principles developed in these chapters are then used to underpin and elucidate the main chapters on photovoltaic collectors, concentrated solar power collectors, satellite based collection systems and optical nantennas. To establish the novel and transformative renewable technologies, which civilisation will soon require, in order to achieve sustainability quickly and effectively, the availability of professional engineers and scientists with a thorough and commanding grasp of the fundamental science is an absolutely essential prerequisite. This book provides this for solar power generating systems.
Examining non-technological innovations for environmentally and socially-friendly transport, this book provides the reader with a better understanding of this often overlooked topic. It features four illustrative case studies, and presents a concise review of the core transport modes (road, rail and marine transport). Transport companies are compelled to innovate due to economic and environmental pressures, and the aim of these innovations is to improve fuel efficiency and ultimately to transform energy use in the transport sector. Whilst many of these innovations are technological, they can conversely be non-technological in nature. This book is intended for students and researchers interested in economics, environmental economics and economics of innovation. It also offers a useful resource to industry professionals interested in ecology and transport.
The book presents an integrated planning concept for heat flows in production systems comprising various short term and long term related models. Detailed explanations about the modeling and implementation of all relevant system elements such as generic and specific machines types, technical building services (TBS), production planning and control aspects, heat storage units and (waste) heat designs follow. Due to resulting amounts of data, the concept foresees system level appropriate indicators and visualizations for a facilitatedevaluation of the model results. An application procedure embeds and describes all models as well.Three exemplary application cases demonstrate the applicability, including the manufacturing of shafts for automotive transmissions, a cooling water system and an academic learning environment.
The book introduces an original and effective method for the analysis of peak-to-peak output current ripple amplitude in three-phase two-level inverters. It shows that the method can be extended to both multiphase inverters, with particular emphasis on five-phase and seven-phase inverters, and multilevel ones, with particular emphasis on three-level inverters, and provides, therefore, a comparison among different number of output phases and voltage levels. The work reported on here represents the first detailed analysis of the peak-to-peak output current ripple. It makes an important step toward future developments in the field of high-power generation, and in grid-connected and motor-load systems.
All the essential calculations required for basic electrical installation work The Electrical Installation Calculations series has proved an invaluable reference for over forty years, for both apprentices and professional electrical installation engineers alike. The book provides a step-by-step guide to the successful application of electrical installation calculations required in day-to-day electrical engineering practice. A step-by-step guide to everyday calculations used on the job An essential aid to the City & Guilds certificates at Levels 2 and 3 For apprentices and electrical installation engineers Now in its ninth edition, it is in line with the amendments to the 17th Edition IET Wiring Regulations (BS 7671:2008) and references the material covered in the Wiring Regulations throughout. The content also meets the requirements of the latest Level 2 qualifications from City & Guilds (including the new 2365 Diploma). Essential calculations which may not necessarily feature as part of the requirements of the syllabus are retained for professional electrical installation engineers based in industry and students wishing to progress to higher levels of study. Key terms are explained in a glossary section and worked examples and exercises are included throughout the text. A complete question and answer section is included at the back of the book to enable readers to check their understanding of the calculations presented.
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