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This SpringerBrief presents a survey of data center network designs and topologies and compares several properties in order to highlight their advantages and disadvantages. The brief also explores several routing protocols designed for these topologies and compares the basic algorithms to establish connections, the techniques used to gain better performance, and the mechanisms for fault-tolerance. Readers will be equipped to understand how current research on data center networks enables the design of future architectures that can improve performance and dependability of data centers. This concise brief is designed for researchers and practitioners working on data center networks, comparative topologies, fault tolerance routing, and data center management systems. The context provided and information on future directions will also prove valuable for students interested in these topics.
Based on a fundamental understanding of the interaction between bacteria and materials, this timely volume emphasizes the latest research in the antimicrobial interfacial design and provides an invaluable blueprint for improving antimicrobial performance on devices and products. Antimicrobial Coatings and Modifications targets reduction of microbial accumulation on biomedical and industrial materials through changing interfacial characteristics. Applying a viable antimicrobial coating or modification to resist alarming threats is a highly demanding requirement for many medical and engineering applications. Many contemporary books in the area of antimicrobial solution focus on applying antimicrobial agents or materials that can kill bacteria. The volume pays more attention to eliminating bacterial contamination and biofilm formation through surface characteristics with minimized bacterial resistance and environmental impact.
If you are a semiconductor engineer or a magnetics physicist developing magnetic memory, get the information you need with this, the first book on magnetic memory. From magnetics to the engineering design of memory, this practical book explains key magnetic properties and how they are related to memory performance, characterization methods of magnetic films, and tunneling magnetoresistance effect devices. It also covers memory cell options, array architecture, circuit models, and read-write engineering issues. You'll understand the soft fail nature of magnetic memory, which is very different from that of semiconductor memory, as well as methods to deal with the issue. You'll also get invaluable problem-solving insights from real-world memory case studies. This is an essential book for semiconductor engineers who need to understand magnetics, and for magnetics physicists who work with MRAM. It is also a valuable reference for graduate students working in electronic/magnetic device research.
This book presents the current coil winding methods, their associated technologies and the associated automation techniques. From the introduction as a forming joining process, over the physical properties of coils, the semifinished products (wire, coil body, insulation) are introduced. In the process chain, different winding methods are used for magnet wire winding. Finally, the automation of these processes is described.
This book describes an original improvement in power quality of photovoltaic generation systems obtained by the use of a multilevel inverter implemented with level doubling network (LDN). Modulation principles and harmonic analysis of output voltages are proposed and introduced in detail for both single and three-phase LDN configurations. The analysis is then extended to dc-link current and voltage, with emphasis to low-frequency harmonics and switching frequency ripple. This work represents the first comprehensive implementation of maximum power point tracking (MPPT) schemes using the ripple correlation control (RCC) algorithm in the presence of multiple ripple harmonics, such as in the case of multi level inverters. Numerical simulations and experimental tests are carefully reported here, together with practical insights into the design of dc-link capacitors.
Power generation is a relatively recent concern because humans had little need for sustained power until the dawn of the Industrial Revolution. Today, modern civilization is wholly dependent on the production and distribution of power. Without it, our way of life would be extinguished. In Lights On!, Mark Denny reveals the mysterious world of power generation. He takes us on a fun tour, examining the nature of energy, tracing the history of power generation, explaining the processes from production through transmission to use, and addressing questions that are currently in the headlines, such as: Is natural gas the best alternative energy source in the near term?; Could solar power be the answer to all our problems?; and Why is nuclear power such a hard sell, and are the concerns valid? Devoting individual chapters to each of the forms of power in use today-electrical, coal, oil and natural gas, hydro, nuclear, and solar-Denny explains the pros and cons of each, their availability worldwide, and which are in dwindling supply. Making clear that his approach is that of "a scientist and engineer, not a politician or businessman," Denny addresses environmental concerns by providing information to help readers understand the science and engineering of power generation so they can discuss contemporary energy issues from an informed perspective. For those who wish to delve deeper into the science, a technical appendix provides estimations for a variety of power generators. Anyone who is interested in how energy works and how it is transformed to power our lives will get a charge out of Lights On!
An electric machine is a device that converts mechanical energy into electrical energy or vice versa. It can take the form of an electric generator, electric motor, or transformer. Electric generators produce virtually all electric power we use all over the world. Electric machine blends the three major areas of electrical engineering: power, control and power electronics. This book presents the relation of power quantities for the machine as the current, voltage power flow, power losses, and efficiency. This book will provide a good understanding of the behavior and its drive, beginning with the study of salient features of electrical dc and ac machines.
This textbook introduces theoretical piezoelectricity. The second edition updates a classical, seminal reference on a fundamental topic that is addressed in every materials science curriculum. It presents a concise treatment of the basic theoretical aspects of continuum modeling of electroelastic interactions in solids. The general nonlinear theory for large deformations and strong fields is established and specialized to the linear theory for small deformations and weak fields, i.e., the theory of piezoelectricity. Relatively simple and useful solutions of many static and dynamic problems of piezoelectricity that are useful in device applications are given. Emphasis is on the formulation of solutions to problems rather than advanced mathematical solution techniques. This book includes many examples to assist and enhance students' understanding of piezoelectricity and piezoelastics.
Guidance Note 5: Protection Against Electric Shock provides a core element of safety for specifiers, designers, contractors and inspectors. It includes clear guidance on how to apply the safety requirements of BS 7671 concerning electric shock and has been fully updated to BS 7671:2018. The 18th Edition of the IET Wiring Regulations published in July 2018 and came into effect in January 2019. Changes from the previous edition include requirements concerning Surge Protection Devices, Arc Fault Detection Devices and the installation of electric vehicle charging equipment as well as many other areas.
Seismic data must be interpreted using digital signal processing techniques in order to create accurate representations of petroleum reservoirs and the interior structure of the Earth. This book provides an advanced overview of digital signal processing (DSP) and its applications to exploration seismology using real-world examples. The book begins by introducing seismic theory, describing how to identify seismic events in terms of signals and noise, and how to convert seismic data into the language of DSP. Deterministic DSP is then covered, together with non-conventional sampling techniques. The final part covers statistical seismic signal processing via Wiener optimum filtering, deconvolution, linear-prediction filtering and seismic wavelet processing. With over sixty end-of-chapter exercises, seismic data sets and data processing MATLAB codes included, this is an ideal resource for electrical engineering students unfamiliar with seismic data, and for Earth Scientists and petroleum professionals interested in DSP techniques.
Given rising electricity consumption, coupled with finite resources, and a growing awareness surrounding sustainable energy, ICT-enabled electrical networks such as smart grids are increasingly being deployed by energy companies. One aspect of smart grids is smart meter technology (SMT), which are sophisticated digital electrical meters, having the potential to increase energy efficiency in both residential and industrial sectors.
However, a challenge to SMT-implementation in residential settings has been its successful adoption by consumers. As many cases in the US, and other parts of the world highlight, such implementation projects have run into resistance from the consumers. Despite these challenges, little research has been conducted on this topic.
This study is one of the first that attempts to fill that void by empirically examining the antecedents of SMT adoption amongst potential customers and a group of SMT users. Specifically, this study developed a model surrounding consumers' intention to adopt and use SMT, by drawing on theories of adoption and motivational psychology and also by including a set of context-specific variables.
For courses in electrical & computing engineering. Feedback control fundamentals with context, case studies, and a focus on design Feedback Control of Dynamic Systems, 8th Edition, covers the material that every engineer needs to know about feedback control-including concepts like stability, tracking, and robustness. Each chapter presents the fundamentals along with comprehensive, worked-out examples, all within a real-world context and with historical background provided. The text is devoted to supporting students equally in their need to grasp both traditional and more modern topics of digital control, and the author's focus on design as a theme early on, rather than focusing on analysis first and incorporating design much later. An entire chapter is devoted to comprehensive case studies, and the 8th Edition has been revised with up-to-date information, along with brand-new sections, problems, and examples.
This book is an all-in-one resource on the development and application of variable frequency transformers to power systems and smart grids. It introduces the main technical issues of variable frequency transformers (VFT) systematically, including its basic construction, theory equations, and simulation models. Readers will then gain an in-depth discussion of its control system, operation performance, low frequency power oscillation, and technical economics, before proceeding to practical implementation and future developments. The related concepts of energy revolution, third generation grids, and power system interconnection are discussed as well. The first, comprehensive introduction to variable frequency transformers (VFT) An in-depth look at the construction of VFT, with simulations and applications Demonstrates how to assess the control system and overall system performance Analyses future developments, energy revolution and power system interconnections Variable Frequency Transformers for Large Scale Power Systems is a timely overview of the state of the art for VFT as it is increasingly adopted in smart grids. It is intended for engineers and researchers specializing in power system planning and operation, as well as advanced students and industry professionals of power engineering.
This Proceedings volume gathers outstanding papers submitted to the 19th Asia Pacific Automotive Engineering Conference & 2017 SAE-China Congress, the majority of which are from China - the largest car-maker as well as most dynamic car market in the world. The book covers a wide range of automotive topics, presenting the latest technical advances and approaches to help technicians solve the practical problems that most affect their daily work.
Beginning with an overview and historical background of Copper Zinc Tin Sulphide (CZTS) technology, subsequent chapters cover properties of CZTS thin films, different preparation methods of CZTS thin films, a comparative study of CZTS and CIGS solar cell, computational approach, and future applications of CZTS thin film solar modules to both ground-mount and rooftop installation. The semiconducting compound (CZTS) is made up earth-abundant, low-cost and non-toxic elements, which make it an ideal candidate to replace Cu(In, Ga)Se2 (CIGS) and CdTe solar cells which face material scarcity and toxicity issues. The device performance of CZTS-based thin film solar cells has been steadily improving over the past 20 years, and they have now reached near commercial efficiency levels (10%). These achievements prove that CZTS-based solar cells have the potential to be used for large-scale deployment of photovoltaics. With contributions from leading researchers from academia and industry, many of these authors have contributed to the improvement of its efficiency, and have rich experience in preparing a variety of semiconducting thin films for solar cells.
A complete, up-to-date, introductory guide to fuel cell technology and application Fuel Cell Fundamentals provides a thorough introduction to the principles and practicalities behind fuel cell technology. Beginning with the underlying concepts, the discussion explores fuel cell thermodynamics, kinetics, transport, and modeling before moving into the application side with guidance on system types and design, performance, costs, and environmental impact. This new third edition has been updated with the latest technological advances and relevant calculations, and enhanced chapters on advanced fuel cell design and electrochemical and hydrogen energy systems. Worked problems, illustrations, and application examples throughout lend a real-world perspective, and end-of chapter review questions and mathematical problems reinforce the material learned. Fuel cells produce more electricity than batteries or combustion engines, with far fewer emissions. This book is the essential introduction to the technology that makes this possible, and the physical processes behind this cost-saving and environmentally friendly energy source. * Understand the basic principles of fuel cell physics * Compare the applications, performance, and costs of different systems * Master the calculations associated with the latest fuel cell technology * Learn the considerations involved in system selection and design As more and more nations turn to fuel cell commercialization amidst advancing technology and dropping deployment costs, global stationary fuel cell revenue is expected to grow from $1.4 billion to $40.0 billion by 2022. The sector is forecasted to explode, and there will be a tremendous demand for high-level qualified workers with advanced skills and knowledge of fuel cell technology. Fuel Cell Fundamentals is the essential first step toward joining the new energy revolution.
Based on feedback from readers, this fifth edition has been enlarged and thoroughly revised.The sixteen chapters of the previous edition have been revised, and ten new chapters have been incorporated that deal with synchronous machines, single/three phase motors, ac commutator motors, and stepper motors.The book's author has more than four decades experience of teaching of electrical engineering, especially electrical machines at undergraduate and postgraduate levels.Key features:Easy to follow, understand and implement.Includes about 440 worked-out examples.Contains 721 MCQs (with answers) to help students measure their understanding and analysing skills and evaluate their knowledge.Offers over 500 chapter-end exercises with answers to build problem solving skills and gain hands-on experience and self-confidence.Includes many real-life examples to enable students to analyse and implement theoretical concepts.Difficult concepts like commutation are explained in detail.The book is primarily designed for undergraduate and postgraduate students of electrical and electronics engineering. Students of all other branches of engineering will also find the text useful for course study.
This book explains the fundamentals of control theory for Internet of Things (IoT) systems and smart grids and its applications. It discusses the challenges imposed by large-scale systems, and describes the current and future trends and challenges in decision-making for IoT in detail, showing the ongoing industrial and academic research in the field of smart grid domain applications. It presents step-by-step design guidelines for the modeling, design, customisation and calibration of IoT systems applied to smart grids, in which the challenges increase with each system's increasing complexity. It also provides solutions and detailed examples to demonstrate how to use the techniques to overcome these challenges, as well as other problems related to decision-making for successful implementation. Further, it anaylses the features of decision-making, such as low-complexity and fault-tolerance, and uses open-source and publicly available software tools to show readers how they can design, implement and customise their own system control instantiations. This book is a valuable resource for power engineers and researchers, as it addresses the analysis and design of flexible decision-making mechanisms for smart grids. It is also of interest to students on courses related to control of large-scale systems, since it covers the use of state-of-the-art technology with examples and solutions in every chapter. And last but not least, it offers practical advice for professionals working with smart grids.
Everything begins with the basics
In recent years, electrical power and energy systems have undergone an unprecedented revolution never observed before. The liberalisation of electricity markets, the integration of electrical vehicles, information technology innovation, advanced communication systems, and smart-metering, etc., are all contributing to major changes in the basic operations of electrical power systems in their entirety. Consequently, all these aspects must enable electrical power and energy systems to become more intelligent, providing benefits, not only for the utilities and power systems operators, but also for consumers and society as a whole. This book aims to share, address and disseminate state-of-the-art research, development and implementation results of microgrids in a simple way, in order to bring researchers, engineers and practitioners world-wide together, from both academia and industry, with the aim of fostering new advances; identifying challenges and opportunities in technology operation; and planning and design interactions among engineers, researchers and stakeholders in this important field of knowledge. This textbook consists of six chapters that have been written by relevant academics, researchers and engineers. Most of the chapters include state-of-the-art of algorithms, methods, know-how and examples of applications in academic or industrial problems, as well as their solutions through the most adequate optimisation technique. Researchers, engineers and students are encouraged to develop their own simple computer programs in order to solve the problems they encounter using the techniques outlined in this book.
Introduction to Electrical Engineering presents a comprehensive coverage of a broad range of key topics including principles and techniques, industrial applications, transformers and AC/DC machine operation. The book has an excellent blend of theory and solved examples. Following a simple and engaging style, this book can be considered as a single source information meeting the requirements of the readers. It is intended for catering the needs of engineering students of all branches and eminently suited as a textbook for the students of B.E./B.Tech, AMIE and diploma courses in electrical engineering. Besides this, the book would also be appreciated by all those students who are preparing for GATE and UPSC competitive examinations as well as by the practising engineers.
PRACTICAL PROBLEMS IN MATHEMATICS FOR ELECTRICIANS, 9E will give readers the math skills they need to succeed in the electrical trade. It introduces them to the important math principles through problems designed for the electrical profession and offers them an excellent opportunity to develop and practice problem-solving skills while at the same time providing a valuable review of electrical terminology. This new edition uses the same straightforward writing style and simple, step-by-step explanations that made previous editions so reader-friendly. It minimizes theory and emphasizes problem solving techniques and practice problems. This new edition also includes updated illustrations and information for a better learning experience than ever before! The book begins with basic arithmetic and then, once these basic topics have been mastered, progresses to algebra and concludes with trigonometry. Practical problems with real-world scenarios from the electrical field are used throughout, allowing readers to apply key mathematical concepts while developing an awareness of basic electrical terms and practices. This is the perfect resource for anyone entering the electrical industry or simply looking to brush up on the necessary math.
This book covers emerging energy storage technologies and material characterization methods along with various systems and applications in building, power generation systems and thermal management. The authors present options available for reducing the net energy consumption for heating/cooling, improving the thermal properties of the phase change materials and optimization methods for heat storage embedded multi-generation systems. An in-depth discussion on the natural convection-driven phase change is included. The book also discusses main energy storage options for thermal management practices in photovoltaics and phase change material applications that aim passive thermal control. This book will appeal to researchers and professionals in the fields of mechanical engineering, chemical engineering, electrical engineering, renewable energy, and thermodynamics. It can also be used as an ancillary text in upper-level undergraduate courses and graduate courses in these fields.
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