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Inorganic 2D nanomaterials, or inorganic graphene analogues, are gaining great attention due to their unique properties and potential energy applications. They contain ultrathin nanosheet morphology with one-dimensional confinement, but unlike pure carbon graphene, inorganic two-dimensional nanomaterials have a more abundant elemental composition and can form different crystallographic structures. These properties contribute to their unique chemical reaction activity, tunable physical properties and facilitate applications in the field of energy conversion and storage. Inorganic Two-dimensional Nanomaterials details the development of the nanostructures from computational simulation and theoretical understanding to their synthesis and characterization. Individual chapters then cover different applications of the materials as electrocatalysts, flexible supercapicitors, flexible lithium ion batteries and thermoelectrical devices. The book provides a comprehensive overview of the field for researchers working in the areas of materials chemistry, physics, energy and catalysis.
Emphasizing a practical conception of system unbalances, basic circuits, and calculations, this essential reference/text presents the foundations of symmetrical components with a review of per unit (percent), phasors, and polarity--keeping the mathematics as simple as possible throughout. According to IEEE Electrical Insulation Magazine, this book "a ]provides students and practicing engineers with a fundamental understanding of the method of symmetrical components and its applications in three-phase electrical systems. . .A useful feature of this book. . .is the incorporation of numerous examples in the text and 30 pages of problems."
Supercapacitors are a relatively new energy storage system that
provides higher energy density than dielectric capacitors and
higher power density than batteries. They are particularly suited
to applications that require energy pulses during short periods of
time, e.g., seconds or tens of seconds. They are recommended for
automobiles, tramways, buses, cranes, fork-lifts, wind turbines,
electricity load leveling in stationary and transportation systems,
etc. Despite the technological maturity of supercapacitors, there
is a lack of comprehensive literature on the topic. Many high
performance materials have been developed and new scientific
concepts have been introduced. Taking into account the commercial
interest in these systems and the new scientific and technological
developments now is the ideal time to publish this book, capturing
all this new knowledge. The book starts by giving an introduction
to the general principles of electrochemistry, the properties of
electrochemical capacitors, and electrochemical characterization
techniques. Electrical double layer capacitors and pseudocapacitors
are then discussed, followed by the various electrolyte systems.
Modelling, manufacture of industrial capacitors, constraints,
testing, and reliability as well as applications are also covered.
'Supercapacitors - Materials, Systems, and Applications' is part of
the series on Materials for
The book is devoted to the spatial characterization of solar cells and PV modules. It is written both as a monograph as well as a succinct guide for the state-of-the-art spatial characterization techniques and approaches. Amongst the approaches discussed are visual imaging, electro- and photo-luminescence imaging, thermography, and light beam induced mapping techniques. Emphasis is given on the luminescence image acquisition and interpretation due to its great potential. Characterization techniques are accompanied by simulation tools. The contents are aimed at a readership of students and senior researchers in R&D as well as engineers in industry who are newcomers to the spatial characterization of either solar cells or PV modules. The concepts and approaches presented herein are based on but not limited to case studies of real thin-film PV devices. Key features: Review of spatially resolved characterization techniques and accompanying SPICE simulations in photovoltaics Use of spatially resolved characterization techniques and their combinations for the identification of inhomogeneities in small area CdTe and dye-sensitized solar cells Case studies of electroluminescence imaging of commercial PV modules (c-Si, CIGS, CdTe, a-Si, tandem and triple junction thin-film-Si) The contents are aimed at a readership of students and senior researchers in R&D as well as engineers in industry who are newcomers to the spatial characterization of either solar cells or PV modules. The concepts and approaches presented herein are based on but not limited to case studies of real thin-film PV devices. Key features: Review of spatially resolved characterization techniques and accompanying SPICE simulations in photovoltaics Use of spatially resolved characterization techniques and their combinations for the identification of inhomogeneities in small area CdTe and dye-sensitized solar cells Case studies of electroluminescence imaging of commercial PV modules (c-Si, CIGS, CdTe, a-Si, tandem and triple junction thin-film-Si)
Large Power Transformers have long been a concern for the U.S. Electricity Sector, because the failure of a single unit can cause service interruption and lead to collateral damage, and there could be difficulties in quickly replacing them. This book assesses the procurement and supply environment of large power transformers (LPTs). Key industry sources have identified the limited availability of spare LPTs as a potential issue for critical infrastructure resilience in the United States, and both the public and private sectors have been undertaking a variety of efforts to address this concern. The following topics are examined in this book: characteristics and procurement of LPTs, including key raw materials and transportation; historical trends and future demands; global and domestic LPT suppliers; potential issues in the global sourcing of LPTs; and assessment of the risks facing LPTs.
Intelligent Transportation Systems: Functional Design for Economical and Efficient Traffic Management provides practical guidance on the efficient use of resources in the design of ITS. The author explains how functional design alternatives can meet project objectives and requirements with optimal cost effectiveness and clarifies how transportation planning and traffic diversion principles relate to functional ITS device selections and equipment locations. Methodologies for translating objectives to functional device types, determining device deployment densities and determining the best placement of CCTV cameras and message signs are provided, as are models for evaluating the benefits of design alternatives based on traffic conditions. Readers will learn how to reduce recurrent congestion, improve incident clearance time in non-recurrent congestion, provide real-time incident information to motorists, and leverage transportation management center data for lane control through important new active transportation and demand management (ATDM) methods. Finally, the author examines exciting developments in connected vehicle technologies, exploring their potential to greatly improve safety, mobility and energy efficiency. This resource will greatly benefit all ITS designers and managers and is of pivotal importance for operating agencies performing evaluations to justify operational funding and system expansions.
This volume investigates the impact of energy technology innovations on economic development and presents new areas of research into the financial economics of energy as well as new studies into valuation, electricity pricing and the economic, regulatory and environmental costs of alternative energy sources. Academics and practitioners take a global perspective and present cases from several countries. The book concentrates on three issues: 1) innovation and shocks in energy markets; 2) environment and renewables and 3) fossil fuel regulation. The book will provide a useful resource for anyone with an academic or business interest in energy and value issues. This is the fourth volume in a series on energy organized by the Center for Energy and Value Issues (CEVI). The previous volumes in the series include Financial Aspects in Energy (2011), Energy Economics and Financial Markets (2012) and Perspectives on Energy Risk (2014).
Allein im Raum Halle/Leipzig und der Lausitz wurden etwa 30 Braunkohlentagebaue und 90 Kraftwerks- und Veredlungsstandorte seit Anfang der 1990er Jahre saniert mit dem Ziel, Umweltschaden zu beseitigen und die Landschaft wiederherzustellen. Vertreter aus Behorden und Hochschulen, Sanierungsunternehmen und Planungsburos erlautern die eigens dafur entwickelten Technologien, sie beschreiben die Managementstrukturen und ihre Erfahrungen bei der Sanierung des stillgelegten Braunkohlenbergbaus. Mit zahlreichen Abbildungen und Tabellen sowie einem Glossar."
Over the last century, energy storage systems (ESSs) have continued to evolve and adapt to changing energy requirements and technological advances. Energy Storage in Power Systems describes the essential principles needed to understand the role of ESSs in modern electrical power systems, highlighting their application for the grid integration of renewable-based generation. Key features: * Defines the basis of electrical power systems, characterized by a high and increasing penetration of renewable-based generation. * Describes the fundamentals, main characteristics and components of energy storage technologies, with an emphasis on electrical energy storage types. * Contains real examples depicting the application of energy storage systems in the power system. * Features case studies with and without solutions on modelling, simulation and optimization techniques. Although primarily targeted at researchers and senior graduate students, Energy Storage in Power Systems is also highly useful to scientists and engineers wanting to gain an introduction to the field of energy storage and more specifically its application to modern power systems.
"Wind Energy 2000 - Building the 10%" looks at the role wind power will play in meeting the Governments 2010 target on electricity generation from renewable sources. New projects, both on and off shore, are expected to contribute almost half of the target, recognising the maturity of the technology.
"Wind Energy 2000 - Building the 10%" includes a special report from the development team of the landmark Blyth Offshore project on the challenges experienced in commissioning the UK's first offshore wind turbines.
Changes in both the UK electricity system and the Government's programme of support for renewable energy suggested that the focus of this year's conference should be the new policies. Sessions were accordingly convened as forums with subsequent discussion groups.
Papers presented include contributions from the Department of Trade and Industry, the Crown Estate, and the Countryside Agency, including such topics as: The percentage obligation and the new electricity trading arrangementsThe further development of the offshore wind energy industryRegional and sustainable development within the planning system.
This book identifies the challenges faced by large electricity consumers when they use several sources to procure their energy. The huge penetration of distributed energy resources and the intermittent nature of renewables can put the operations of the large electricity consumer at risk. The book discusses the different types of energy sources including the pool market, bilateral contracts, electrical vehicles, energy storage systems, and demand response programs in detail and presents solutions for robust and risk based scheduling. The author provides models for determining and considering uncertainties and optimal bidding strategies. The book is useful to engineers and students involved in the integration of various energy types as well as those working in state and federal governmental organizations who regulate different aspects of electricity market operation and planning. Presents solutions for robust and risk based scheduling; Discusses the operation and planning of energy storage systems; Presents the most-up-to-date technological approaches to energy integration.
This book comprises select papers presented at the International Conference on Trends and Recent Advances in Civil Engineering (TRACE 2018). The book covers cutting-edge methods and applications in the field of traffic control, transportation planning, road maintenance, and highway and pavement engineering. Case studies on traffic safety, pedestrian behavior, and highway maintenance and design are also presented in this book. The contents of this book are useful for researchers and practitioners working in transportation and traffic engineering.
Generously illustrated with over 1600 dispaly equations and more than 145 drawings, diagrams and photographs, this book is a handy, single-source reference suited to readers with a wide span of educational backgrounds and technical experience. Comprehensive in both scope and depth this manual covers all significant aspects of the field, such as Amperes Law and Faraday's Law, emphasing basic explanations of motor behaviour, derives all important equations and relationships required to analyze, design and apply polyphase induction motors, uses worldwide SI units or international MKS system of units as well as practical units used in the US and shows how to apply working equations to real-life situations with numerical examples... and more.
In recognition of the fact that billions of people in the developing world do not have access to clean energies, the United Nations launched the Sustainable Energy for All Initiative to achieve universal energy access by 2030. Although electricity grid extension remains the most prevalent way of providing access, it is now recognized that the central grid is unlikely to reach many remote areas in the near future. At the same time, individual solutions like solar home systems tend to provide very limited services to consumers. Mini-grids offer an alternative by combining the benefits of a grid-based solution with the potential for harnessing renewable energies at the local level. The purpose of this book is to provide in-depth coverage of the use of mini-grids for rural electrification in developing countries, taking into account the technical, economic, environmental and governance dimensions and presenting case studies from South Asia.
This book reports on research carried out by a consortium of British and Indian researchers on off-grid electrification in South Asia. It provides state-of-the art technical knowledge on mini-grids and micro-grids including renewable energy integration (or green mini-grids), smart systems for integration with the central grid, and standardization of systems. It also presents essential analytical frameworks and approaches that can be used to analyze the mini-grids comprehensively including their techno-economic aspects, financial viability and regulatory issues. The case studies drawn from South Asia demonstrate the application of the framework and showcase various successful efforts to promote mini-grids in the region. It also reports on the design and implementation of a demonstration project carried out by the team in a cluster of villages in Odisha (India).
The book's multi-disciplinary approach facilitates understanding of the relevant practical dimensions of mini-grid systems, such as demand creation (through interventions in livelihood generation and value chain development), financing, regulation, and smart system design. Its state-of-the art knowledge, integrated methodological framework, simulation exercises and real-life case analysis will allow the reader to analyze and appreciate the mini-grid-related activities in their entirety. The book will be of interest to researchers, graduate students, practitioners and policy makers working in the area of rural electrification in developing countries.
Master the fundamentals of electric circuits with Kang's ELECTRIC CIRCUITS. You learn the basics of electric circuits with common design practices and simulations as the book presents clear step-by-step examples, practical exercises, and problems. Each chapter includes several examples and problems related to circuit design with answers for odd-numbered questions so you can further prepare yourself with self-guided study and practice. ELECTRIC CIRCUITS covers everything from DC circuits and AC circuits to Laplace transformed circuits. MATLAB (R) scripts for certain examples give you an alternate method to solve circuit problems, check answers, and reduce laborious derivations and calculations. This edition also provides PSpice (R) and Simulink (R) examples to demonstrate electric circuit simulations.
A practical introduction to techniques for the design of electronic products from the Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) perspective Introduces techniques for the design of electronic products from the EMC aspects Covers normalized EMC requirements and design principles to assure product compatibility Describes the main topics for the control of electromagnetic interferences and recommends design improvements to meet international standards requirements ( FCC, EU EMC directive, Radio acts etc) Well organized in a logical sequence which starts from basic knowledge and continues through the various aspects required for compliance with EMC requirements Includes practical examples and case studies to illustrate design features and troubleshooting Author is the founder of the EMC design risk evaluation approach and this book presents many years experience in teaching and researching the topic
A battery management system (BMS) is any electronic device that manages a rechargeable battery pack. The BMS monitors the battery pack's state, calculates secondary data, offers protection, and controls its environment. This timely book provides a solid understanding of battery management systems (BMS) in large Li-Ion battery packs, describing the important technical challenges in this field and exploring the most effective solutions. Professionals find in-depth discussions on BMS topologies, functions, and complexities, helping them determine which permutation is right for their application. Packed with numerous graphics, tables, and images, the book explains the 'whys' and 'hows' of Li-Ion BMS design, installation, configuration and troubleshooting. This hands-on resource includes an unbiased description and comparison of all the off-the-shelf Li-Ion BMSs available today. Moreover, it explains how using the correct one for a given application can help to get a Li-Ion pack up and running in little time at low cost.
As governments seek to achieve the benefits of privatization and to drive down the price of electricity by introducing competition in generation, the role of those responsible for maintaining the power plant has changed radically. This text presents conference papers on the subject.
Learn how to effectively use the industry-standard hardware description language, VHDL, as DIGITAL SYSTEMS DESIGN USING VHDL, 3E integrates VHDL into the digital design process. The book begins with a valuable review of basic logic design concepts before introducing the fundamentals of VHDL. The book concludes with detailed coverage of advanced VHDL topics.
This SpringerBrief focuses on the network capacity analysis of VANETs, a key topic as fundamental guidance on design and deployment of VANETs is very limited. Moreover, unique characteristics of VANETs impose distinguished challenges on such an investigation. This SpringerBrief first introduces capacity scaling laws for wireless networks and briefly reviews the prior arts in deriving the capacity of VANETs. It then studies the unicast capacity considering the socialized mobility model of VANETs. With vehicles communicating based on a two-hop relaying scheme, the unicast capacity bound is derived and can be applied to predict the throughput of real-world scenarios of VANETs. The downlink capacity of VANETs is also investigated in which access infrastructure is deployed to provide pervasive Internet access to vehicles. Different alternatives of wireless access infrastructure are considered. A lower bound of downlink capacity is derived for each type of access infrastructure. The last section of this book presents a case study based on a perfect city grid to examine the capacity-cost trade-offs of different deployments since the deployment costs of different access infrastructure are highly variable.
The electrical power supply is about to change; future generation will increasingly take place in and near local neighborhoods with diminishing reliance on distant power plants. The existing grid is not adapted for this purpose as it is largely a remnant from the 20th century. Can the grid be transformed into an intelligent and flexible grid that is future proof? This revised edition of Electrical Power System Essentials contains not only an accessible, broad and up-to-date overview of alternating current (AC) power systems, but also end-of-chapter exercises in every chapter, aiding readers in their understanding of the material introduced. With an original approach the book covers the generation of electric energy from thermal power plants as from renewable energy sources and treats the incorporation of power electronic devices and FACTS. Throughout there are examples and case studies that back up the theory or techniques presented. The authors set out information on mathematical modelling and equations in appendices rather than integrated in the main text. This unique approach distinguishes it from other text books on Electrical Power Systems and makes the resource highly accessible for undergraduate students and readers without a technical background directly related to power engineering. After laying out the basics for a steady-state analysis of the three-phase power system, the book examines: * generation, transmission, distribution, and utilization of electric energy * wind energy, solar energy and hydro power * power system protection and circuit breakers * power system control and operation * the organization of electricity markets and the changes currently taking place * system blackouts * future developments in power systems, HVDC connections and smart grids The book is supplemented by a companion website from which teaching materials can be downloaded.
Thermo-fluid Dynamics of Two-Phase Flow, Second Edition is focused on the fundamental physics of two-phase flow. The authors present the detailed theoretical foundation of multi-phase flow thermo-fluid dynamics as they apply to: Nuclear reactor transient and accident analysis; Energy systems; Power generation systems; Chemical reactors and process systems; Space propulsion; Transport processes. This edition features updates on two-phase flow formulation and constitutive equations and CFD simulation codes such as FLUENT and CFX, new coverage of the lift force model, which is of particular significance for those working in the field of computational fluid dynamics, new equations and coverage of 1 dimensional drift flux models and a new chapter on porous media formulation.
Microgrids are the most innovative area in the electric power industry today. Future microgrids could exist as energy-balanced cells within existing power distribution grids or stand-alone power networks within small communities.
A definitive presentation on all aspects of microgrids, this text examines the operation of microgrids - their control concepts and advanced architectures including multi-microgrids. It takes a logical approach to overview the purpose and the technical aspects of microgrids, discussing the social, economic and environmental benefits to power system operation. The book also presents microgrid design and control issues, including protection and explaining how to implement centralized and decentralized control strategies.
"Key features: "original, state-of-the-art research material written by internationally respected contributors unique case studies demonstrating success stories from real-world pilot sites from Europe, the Americas, Japan and Chinaexamines market and regulatory settings for microgrids, and provides evaluation results under standard test conditionsa look to the future - technical solutions to maximize the value of distributed energy along with the principles and criteria for developing commercial and regulatory frameworks for microgrids
Offering broad yet balanced coverage, this volume is an entry point to this very topical area of power delivery for electric power engineers familiar with medium and low voltage distribution systems, utility operators in microgrids, power systems researchers and academics. It is also a useful reference for system planners and operators, manufacturers and network operators, government regulators, and postgraduate power systems students.
Thomas DegnerAris DimeasAlfred EnglerNuno GilAsier Gil de MuroGuillermo Jimenez-EstevezGeorge KariniotakisGeorge KorresAndre MadureiraMeiqin MaoChris MarnayJose Miguel YarzaSatoshi MorozumiAlexander OudalovFrank van OverbeekeRodrigo Palma BehnkeJoao Abel Pecas LopesFernanda ResendeJohn RomankiewiczChristine SchwaegerlNikos SoultanisLiang TaoAntonis Tsikalakis
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