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The physical framework used to describe the various conversions is endoreversible thermodynamics, a subset of irreversible thermodynamics. "Thermodynamics of Solar Energy Conversion" provides an excellent generalized introduction into principles of solar energy conversion for everybody knowing some basics of university mathematics. Described are situations which are not in equilibrium and in which entropy is continuously created, but which are nevertheless stationary. In dealing with endoreversible thermodynamics, the given information in this book enables the reader to calculate the explicit values for a broad class of processes. It is demonstrated that solar energy conversion is a process particularly suited to being described in this way.
"De Vos is a wonderful storyteller"
This SpringerBrief discusses the rise of the smart grid from the perspective of computing and communications. It explains how current and next-generation network technology and methodologies help recognize the potential that the smart grid initiative promises. Chapters provide context on the smart grid before exploring specific challenges related to communication control and energy management. Topics include control in heterogeneous power supply, solutions for backhaul and wide area networks, home energy management systems, and technologies for smart energy management systems. Designed for researchers and professionals working on the smart grid, Communication Challenges and Solutions in the Smart Grid offers context and applications for the common issues of this developing technology. Advanced-level students interested in networking and communications engineering will also find the brief valuable.
A complete and in-depth coverage on materials of use, their principles, processing and handling details; along with illustrative examples and sample projects. It clearly depicts the needed topics and gives adequate coverage with ample examples so that ME students can appreciate the relevance of materials to their discipline. Featuring the basic principles of materials selection for application in various engineering outcomes, the contents of this text follow those of the common first-level introductory course in materials science and engineering. Directed toward mechanical engineering, it introduces the materials commonly used in this branch, along with an exhaustive description of their properties that decide their functional characteristics and selection for use, typical problems encountered during application due to improper processing or handling of materials, non-destructive test procedures used in maintenance to detect and correct problems, and much more.
This book covers a range of devices that use piezoelectricity to convert mechanical deformation into electrical energy and relates their output capabilities to a range of potential applications. Starting with a description of the fundamental principles and properties of piezo- and ferroelectric materials, where applications of bulk materials are well established, the book shows how nanostructures of these materials are being developed for energy harvesting applications. The authors show how a nanostructured device can be produced, and put in context some of the approaches that are being investigated for the development of nanostructured piezoelectric energy harvesting devices, also known as nanogenerators. There is growing interest in strategies for energy harvesting that use a variety of existing and well-known materials in new morphologies or architectures. A key change of morphology to enable new functionality is the nanostructuring of a material. One area of particular interest is self-powered devices based on portable energy harvesting. The charging of personal electronic equipment and other small-scale electronic devices such as sensors is a highly demanding environment that requires innovative solutions. The output of these so-called nanogenerators is explained in terms of the requirements for self-powered applications. The authors summarise the range of production methods used for nanostructured devices, which require much lower energy inputs than those used for bulk systems, making them more environmentally friendly and also compatible with a wide range of substrate materials.
Most people in the world have either no access to electricity or a poor and unreliable supply, yet the importance of access to electricity cannot be overstated. This source book aims to provide practical help in gaining accessibility to electricity for those living in remote or rural communities as well as individual home owners and small businesses.;The book begins with a brief introduction to the national grid and then focuses on some of the possibilities for independent production of electricity in the quantities used by households, micro-enterprises and small communities: diesel generators; micro-hydro; wind energy; solar photovoltaic energy (PV); gasifiers; biogas; steam; and batteries. Descriptions of the technologies and their costs are given, as well as their different requirements in terms of inputs and skill requirements for installation and operation. Information and advice is given on using electricity; indications on how to calculate the size of technology needed; and how to choose appropriate appliances. The text contains case studies from developing countries, highlighting successful women's initiatives with these technologies.; The book is intended to provide resourc
This thesis reports the discovery of metal nanoparticles having new structures that do not exist in bulk state and that exhibit hydrogen storage ability or CO oxidation activity. Research into the reaction of hydrogen with metals has attracted much attention because of potential applications as effective hydrogen storage materials, as permeable films, or as catalysts for hydrogenation. Also, CO oxidation catalysts have been extensively developed because of their importance to CO removal from car exhaust or fuel-cell systems. At the same time, atomic-level (solid solution) alloying has the advantage of being able to continuously control chemical and physical properties of elements by changing compositions and/or combinations of constituent elements. This thesis provides a novel strategy for the basis of inter-elemental fusion to create highly efficient functional materials for energy and material conversions.
A summary of the results achieved in the geological-structural mapping, by potential fields and airborne gamma spectrometry data, of the units of igneous and metamorphic rocks in the western regions (Havana-Matanzas), central (Cienfuegos, Villa Clara-Sancti Spiritus) and central-eastern (Camaguey-Las Tunas-Holguin) of Cuba is presented. In addition, the structural- tectonic regionalization with hydrocarbon exploration purposes, focusing mapping of possible new oil-gas targets in the regions of Land Blocks 9, 23 and 17-18 are detailed in this volume. In certain case study locations (Majaguillar, North Motembo, Guamutas and Maniabon) reconnaissance work by a profile of Redox Complex (complex of unconventional geophysical-geochemical exploration techniques) was performed with positive results. In an attempt to contribute to the geological-structural mapping of the metamorphic massif Isla de la Juventud, with emphasis on acid magmatism, the gravi-magnetometric data is used. According to the results, the presumed post metamorphic granitic bodies of low density are located, mainly, in the central and southwestern part of the massif. The granitic bodies apparently were introduced through the system of longitudinal faults (syn metamorphic) and transverse (post metamorphic) at the end of the process multyfolding and metamorphism of the massif sequences, taking a leading role the deep longitudinal fracture zones of sublatitudinal direction in the central and southern part of the massif. On the map of the magnetic field vertical derivative the anomalies, basically, reflected the direction and limits of the folded tectonic structure, the development area of volcanogenic rocks, the presumed development zones of migmatitic rocks and tectonised rocks in North and center of the massif, respectively, and the prevailing direction of the main tectonic dislocations.
As our dependence on and need for abundant energy grows, it becomes
increasingly important for engineers and managers to develop and
maintain energy efficient systems and build effective energy
management programs. Energy Management in Illuminating Systems
presents the latest concepts, innovative methods, and state-of-the
art technologies in commercial or industrial lighting systems and
Li-Co-Mn-Ni oxides have been of extreme interest as potential positive electrode materials for next generation Li-ion batteries. Though many promising materials have been discovered and studied extensively, much debate remains in the literature about the structures of these materials. There is no consensus as to whether the lithium-rich layered materials are single-phase or form a layered-layered composite on the few nanometer length-scales. Much of this debate came about because no phase diagrams existed to describe these systems under the synthesis conditions used to make electrode materials. Detailed in this thesis are the complete Li-Co-Mn-O and Li-Mn-Ni-O phase diagrams generated by way of the combinatorial synthesis of mg-scale samples at over five hundred compositions characterized with X-ray diffraction. Selected bulk samples were used to confirm that the findings are relevant to synthesis conditions used commercially. The results help resolve a number of points of confusion and contradiction in the literature. Amongst other important findings, the compositions and synthesis conditions giving rise to layered-layered nano-composites are presented and electrochemical results are used to show how better electrode materials can be achieved by making samples in the single phase-layered regions.
"Proceedings of the First Symposium on Aviation Maintenance and Management "collects selected papers from the conference of ISAMM 2013 in China held in Xi'an on November 25-28, 2013. The book presents state-of-the-art studies on the aviation maintenance, test, fault diagnosis, and prognosis for the aircraft electronic and electrical systems. The selected works can help promote the development of the maintenance and test technology for the aircraft complex systems. Researchers and engineers in the fields of electrical engineering and aerospace engineering can benefit from the book.
Jinsong Wang is a professor at School of Mechanical and Electronic Engineering of Northwestern Polytechnical University, China.
This brief examines issues of spectrum allocation for the limited resources of radio spectrum. It uses a game-theoretic perspective, in which the nodes in the wireless network are rational and always pursue their own objectives. It provides a systematic study of the approaches that can guarantee the system's convergence at an equilibrium state, in which the system performance is optimal or sub-optimal. The author provides a short tutorial on game theory, explains game-theoretic channel allocation in clique and in multi-hop wireless networks and explores challenges in designing game-theoretic mechanisms for dynamic channel redistribution. Since designing a completely secure mechanism is extremely expensive or impossible in most of distributed autonomous systems, it is more beneficial to study misbehavior of the nodes and develop light-weighted game-theoretic channel allocation mechanisms. With a mix of theoretical and hands-on information, the brief traces the concepts of game theory, the current state of spectrum allocation in wireless networks and future competition for resources. Thorough yet accessible, the content is ideal for researchers and practitioners working on spectrum redistribution. It is also a helpful resource for researchers and advanced-level students interested in game theory and wireless communications.
This thesis documents almost twenty years of the author's work on the development and implementation of a new approach to holistic community development in remote and disadvantaged villages in Nepal. It describes the theoretical basis of the work, the main research activities, and the practical outcomes of the implemented programs. One of the fundamental cornerstones of holistic community development is the provision of appropriate and sustainable solutions for the long-term development of local communities. This requires that people's own identified needs be recognized and addressed in partnership with them in holistic ways. The author explains the many synergies that result from this holistic approach to community development. Another cornerstone of his approach is to utilise the communities' locally available renewable resources for long-term sustainable development. One of the key findings of the thesis is that improved access to energy services, such as cooking with a smokeless metal stove in a clean indoor environment, basic indoor lighting, and increased food production and safe food storage (through a greenhouse and a solar drier respectively), need to be at the very heart of any long-term holistic community development project. The thesis demonstrates that tapping into locally available renewable energy resources and converting them, through contextualized and locally manufactured renewable energy technologies, has a central role in long-term holistic community development programs. Such programs are successful because they provide both appropriate technologies and life-changing experiences for the local users involved.
Prepare for electrical inspections based on the 2005 NEC(R) rules, and keep projects on track with self-inspections. Written by certified electrical inspectors and endorsed by the IAEI, Electrical Inspection Manual with Checklists spells out, point by point, the items inspectors are required to check, on the full range of electrical installations. Checklists in this edition are significantly revised with up-to-date NEC references, so you can always pinpoint relevant Code text. The Manual brings you 70+ checklists in all, covering more than 630 items. You'll know you're ready to pass inspections in residential, commercial, industrial, and special occupancies!
Provides in-depth knowledge of flexible energy conversion and storage devices-covering aspects from materials to technologies Written by leading experts on various critical issues in this emerging field, this book reviews the recent progresses on flexible energy conversion and storage devices, such as batteries, supercapacitors, solar cells, and fuel cells. It introduces not only the basic principles and strategies to make a device flexible, but also the applicable materials and technologies, such as polymers, carbon materials, nanotechnologies and textile technologies. It also discusses the perspectives for different devices. Flexible Energy Conversion and Storage Devices contains chapters, which are all written by top researchers who have been actively working in the field to deliver recent advances in areas from materials syntheses, through fundamental principles, to device applications. It covers flexible all-solid state supercapacitors; fiber/yarn based flexible supercapacitors; flexible lithium and sodium ion batteries; flexible diversified and zinc ion batteries; flexible Mg, alkaline, silver-zinc, and lithium sulfur batteries; flexible fuel cells; flexible nanodielectric materials with high permittivity for power energy storage; flexible dye sensitized solar cells; flexible perovskite solar cells; flexible organic solar cells; flexible quantum dot-sensitized solar cells; flexible triboelectric nanogenerators; flexible thermoelectric devices; and flexible electrodes for water-splitting. -Covers the timely and innovative field of flexible devices which are regarded as the next generation of electronic devices -Provides a highly application-oriented approach that covers various flexible devices used for energy conversion and storage -Fosters an understanding of the scientific basis of flexible energy devices, and extends this knowledge to the development, construction, and application of functional energy systems -Stimulates and advances the research and development of this intriguing field Flexible Energy Conversion and Storage Devices is an excellent book for scientists, electrochemists, solid state chemists, solid state physicists, polymer chemists, and electronics engineers.
This book explains the engineering required to bring geothermal resources into use. The book covers specifically engineering aspects that are unique to geothermal engineering, such as measurements in wells and their interpretation, transport of near-boiling water through long pipelines, turbines driven by fluids other than steam, and project economics. The explanations are reinforced by drawing comparisons with other energy industries.
This SpringerBrief focuses on the network capacity analysis of VANETs, a key topic as fundamental guidance on design and deployment of VANETs is very limited. Moreover, unique characteristics of VANETs impose distinguished challenges on such an investigation. This SpringerBrief first introduces capacity scaling laws for wireless networks and briefly reviews the prior arts in deriving the capacity of VANETs. It then studies the unicast capacity considering the socialized mobility model of VANETs. With vehicles communicating based on a two-hop relaying scheme, the unicast capacity bound is derived and can be applied to predict the throughput of real-world scenarios of VANETs. The downlink capacity of VANETs is also investigated in which access infrastructure is deployed to provide pervasive Internet access to vehicles. Different alternatives of wireless access infrastructure are considered. A lower bound of downlink capacity is derived for each type of access infrastructure. The last section of this book presents a case study based on a perfect city grid to examine the capacity-cost trade-offs of different deployments since the deployment costs of different access infrastructure are highly variable.
Efficient signal processing algorithms are important for embedded and power-limited applications since, by reducing the number of computations, power consumption can be reduced significantly. Similarly, efficient algorithms are also critical to very large scale applications such as video processing and four-dimensional medical imaging. This self-contained guide, the only one of its kind, enables engineers to find the optimum fast algorithm for a specific application. It presents a broad range of computationally-efficient algorithms, describes their structure and implementation, and compares their relative strengths for given problems. All the necessary background mathematics is included and theorems are rigorously proved, so all the information needed to learn and apply the techniques is provided in one convenient guide. With this practical reference, researchers and practitioners in electrical engineering, applied mathematics, and computer science can reduce power dissipation for low-end applications of signal processing, and extend the reach of high-end applications.
This book presents a succinct overview of research on China's Energy Efficiency as studied by the Center for Energy & Environmental Policy Research (CEEP), Beijing Institute of Technology (BIT). Energy efficiency, linking energy supply, demand and market, is crucial to the world's energy development. China consumes one fourth of the world's energy currently, however its per capital consumption is no more than half of that in OECD countries. This book provides a comprehensive treatment of the situation of China's energy development, proposes and summarizes the methodologies of energy efficiency measurement, and uses these methods to analyze the energy consumption at sectoral and provincial level, the impacts of economic structure on the energy macro-efficiency, the price elasticity of oil demand, and energy efficiency policies simulations. The book provides scientific support for researchers and policy makers dealing with energy efficiency.
*A complete, definitive source for the design, manufacture, application, and testing of small electric motors less than ten horsepower
A systematic view of hierarchical protection for smart grids, with solutions to tradition protection problems and complicated operation modes of modern power systems - Systematically investigates traditional protection problems from the bird's eye view of hierarchical protection - Focuses on multiple variable network structures and complicated operation modes - Offers comprehensive countermeasures on improving protection performance based on up-to-date research
Electrician's Guide to the Building Regulations includes the latest guidance on third-party certification schemes and covers relevant parts of the Building Regulations, including Fire Safety, Ventilation and Conservation of Energy. This guide has been fully updated to BS 7671:2018. The 18th Edition of the IET Wiring Regulations published in July 2018 and came into effect in January 2019. Changes from the previous edition include requirements concerning Surge Protection Devices, Arc Fault Detection Devices and the installation of electric vehicle charging equipment as well as many other areas.
Publisher's Note: Products purchased from Third Party sellers are not guaranteed by the publisher for quality, authenticity, or access to any online entitlements included with the product. Supercharge your understanding of battery technologyIdeal for hobbyists and engineers alike, The TAB Battery Book: An In-Depth Guide to Construction Design and Use offers comprehensive coverage of these portable energy powerhouses. This practical guide discusses battery chemistry and engineering, how batteries are used, and the history of batteries. You'll find out how different types of batteries work and how to select the right battery for any application. The book also examines the technological advances being used to develop batteries as robust energy sources for a wide variety of devices. Tap into the power of all kinds of batteries with help from this detailed resource. Coverage includes: Portable energy and long-term energy storage Batteries for portable consumer demands, medical devices, electric vehicles, large-scale electrical energy storage, and space and military applications Basic physics and chemistry The science of batteries--cells, electrochemistry, thermodynamics, kinetics, and capacity Battery engineering designs, including electrode, seal, and vent design Battery performance, reliability, and safety Primary battery technologies--aqueous and non-aqueous electrolytes, including alkaline and lithium Rechargeable batteries, including nickel-metal hydride and lithium ion Selecting the right battery for any application Future technologies, such as thin-film, large-energy storage, and high-energy density batteries Make Great Stuff! TAB, an imprint of McGraw-Hill Professional, is a leading publisher of DIY technology books for makers, hackers, and electronics hobbyists.
A comprehensive guide to the modelling and design of solid oxide fuel cell hybrid power plants This book explores all technical aspects of solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) hybrid systems and proposes solutions to a range of technical problems that can arise from component integration. Following a general introduction to the state-of-the-art in SOFC hybrid systems, the authors focus on fuel cell technology, including the components required to operate with standard fuels. Micro-gas turbine (mGT) technology for hybrid systems is discussed, with special attention given to issues related to the coupling of SOFCs with mGTs. Throughout the book emphasis is placed on dynamic issues, including control systems used to avoid risk conditions. With an eye to mitigating the high costs and risks incurred with the building and use of prototype hybrid systems, the authors demonstrate a proven, economically feasible approach to obtaining important experimental results using simplified plants that simulate both generic and detailed system-level behaviour using emulators. Computational models and experimental plants are developed to support the analysis of SOFC hybrid systems, including models appropriate for design, development and performance analysis at both component and system levels. * Presents models for a range of size units, technology variations, unit coupling dynamics and start-up and shutdown behaviours * Focuses on SOFCs integration with mGTs in light of key constraints and risk avoidance issues under steady-state conditions and during transient operations * Identifies interaction and coupling problems within the GT/SOFC environment, including exergy analysis and optimization * Demonstrates an economical approach to obtaining important experimental results while avoiding high-cost components and risk conditions * Presents analytical/computational and experimental tools for the efficient design and development of hardware and software systems Hybrid Systems Based on Solid Oxide Fuel Cells: Modelling and Design is a valuable resource for researchers and practicing engineers involved in fuel cell fundamentals, design and development. It is also an excellent reference for academic researchers and advanced-level students exploring fuel cell technology.
Introduction to state-space methods covers feedback control; state-space representation of dynamic systems and dynamics of linear systems; frequency-domain analysis; controllability and observability; and shaping the dynamic response. Additional subjects encompass linear observers; compensator design by the separation principle; linear, quadratic optimum control; random processes; and Kalman filters. 1986 edition.
In this essential reference, both students and practitioners in the field will find an accessible discussion of electric power generation with gas turbine power plants, using quantitative and qualitative tools. Beginning with a basic discussion of thermodynamics of gas turbine cycles from a second law perspective, the material goes on to cover with depth an analysis of the translation of the cycle to a final product, facilitating quick estimates. In order to provide readers with the knowledge they need to design turbines effectively, there are explanations of simple and combined cycle design considerations, and state-of-the-art, performance prediction and optimization techniques, as well as rules of thumb for design and off-design performance and operational flexibility, and simplified calculations for myriad design and off-design performance. The text also features an introduction to proper material selection, manufacturing techniques, and construction, maintenance, and operation of gas turbine power plants.
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