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From household appliances to applications in robotics, engineered systems involving complex dynamics can only be as effective as the algorithms that control them. While Dynamic Programming (DP) has provided researchers with a way to optimally solve decision and control problems involving complex dynamic systems, its practical value was limited by algorithms that lacked the capacity to scale up to realistic problems. However, in recent years, dramatic developments in Reinforcement Learning (RL), the model-free counterpart of DP, changed our understanding of what is possible. Those developments led to the creation of reliable methods that can be applied even when a mathematical model of the system is unavailable, allowing researchers to solve challenging control problems in engineering, as well as in a variety of other disciplines, including economics, medicine, and artificial intelligence. Reinforcement Learning and Dynamic Programming Using Function Approximators provides a comprehensive and unparalleled exploration of the field of RL and DP. With a focus on continuous-variable problems, this seminal text details essential developments that have substantially altered the field over the past decade. In its pages, pioneering experts provide a concise introduction to classical RL and DP, followed by an extensive presentation of the state-of-the-art and novel methods in RL and DP with approximation. Combining algorithm development with theoretical guarantees, they elaborate on their work with illustrative examples and insightful comparisons. Three individual chapters are dedicated to representative algorithms from each of the major classes of techniques: value iteration, policy iteration, and policy search. The features and performance of these algorithms are highlighted in extensive experimental studies on a range of control applications. The recent development of applications involving complex systems has led to a surge of interest in RL and DP methods and the subsequent need for a quality resource on the subject. For graduate students and others new to the field, this book offers a thorough introduction to both the basics and emerging methods. And for those researchers and practitioners working in the fields of optimal and adaptive control, machine learning, artificial intelligence, and operations research, this resource offers a combination of practical algorithms, theoretical analysis, and comprehensive examples that they will be able to adapt and apply to their own work. Access the authors' website at www.dcsc.tudelft.nl/rlbook/ for additional material, including computer code used in the studies and information concerning new developments.
Good aging infrastructure management consists of optimizing the choice of equipment and its refurbishment while also making compatible changes in all those operating and ownership policies, the whole combination aimed at optimizing the business results the power system owner desires. Both a reference and tutorial guide, this second edition of Aging Power Delivery Infrastructures provides updated coverage of aging power delivery systems, the problems they cause, and the technical and managerial approaches that power systems owners can take to manage them. See What's New in the Second Edition: All chapters have been updated or are completely new Comprehensive discussions of all issues related to equipment aging Business impact analysis and models and engineering business studies of actual utility cases Strategy and policy issues and how to frame and customize them for specific situations This book looks at the basics of equipment aging and its system and business impacts on utilities. It covers various maintenance, service and retrofit methods available to mitigate age-related deterioration of equipment. It also presents numerous configuration and automation upgrades at the system level that can deal with higher portions of aging equipment in the system and still provide good service at a reasonable cost.
This book focuses on the two-phase flow problems relevant in the automotive and power generation sectors. It includes fundamental studies on liquid-gas two-phase interactions, nucleate and film boiling, condensation, cavitation, suspension flows as well as the latest developments in the field of two-phase problems pertaining to power generation systems. It also discusses the latest analytical, numerical and experimental techniques for investigating the role of two-phase flows in performance analysis of devices like combustion engines, gas turbines, nuclear reactors and fuel cells. The wide scope of applications of this topic makes this book of interest to researchers and professionals alike.
The latest volume in the well-established AMN series, this ready reference provides an up-to-date, self-contained summary of recent developments in the technologies and systems for thermoelectricity. Following an initial chapter that introduces the fundamentals and principles of thermoelectricity, subsequent chapters discuss the synthesis and integration of various bulk thermoelectric as well as nanostructured materials. The book then goes on to discuss characterization techniques, including various light and mechanic microscopy techniques, while also summarizing applications for thermoelectric materials, such as micro- and nano-thermoelectric generators, wearable electronics and energy conversion devices. The result is a bridge between industry and scientific researchers seeking to develop thermoelectric generators.
Obtain better system performance, lower energy consumption, and avoid hand-coding arithmetic functions with this concise guide to automated optimization techniques for hardware and software design. High-level compiler optimizations and high-speed architectures for implementing FIR filters are covered, which can improve performance in communications, signal processing, computer graphics, and cryptography. Clearly explained algorithms and illustrative examples throughout make it easy to understand the techniques and write software for their implementation. Background information on the synthesis of arithmetic expressions and computer arithmetic is also included, making the book ideal for newcomers to the subject. This is an invaluable resource for researchers, professionals, and graduate students working in system level design and automation, compilers, and VLSI CAD.
Since 2004, the federal government has made efforts to facilitate demand-response activities, including expanding their use in wholesale electricity markets. Among these efforts, the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) issued regulatory orders affecting Regional Transmission Organizations (RTO)entities that operate the transmission system and administer wholesale markets in some parts of the country. For example, FERC issued orders approving RTO rules for quantifying the extent of demand-response activities and compensating consumers for their demand-response activities. This book provides an update since 2004 and discusses federal efforts to facilitate demand-response activities; FERC efforts to collect and report data on demand response activities; changes in the extent of demand-response activities; key benefits and challenges of current efforts.
A general misconception among industries, small or large, in developed as well as developing countries, is that taking care of the environment, by using clean technologies and by saving energy, is a cost-incurring activity. This conviction leads to a poor attention to environmental considerations and therefore high losses in raw materials, energy and finances. Energy, Efficienty for Small and Medium Enterprises forms part of the Energy and Environment Technology Source Books. The book shows that the improvement of product efficiency can be in harmony with financial gains. In particular, it encourages support for women entrepreneurs to get involved with the technical aspects of the production process. Above all, Energy Efficiency for Small and Medium Enterprises aims to provide basic information on energy saving options for those involved with the economic empowerment of micro entrepreneurs.
This book provides a comparative analysis of both diesel and gasoline engine particulates, and also of the emissions resulting from the use of alternative fuels. Written by respected experts, it offers comprehensive insights into motor vehicle particulates, their formation, composition, location, measurement, characterisation and toxicology. It also addresses exhaust-gas treatment and legal, measurement-related and technological advancements concerning emissions. The book will serve as a valuable resource for academic researchers and professional automotive engineers alike.
The modernization of industrial power systems has been stifled by industry's acceptance of extremely outdated practices. Industry is hesitant to depart from power system design practices influenced by the economic concerns and technology of the post World War II period. In order to break free of outdated techniques and ensure product quality and continuity of operations, engineers must apply novel techniques to plan, design, and implement electrical power systems. Based on the author's 40 years of experience in Industry, Industrial Power Systems illustrates the importance of reliable power systems and provides engineers the tools to plan, design, and implement one. Using materials from IEEE courses developed for practicing engineers, the book covers relevant engineering features and modern design procedures, including power system studies, grounding, instrument transformers, and medium-voltage motors. The author provides a number of practical tables, including IEEE and European standards, and design principles for industrial applications. Long overdue, Industrial Power Systems provides power engineers with a blueprint for designing electrical systems that will provide continuously available electric power at the quality and quantity needed to maintain operations and standards of production.
New methods for automation and intelligent systems applications,
new trends in telecommunications, and a recent focus on renewable
energy are reshaping the educational landscape of today's power
engineer. Providing a modern and practical vehicle to help students
navigate this dynamic terrain, Electric Power Distribution,
Automation, Protection, and Control infuses new directions in
computation, automation, and control into classical topics in
electric power distribution.
This book presents a general framework for modelling power system devices to develop complete electromechanical models for synchronous machines, induction machines, and power electronic devices. It also presents linear system analysis tools that are specific to power systems and which are not generally taught in undergraduate linear system courses. Lastly, the book covers the application of the models, analysis and tools to the design of automatic voltage controllers and power system stabilisers, both for single-machine-infinite-bus systems and multi-machine interconnected systems. In most textbooks modelling, dynamic analysis, and control are closely linked to the computation methods used for analysis and design. In contrast, this book separates the essential principles and the computational methods used for power system dynamics and control. The clear distinction between principles and methods makes the potentially daunting task of designing controllers for power systems much easier to approach. A rich set of exercises is also included, and represents an integral part of the book. Students can immediately apply-using any computational tool or software-the essential principles discussed here to practical problems, helping them master the essentials.
"Electrostatic Precipitation" includes selected papers presented at the 11th International Conference on Electrostatic Precipitation. It presents the newest developments in electrostatic precipitation, flue gas desulphurization (FGD), selective catalytic reduction (SCR), and non-thermal plasma techniques for multi-pollutants emission control. Almost all outstanding scientists and engineers world-wide in the field will report their on-going researches. The book will be a useful reference for scientists and engineers to keep abreast of the latest developments in environmental science and engineering.
Access to affordable energy is essential for sustainable economic development and improvement in living standards. The aim of this book is to act as a guide for development workers for financing small renewable systems and a source of reference for further in-depth investigation.The book examines the issues which affect the success of a renewable energy financing program on both a financial and a technical level: those interested in setting up financing schemes for renewable energy technologies must also be aware of the technical parameters, which can then be factored into any scheme.Photovoltaics has been chosen as the main example, as one of the most cost-effective ways of bringing electricity to remote areas. However, many of the examples and the financing issues discussed are also applicable to other renewable energy technologies.
The worldwide fusion community continues its research efforts on magnetic confinement as the most promising, long-term, environmentally-friendly power source. Despite the ongoing fusion research efforts in many countries, the technology and materials-related challenges remain formidable and will hinder and delay the first fusion demonstration plant for decades. In this book, the current understanding of technology-related challenges facing fusion research are explored. Advances in fusion neutronics integral experiments in the benchmark mock assemblies for the blanket of a fusion-fission hybrid energy reactor are also described in brief. Cold Fusion (CF) is examined as well, with the authors' argument backed by evidence that cold fusion (CF) can become more understandable, and hence more enable to engineering, especially control engineering. The final chapter details the Force Free Helical Reactor (FFHR) and its implications on fusion power
This book deals with an area of practice that many students and non-electricians find particularly challenging. It explains how to interpret circuit diagrams and wiring systems, and outlines the principles of testing before explaining how to apply this knowledge to fault finding in electrical circuits. A handy pocket guide for anybody who needs to be able to trace faults in circuits, whether in domestic, commercial or industrial settings, this book will be extremely useful to electricians, plumbers, heating engineers and intruder alarm installers. Fully up to date with the 18th Edition IET Wiring Regulations 2018. Covers all the principles and practice of testing and fault diagnosis in a way that is clear for students and non-electricians. Expert advice from an engineering training consultant, supported with colour diagrams and key data.
Understanding the dynamics of railway vehicles, and indeed of the entire vehicle-track system, is critical to ensuring safe and economical operation of modern railways. As the challenges of higher speed and higher loads with very high levels of safety require ever more innovative engineering solutions, better understanding of the technical issues and use of new computer based tools is required. Encompassing the field from historical development to state-of-the-art modeling and simulation methods, Simon Iwnicki's Handbook of Railway Vehicle Dynamics sets a new standard of authority and practicality in the study of railway vehicle dynamics.
Drawing on the experiences and research of leading international experts, this critical reference surveys the main areas of railway vehicle dynamics. Through mathematical analysis and practical examples, it builds a deep and functional understanding of the wheel-rail interface, suspension and suspension component design, simulation and testing of electrical and mechanical systems, interaction with surrounding infrastructure, and noise and vibration. In-depth discussions deconstruct the components of both vehicle and track systems, explain their contribution to dynamic behavior, and evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of various practical solutions. The book also considers the unique issues of railway tribology, gauging, and derailment.
Coverage of computer models, test procedures, roller rigs, and scale testing completes this essential handbook. Whether for the newcomer or the seasoned professional, the Handbook of Railway Vehicle Dynamics is an indispensable tool for modern railway vehicle design.
Addressing the challenge of improving battery quality while reducing high costs and environmental impacts of the production, this book presents a multiscale simulation approach for battery production systems along with a software environment and an application procedure. Battery systems are among the most important technologies of the 21st century since they are enablers for the market success of electric vehicles and stationary energy storage solutions. However, the performance of batteries so far has limited possible applications. Addressing this challenge requires an interdisciplinary understanding of dynamic cause-effect relationships between processes, equipment, materials, and environmental conditions. The approach in this book supports the integrated evaluation of improvement measures and is usable for different planning horizons. It is applied to an exemplary battery cell production and module assembly in order to demonstrate the effectiveness and potential benefits of the simulation.
This book analyzes the trends and technologies of green and energy efficient building, identifying strategies for implementing energy savings and enabling the use of renewable resources in residential, commercial, healthcare and educational building sectors. The authors focus on best practices in temperate climates, providing in-depth coverage of urban heat island, climate change and fuel poverty mitigation through architectural optimization, leveraging renewable energy sources and utilization of cutting-edge cooling materials. Pragmatic emphasis is placed on improving the energy performance of existing building stock to meet short and long term objectives of climate and energy conservation strategies. Engineers, architects, designers, students, policy makers and efficiency professionals will all gain valuable insights and ideas from this practical handbook to greening the built environment.
The latest advances in turbomachinery design and technology Turbocharging and Air Management Systems features a collection of papers presented at the 1998 Imeche Conference. Contributions by global industry-leading centers of excellence, this book examines the latest advances and details the goals of current projects. Topics include computer-aided turbomachinery system design, meanline prediction of traditional turbine efficiency, turbocharger design challenges, and more, bringing readers up to date on the state of the field and directions for future work.
The book is engineering oriented and covers a large variety of topics ranging from fundamental principles to performance evaluation and applications. It is written systematically and completely on the subject with a summary of state-of-the-art fuel cell technology, filling the need for a timely resource.
This is a unique book serving academic researchers, engineers, as well as people working in the fuel cell industry. It is also of substantial interest to students, engineers, and scientists in mechanical engineering, chemistry and chemical engineering, electrochemistry, materials science and engineering, power generation and propulsion systems, and automobile engineering.
"This book, with 16 chapters and five appendices, arguably may be the most comprehensive single volume on generator and motor protection on the market. .,."this book presents to practicing utility engineers a wealth of information that should be included in their library. Even those not directly involved in protection should have available to them the theory and practices associated with the protection described here .,."Throughout the book, typical protective equipment settings are calculated with appropriate reference to electromechanical, solid-state, and digital protective devices. Where required, the author resorts to the application of Excel and Mathcad. "Protective Relaying for Power Generation Systems is a recommended addition to every power engineer's library. The details may go beyond normal equipment protection requirements, but the depth of analysis, the data presented, and the qualitative discussion of all of the aspects involved in generator protection add a dimension not available in any single text. Reviewed by Stanley H. Horowitz in September/October 2006 Magazine of IEEE Power Engineering Society, Vol.4 No.5 Organizing material in a structure that allows for quick and easy reference, Protective Relaying for Power Generation Systems features an in-depth presentation of topics and specific information related to generators and motors. This book provides coverage of protective component considerations, including explanations of potential damage. It explores a broad range of subjects including detailed time decrement generator fault calculations and minimum excitation limits. The text contains Excel(R) and Mathcad(R) workbook constructions for performing protection-relatedcalculations. This is a valuable resource for electric utility engineers and those working in the power industry and at generation facilities.
This book presents a succinct overview of research on China's Energy Efficiency as studied by the Center for Energy & Environmental Policy Research (CEEP), Beijing Institute of Technology (BIT). Energy efficiency, linking energy supply, demand and market, is crucial to the world's energy development. China consumes one fourth of the world's energy currently, however its per capital consumption is no more than half of that in OECD countries. This book provides a comprehensive treatment of the situation of China's energy development, proposes and summarizes the methodologies of energy efficiency measurement, and uses these methods to analyze the energy consumption at sectoral and provincial level, the impacts of economic structure on the energy macro-efficiency, the price elasticity of oil demand, and energy efficiency policies simulations. The book provides scientific support for researchers and policy makers dealing with energy efficiency.
The search for clean, renewable energy sources has yielded enormous growth and new developments in these technologies in a few short years, driving down costs and encouraging utilities in many nations, both developed and developing, to add and expand wind and solar power capacity. The first, best-selling edition of Wind and Solar Power Systems provided the most complete and modern treatment of renewable energy. This second edition continues the tradition by offering updated and expanded coverage of this growing field. The book begins with individual sections devoted to wind power and solar photovoltaic technologies, their engineering fundamentals, conversion characteristics, operational considerations to maximize output, and emerging trends. The discussion of wind power includes the theory of induction machine performance and operation as well as generator speed control, while the solar PV section includes array design, environmental variables, and sun-tracking methods. This edition includes two chapters devoted to new and specialized technologies. The third section explores large-scale energy storage technologies, overall electrical system performance, and total plant economy while the final section explores ancillary power systems derived from the sun. Focusing on the complete system rather than on a single component, Wind and Solar Power Systems: Design, Analysis, and Operation, Second Edition offers the most comprehensive reference to all aspects of modern renewable energy systems.
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