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The expected end of the "oil age" will lead to increasing focus and reliance on alternative energy conversion devices, among which fuel cells have the potential to play an important role. Not only can phosphoric acid and solid oxide fuel cells already efficiently convert today's fossil fuels, including methane, into electricity, but other types of fuel cells, such as polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells, have the potential to become the cornerstones of a possible future hydrogen economy. This handbook offers concise yet comprehensive coverage of the current state of fuel cell research and identifies key areas for future investigation. Internationally renowned specialists provide authoritative introductions to a wide variety of fuel cell types and hydrogen production technologies, and discuss materials and components for these systems. Sustainability and marketing considerations are also covered, including comparisons of fuel cells with alternative technologies.
This book is essential reading for anyone studying towards Domestic Installer status with an approval body such as NICEIC, NAPIT or ELECSA, in line with Part P of the Building Regulations, and also serves as a handy pocket guide to best practice for electricians. Although not intended as a DIY manual, non-qualified persons will also find it useful reading. The how-to guide for home wiring to professional standards. Now with more on LED lighting. Essential reading for serious DIY, electrical installation, basic plumbing, heating systems, TV and security alarm installation. Up to date with the 18th Edition of the IET Wiring Regulations.
Lithium ion batteries are both an established commercial market as
well as a field of constant research and crucial for technological
leadership. For example, battery duration is an extremely important
selling point with almost any portable or handheld electronic
device. Notebook computers, digital cameras, mobile phones, PDAs,
mp3-players all rely on lithium ion batteries. Ultimately, powerful
batteries are needed in vehicles to supplement or even entirely
replace combustion engines.
Electricity is highly desired by low-income households, but is all too often only obtained by the richer people in developing countries. The tremendous sacrifices and high payments that low-income households are often prepared to make to obtain even small amounts indicate the importance that they attach to electricity. Low-cost Electrification looks at why, in most developing countries, efforts to provide electricity to poor households have had only limited success, and recommends some appropriate solutions. This Working Paper draws on the experience of experts involved in low-cost electrification and evidence collected from six developing countries. It presents a complete review of the problems faced by poor users which include high connection costs, high costs of house wiring, and houses failing to meet standard requirements; as well as a review of the constraints faced by power utilities such as high capital costs and high revenue-collection costs. The paper suggests a number of new and practical approaches, and ways to implement them, which can make electrification more economic for the utility, and spread the benefits of electrification more equitably across the social spectrum.
Written by renowned experts in the field of photon management in solar cells, this one-stop reference gives an introduction to the physics of light management in solar cells, and discusses the different concepts and methods of applying photon management. The authors cover the physics, principles, concepts, technologies, and methods used, explaining how to increase the efficiency of solar cells by splitting or modifying the solar spectrum before they absorb the sunlight. In so doing, they present novel concepts and materials allowing for the cheaper, more flexible manufacture of solar cells and systems. For educational purposes, the authors have split the reasons for photon management into spatial and spectral light management. Bridging the gap between the photonics and the photovoltaics communities, this is an invaluable reference for materials scientists, physicists in industry, experimental physicists, lecturers in physics, Ph.D. students in physics and material sciences, engineers in power technology, applied and surface physicists.
There have been several recent developments that have affected the design and operation of refrigerator compressors. The most significant changes have been brought about through legislation concerning the use of CFCs and those relating to the close control of chilled food storage cabinets. Other developments affecting the selection and operation of refrigerator compressors include the steady fall in the cost of electronic components, which has challenged designers to produce innovative control systems. In addition, the recent application of advanced scroll and screw compressors, and developments in heat exchanger technology, have lead to more compact and efficient refrigeration systems.
Ugly's Electrical References, 2014 Edition is designed to be used as an on-the-job reference. Used worldwide by electricians, engineers, contractors, designers, maintenance workers, instructors, and the military; Ugly's contains the most commonly required electrical information in an easy-to-read and easy-to-access format. Ugly's presents a succinct portrait of the most pertinent information all electricians need at their fingertips, including: mathematical formulas, National Electrical Code tables, wiring configurations, conduit bending, voltage drops, and life-saving first aid procedures.
Solar PV is now the third most important renewable energy source, after hydro and wind power, in terms of global installed capacity. Bringing together the expertise of international PV specialists Photovoltaic Solar Energy: From Fundamentals to Applications provides a comprehensive and up-to-date account of existing PV technologies in conjunction with an assessment of technological developments. Key features: * Written by leading specialists active in concurrent developments in material sciences, solar cell research and application-driven R&D. * Provides a basic knowledge base in light, photons and solar irradiance and basic functional principles of PV. * Covers characterization techniques, economics and applications of PV such as silicon, thin-film and hybrid solar cells. * Presents a compendium of PV technologies including: crystalline silicon technologies; chalcogenide thin film solar cells; thin-film silicon based PV technologies; organic PV and III-Vs; PV concentrator technologies; space technologies and economics, life-cycle and user aspects of PV technologies. * Each chapter presents basic principles and formulas as well as major technological developments in a contemporary context with a look at future developments in this rapidly changing field of science and engineering. Ideal for industrial engineers and scientists beginning careers in PV as well as graduate students undertaking PV research and high-level undergraduate students.
This book discusses vegetable oil based biolubricants and their applications in the power distribution industry. Vegetable oil based lubricants offer significant advantages over petroleum-based lubricants, including biodegradability, cost-effectiveness, renewability, and lower environmental effects. This book provides a detailed literature survey of modified vegetable oils. It discusses the physical and chemical properties of vegetable oil, and their effects on its applications in tribology. The book discusses additives and enhancements to make vegetable oils suitable for use as lubricating oils and transformer oils in power plants and power distribution grids. The contents of the book will be useful to researchers and professionals as well as policy makers and standards agencies.
Publisher's Note: Products purchased from Third Party sellers are not guaranteed by the publisher for quality, authenticity, or access to any online entitlements included with the product.Select, set up, and maintain a reliable home generatorThis complete and practical guide shows you, step by step, how to choose the best generator for your needs, safely and properly install it, and handle troubleshootingand maintenance. Home Generator Selection, Installation, and Repair covers a wide variety of models, including those from the most popular manufacturers--Briggs and Stratton, Coleman, and Honda. Nearly 150 photos and diagrams help you to identify thevarious electrical components. This hands-on resource also describes the tools you'll need and provides sources for additional information and discount parts. Home Generator Selection, Installation, and Repair explains: How to decipher the technical terminology used in generator manuals Different types of fuels--gasoline, propane, natural gas, and diesel How to evaluate a generator's quality Essential features, including instrumentation, protection from electroshock, and large pneumatic tires for mobility How to safely connect generator output to home oroffice circuits Portable generator support requirements, includingproper fuel storage and an inventory of parts, such as oil and air filters Emergency fixes Generator troubleshooting and repair procedures Engine overhaul
This book examines the various interfacial reactions that take place when glass seals come into contact with components of SOFCs in reducing and oxidizing conditions. In developing an understanding of the structure and function of SOFCs, interfacial compatibility is an imperative criterion. This book addresses the technical challenges of developing sealants to avoid leakage losses at high operating temperatures, which are profoundly impactful to the efficiency of the fuel cell. This resource is important for anyone working with or studying fuel cell design and development, and is a pivotal source of cutting-edge information for research groups actively engaged in developing hermetic and stable seals which show minimum interfacial chemical reaction with interconnect and electrolyte.
Intended for use on courses that train students to at least approved electrician status, this book covers the requirements of a number of electrical installation syllabuses and courses. It covers the theoretical knowledge and the practical aspects of electrician's work. The book explains: about working in outdoor conditions, at heights and in awkward and confined spaces; how to diagnose faults on/in electrical installations, machines and appliances, and to carry out repairs; and how to read wiring diagrams, layouts of equipment and specifications from architect's and builder's plans, and to transfer the information to the actual building.
This book introduces the reader to the optical switching technology for its application to data centers. In addition, it takes a picture of the status of the technology and system architecture evolution and of the research in the area of optical switching in data center. The book is organized in four parts: the first part is focused on the system aspects of optical switching in intra-data center networking, the second part is dedicated to describing the recently demonstrated optical switching networks, the third part deals with the latest technologies developed to enable optical switching and, finally, the fourth part of the book outlines the future prospects and trends.
This book presents the fundamental scientific principles of long afterglow phosphorescent materials and a comprehensive review of both commercialized afterglow materials and the latest advances in the development of novel long afterglow materials. It is designed to supply much needed information about inorganic and organic afterglow materials, including detailed treatment of structure, classification, preparation techniques, characterization, surface modification chemistry, and optical measurements. Special attention is given to technological applications such as photovoltaics, photocatalytic reactions, and lighting and molecular sensing. Although traditional long afterglow phosphors have been widely investigated and used in industry, and significant efforts have recently been made toward the use of these materials for bioimaging, there is to date no scientific monograph dedicated to afterglow materials. This book not only provides a beginners' guide to the fundamentals of afterglow luminescence and materials, but also gives skilled researchers essential updates on emerging trends and efforts. The work provides a special focus on organic afterglow materials, which offer several advantages such as light-weight, flexible, and wide varieties; mild preparation conditions; and good processability. This book is aimed at postgraduate students, researchers, and technologists who are engaged in the synthesis, development, and commercialization of afterglow materials. It represents essential reading on interdisciplinary frontiers in the materials science, chemistry, photophysics, and biological aspects of afterglow materials.
In Mathematical Finance, the authors consider a mathematical model for the pricing of emissions permits. The model has particular applicability to the European Union Emissions Trading System (EU ETS) but could also be used to consider the modeling of other cap-and-trade schemes. As a response to the risk of Climate Change, carbon markets are currently being implemented in regions worldwide and already represent more than $30 billion. However, scientific, and particularly mathematical, studies of these carbon markets are needed in order to expose their advantages and shortcomings, as well as allow their most efficient implementation. This Brief reviews mathematical properties such as the existence and uniqueness of solutions for the pricing problem, stability of solutions and their behavior. These fit into the theory of fully coupled forward-backward stochastic differential equations (FBSDEs) with irregular coefficients. The authors present a numerical algorithm to compute the solution to these non-standard FBSDEs. They also carry out a case study of the UK energy market. This involves estimating the parameters to be used in the model using historical data and then solving a pricing problem using the aforementioned numerical algorithm. The Brief is of interest to researchers in stochastic processes and their applications, and environmental and energy economics. Most sections are also accessible to practitioners in the energy sector and climate change policy-makers.
"A fully comprehensive introduction to smart grid standards and their applications for developers, consumers and service providers"
The critical role of standards for smart grid has already been realized by world-wide governments and industrial organizations. There are hundreds of standards for Smart Grid which have been developed in parallel by different organizations. It is therefore necessary to arrange those standards in such a way that it is easier for readers to easily understand and select a particular standard according to their requirements without going into the depth of each standard, which often spans from hundreds to thousands of pages.
The book will allow people in the smart grid areas and in the related industries to easily understand the fundamental standards of smart grid, and quickly find the building-block standards they need from hundreds of standards for implementing a smart grid system. The authors highlight the most advanced works and efforts now under way to realize an integrated and interoperable smart grid, such as the "NIST Framework and Roadmap for Smart Grid Interoperability Standards Release 2.0," the" IEC Smart Grid Standardization Roadmap," the ISO/IEC's "Smart Grid Standards for Residential Customers," the ZigBee/HomePlug's "Smart Energy Profile Specification 2.0," IEEE's P2030 "Draft Guide for Smart Grid Interoperability of Energy Technology and Information Technology Operation with the Electric Power System (EPS), and End-Use Applications and Loads," and the latest joint research project results between the world's two largest economies, US and China. The book enables readers to fully understand the latest achievements and ongoing technical works of smart grid standards, and assist industry utilities, vendors, academia, regulators, and other smart grid stakeholders in future decision making.
The book begins with an overview of the smart grid, and introduces the opportunities in both developed and developing countries. It then examines the standards for power grid domain of the smart grid, including standards for blackout prevention and energy management, smart transmission, advanced distribution management and automation, smart substation automation, and condition monitoring. Communication and security standards as a whole are the backbone of smart grid and their standards, including those for wired and wireless communications, are then assessed. Finally the authors consider the standards and on-going work and efforts for interoperability and integration between different standards and networks, including the latest joint research effort between the world's two largest economies, US and China. A fully comprehensive introduction to smart grid standards and their applications for developers, consumers and service providersCovers all up-to-date standards of smart grid, including the key standards from NIST, IEC, ISO ZigBee, IEEE, HomePlug, SAE, and other international and regional standardization organizations. The Appendix summarizes all of the standards mentioned in the bookPresents standards for renewable energy and smart generation, covering wind energy, solar voltaic, fuel cells, pumped storage, distributed generation, and nuclear generation standards. Standards for other alternative sources of energy such as geothermal energy, and bioenergy are briefly introducedIntroduces the standards for smart storage and plug-in electric vehicles, including standards for distributed energy resources (DER), electric storage, and E-mobility/plug-in vehicles
The book is written in an accessible style, ideal as an introduction to the topic, yet contains sufficient detail and research to appeal to the more advanced and specialist reader.
This textbook is intended for engineering students taking courses in power electronics, renewable energy sources, smart grids or static power converters. It is also appropriate for students preparing a capstone project where they need to understand, model, supply, control and specify the grid side power converters. The main goal of the book is developing in students the skills that are required to design, control and use static power converters that serve as an interface between the ac grid and renewable power sources. The same skills can be used to design, control and use the static power converters used within the micro-grids and nano-grids, as the converters that provide the interface between such grids and the external grid. The author's approach starts with basic functionality and the role of grid connected power converters in their typical applications, and their static and dynamic characteristics. Particular effort is dedicated to developing simple, concise, intuitive and easy-to-use mathematical models that summarize the essence of the grid side converter dynamics. Mathematics is reduced to a necessary minimum, solved examples are used extensively to introduce new concepts, and exercises are used to test mastery of new skills.
Today's electrical grid is considered one of the greatest engineering accomplishments of all time. It was recognized in 2003 by the National Academy of Engineering as the preeminent engineering achievement of the twentieth century. The grid and its importance to our economy, our national security, and to the lives of the hundreds of millions it serves, remains a critical national engine, but we have taken this marvelous machine for granted for far too long. Because electricity and electronic devices now permeate every facet of our lives, the demands placed upon the grid are growing exponentially. The utility industry is facing a number of challenges that are bringing about the need to make major changes to the grid. This book discusses these challenges. The book also includes topics on the techno-economic merits of DC microgrid deployment; machine-learning aided optimal customer decisions in interactive smart grids; a game-theory attack and defense model for smart grids; and high-availability seamless redundance (HSR) protocol for smart grid communications.
This book presents both the fundamental theory and numerical calculations and field experiments used in a range of practical engineering projects. It not only provides theoretical formulations and various solutions, but also offers concrete methods to extend the life of existing bridge structures and presents a guide to the rational design of new bridges, such as high-speed railway bridges and long-span bridges. Further, it offers a reference resource for solving vehicle-structure dynamic interaction problems in the research on and design of all types of highways, railways and other transport structures.
Build first-class recording studios and listening spaces
Design and build your own audiophile-grade recording and playback environments using proven, cost-effective plans and techniques. "Handbook of Sound Studio Construction: Rooms for Recording and Listening" explains practical acoustical properties and describes how to engineer acoustically sensitive spaces, including music recording studios, control rooms, voice studios, home project studios, A/V suites, media rooms, and surround-sound home theaters.
Learn how to choose room dimensions, select building materials, construct your own custom treatments, maximize isolation, and generate and analyze response curves. This do-it-yourself guide incorporates decades of roomdesign experience and provides you with the practical knowledge to design and build your own acoustical spaces or improve existing spaces.
Coverage includes: An introduction to room acoustics and acoustical design Reflecting, absorbing, and diffusing materials Room geometry, modes, and treatment Acoustic isolation, site selection, and HVAC design Wall, floor, and ceiling construction Window and door design considerations Reverberation times, early reflections, and psychoacoustics Objective and subjective room evaluation Plans and specifications for 10 recording and listening rooms
This book proposes a proportional integral type sliding function, which does not facilitate the finite reaching and hence the responses of the load voltage results in an exponential steady state. To facilitate finite time reaching, it also presents the new Integral Sliding Mode Control with Finite Time Reaching (ISMCFTR). The book also extends the application of the proposed controller to another type of PEC, the DC-DC Boost converter, and also proposes the PI type sliding surface for the Zeta converter, which is non-inverting type Buck Boost converter. An important source of practical implementations, it presents practical implementations as simulation and experimental results to demonstrate the efficacy of the converter.
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