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Since the discovery of the giant magnetoresistance (GMR) effect in magnetic multilayers in 1988, a new branch of physics and technology, called spin-electronics or spintronics, has emerged, where the flow of electrical charge as well as the flow of electron spin, the so-called "spin current", are manipulated and controlled together. Recent progress in the physics of magnetism and the application of spin current has progressed in tandem with the nanofabrication technology of magnets and the engineering of interfaces and thin films. This book is intended to provide an introduction and guide to the new physics and applications of spin current. The emphasis is placed on the interaction between spin and charge currents in magnetic nanostructures.
This book proposes the air insulation prediction theory and method in the subject of electrical engineering. Prediction of discharge voltage in different cases are discussed and worked out by simulation. After decades, now bottlenecks of traditional air discharge theories can be solved with this book. Engineering applications of the theory in air gap discharge voltage prediction are introduced. This book serves as reference for graduate students, scientific research personnel and engineering staff in the related fields.
Field Guide to Infrared Optics, Materials, and Radiometry covers all aspects of IR optics, including monochromatic and chromatic optical aberrations as well as important concepts such as depth of focus, depth of field, hyperfocal distance, warm shields, aspheric surfaces, and kinoforms. It also provides a comprehensive introduction to the optical, mechanical, and thermal properties of infrared materials as well as the essentials of radiometry and sources necessary for the quantitative understanding of infrared signatures and flux transfer, spectral atmospheric transmittance, and path radiance.
Field Guide to Infrared Systems, Detectors, and FPAs, Third Edition is devoted to fundamental background issues for optical detection processes. It compares the characteristics of cooled and uncooled detectors with an emphasis on spectral and blackbody responsivity, detectivity, as well as the noise mechanisms related to optical detection. It introduces the concepts of barrier infrared detector technologies, and encompasses the capabilities and challenges of third-generation infrared focal plane arrays as well as the advantages of using dual-band technology. The book combines numerous engineering disciplines necessary for the development of an infrared system. It considers the development of search infrared systems and specifies the main descriptors used to characterize thermal imaging systems. Furthermore, this guide clarifies, identifies, and evaluates the engineering tradeoffs in the design of an infrared system.
This book describes two target applications for synchronous systems: regulated 3-phase voltage supply and voltage sag mitigation. It presents a detailed design procedure for converter switches and filters considering all steady-state, commutation and dynamic requirements. This work has evolved from previously published research by the authors, which in turn is part of a larger effort to expand the application domain of matrix converters to power systems. The objectives of the work have been categorized into the following: developing a dynamic model that provides adequate design insights; designing filters; and devising a control scheme. The low frequency dynamic model is first analyzed for regulated voltage supplies assuming balanced system. The system is modeled relative to a synchronous rotating (dq) frame linearized around an operating point. The input-output variables are related by non-diagonal transfer function matrices. Individual transfer function sub-matrices are sequentially investigated and it is shown that, depending on the input power, input voltage and filter parameters, the appearance of a set of right half zeros is possible. The book then considers filter design, as well as general issues like ripple attenuation, regulation, reactive current loading, and filter losses. The book also addresses additional constraints that may be imposed by dynamic requirements and commutation. In the third stage, voltage controller design is detailed for a 3-phase regulated voltage supply. In dq domain, output voltage control represents a multivariable control problem. This is reduced to a single variable control problem while retaining all possible right half zeros, thereby preserving the internal stability of the system. Consequently, the standard single variable control design technique has been used to design a controller. The analytically predicted dynamic response has been verified by experimental results. It was possible to operate the system beyond the critical power boundary where the right half zeros emerge. Lastly, the developed control approach has been extended to voltage sag mitigation with adequate modifications. A 3-wire linear load and both symmetrical and asymmetrical voltage sags have been considered. Experimentally obtained response time for sag mitigation was found to be less than the power supply holdup time of most of the sensitive equipment. This book will be useful to both researchers and graduate students.
This multi-disciplinary book presents the most recent advances in exergy, energy, and environmental issues. Volume 1 focuses on fundamentals in the field and covers current problems, future needs, and prospects in the area of energy and environment from researchers worldwide. Based on selected lectures from the Seventh International Exergy, Energy and Environmental Symposium (IEEES7-2015) and complemented by further invited contributions, this comprehensive set of contributions promote the exchange of new ideas and techniques in energy conversion and conservation in order to exchange best practices in "energetic efficiency". Included are fundamental and historical coverage of the green transportation and sustainable mobility sectors, especially regarding the development of sustainable technologies for thermal comforts and green transportation vehicles. Furthermore, contributions on renewable and sustainable energy sources, strategies for energy production, and the carbon-free society constitute an important part of this book. Exergy for Better Environment and Sustainability, Volume 1 will appeal to researchers, students, and professionals within engineering and the renewable energy fields.
This text deals with the advantages of rare earth activated phosphors for the development of solid state lighting technology and in enhancing the light conversion efficiency of Si solar cells. The book initiates with a short overview of the atomic and semiconductor theory followed by introduction to phosphor, its working mechanism, role of rare earth ions in the lighting and PV devices and host materials being used. Further, it introduces the applications of inorganic phosphor for the development of green energy and technology including advantages of UP/DC conversion phosphor layers in the enhancing the cell response of PV devices. Key Features: Focuses on discussion of phosphors for both solid state lighting and photovoltaics applications Provides introduction for practical applications including synthesis and characterization of phosphor materials Includes broad, in-depth introduction of semiconductors and related theory Enhances the basic understanding of optical properties for rare earth phosphors Covers up-conversion and down-conversion phosphor for energy harvesting applications
Inorganic 2D nanomaterials, or inorganic graphene analogues, are gaining great attention due to their unique properties and potential energy applications. They contain ultrathin nanosheet morphology with one-dimensional confinement, but unlike pure carbon graphene, inorganic two-dimensional nanomaterials have a more abundant elemental composition and can form different crystallographic structures. These properties contribute to their unique chemical reaction activity, tunable physical properties and facilitate applications in the field of energy conversion and storage. Inorganic Two-dimensional Nanomaterials details the development of the nanostructures from computational simulation and theoretical understanding to their synthesis and characterization. Individual chapters then cover different applications of the materials as electrocatalysts, flexible supercapicitors, flexible lithium ion batteries and thermoelectrical devices. The book provides a comprehensive overview of the field for researchers working in the areas of materials chemistry, physics, energy and catalysis.
My Way to Lithium-Ion Batteries Yoshio Nishi I have been engaged in research and development (R&D) on novel materials for electronic appliances for 40 years since I joined Sony Corporation in 1966. I started my scientific career in Sony as a researcher of zinc-air batteries. After 8 years in R&D on electrochemistry, my research field was shifted against my will to el- troacoustic materials, specifically diaphragm materials for electroacoustic tra- ducers including loudspeakers, headphones, and microphones. My R&D work also extended to cabinet materials for speaker systems. This about-face was uncomfo- able for me at first, but it forced me to devote myself to the investigation of various classes of materials unfamiliar to me, covering pulp and paper, metals (i. e. , Ti, Al, Be), ceramics (B4C, TiN, BN, SiC), carbonaceous materials (carbon fibers, intr- sic carbon, artificial diamond), reinforcing fibers for FRP (carbon fibers, aromatic polyamide fibers, glass fibers, SiC fibers, superdrawn polyethylene fibers), organic polymers (polyamides, polyethylene, polypropylene, polymethylpentene, poly- ides, polysulfones, polyetherimides, polyethersulfones, PET), boards (plywood, particle board), resin composites (bulk molding compounds, resin concretes, arti- cial marble), and so on. I also was engaged in development of piezoelectric lo- speakers employing poly(vinylidene difluoride) (PVdF). The remarkably successful output from my R&D activities in those days were organic polymer whiskers and bacterial cellulose. The former was the first organic whisker in the world disc- ered by M. Iguchi,1 which is composed of polyoxymethylene (POM).
Key Features: The Book Covers recent results of the traditional block pulse and other functions related material Discusses 'functions related to block pulse functions' extensively along with their applications Contains analysis and identification of linear time-invariant systems, scaled system, and sampled-data system Presents an overview of piecewise constant orthogonal functions starting from Haar to sample-and-hold function Includes examples and MATLAB codes with supporting numerical exampless.
This ready reference is unique in collating in one scientifically precise and comprehensive handbook the widespread data on what is feasible and realistic in modern fuel cell technology. Edited by one of the leading scientists in this exciting area, the short, uniformly written chapters provide economic data for cost considerations and a full overview of demonstration data, covering such topics as fuel cells for transportation, fuel provision, codes and standards. The result is highly reliable facts and figures for engineers, researchers and decision makers working in the field of fuel cells.
This fundamental guide teaches readers the basics of battery design for electric vehicles. Working through this book, you will understand how to optimise battery performance and functionality, whilst minimising costs and maximising durability. Beginning with the basic concepts of electrochemistry, the book moves on to describe implementation, control and management of batteries in real vehicles, with respect to the battery materials. It describes how to select cells and batteries with explanations of the advantages and disadvantages of different battery chemistries, enabling readers to put their knowledge into practice and make informed and successful design decisions, with a thorough understanding of the trade-offs involved. The first of its kind, and written by an industry expert with experience in academia, this is an ideal resource for both students and researchers in the fields of battery research and development as well as for professionals in the automotive industry extending their interest towards electric vehicles.
The focus of this book is on the design of a specific control strategy using digital computers. This control strategy referred to as Sliding Mode Control (SMC), has its roots in (continuous-time) relay control. This book aims to explain recent investigations' output in the field of discrete-time sliding mode control (DSMC). The book starts by explaining a new robust LMI-based (state-feedback and observer-based output-feedback) DSMC including a new scheme for sparsely distributed control. It includes a novel event-driven control mechanism, called actuator-based event-driven scheme, using a synchronized-rate biofeedback system for heart rate regulation during cycle-ergometer. Key Features: Focuses on LMI-based SMC (sliding mode control) for uncertain discrete-time system using novel nonlinear components in the control law Makes reader understand the techniques of designing a discrete controller based on the flexible sliding functions Proposes new algorithms for sparsifying control and observer network through multi-objective optimization frameworks Discusses a framework for the design of SMC for two-dimensional systems along with analyzing the controllability of two-dimensional systems Discusses novel schemes for sparsifying the control network
Electric Energy Systems, Second Edition provides an analysis of electric generation and transmission systems that addresses diverse regulatory issues. It includes fundamental background topics, such as load flow, short circuit analysis, and economic dispatch, as well as advanced topics, such as harmonic load flow, state estimation, voltage and frequency control, electromagnetic transients, etc. The new edition features updated material throughout the text and new sections throughout the chapters. It covers current issues in the industry, including renewable generation with associated control and scheduling problems, HVDC transmission, and use of synchrophasors (PMUs). The text explores more sophisticated protections and the new roles of demand, side management, etc. Written by internationally recognized specialists, the text contains a wide range of worked out examples along with numerous exercises and solutions to enhance understanding of the material. Features Integrates technical and economic analyses of electric energy systems. Covers HVDC transmission. Addresses renewable generation and the associated control and scheduling problems. Analyzes electricity markets, electromagnetic transients, and harmonic load flow. Features new sections and updated material throughout the text. Includes examples and solved problems.
Electric power systems are being transformed from older grid systems to smart grids across the globe. The goals of this transition are to address today's electric power issues, which include reducing carbon footprints, finding alternate sources of decaying fossil fuels, eradicating losses that occur in the current available systems, and introducing the latest information and communication technologies (ICT) for electric grids. The development of smart grid technology is advancing dramatically along with and in reaction to the continued growth of renewable energy technologies (especially wind and solar power), the growing popularity of electric vehicles, and the continuing huge demand for electricity. Smart Grid Systems: Modeling and Control advances the basic understanding of smart grids and focuses on recent technological advancements in the field. This book provides a comprehensive discussion from a number of experts and practitioners and describes the challenges and the future scope of the technologies related to smart grid. Key features: provides an overview of the smart grid, with its needs, benefits, challenges, existing structure, and possible future technologies discusses solar photovoltaic (PV) system modeling and control along with battery storage, an integral part of smart grids discusses control strategies for renewable energy systems, including solar PV, wind, and hybrid systems describes the inverter topologies adopted for integrating renewable power covers the basics of the energy storage system and the need for micro grids describes forecast techniques for renewable energy systems presents the basics and structure of the energy management system in smart grids, including advanced metering, various communication protocols, and the cyber security challenges explores electric vehicle technology and its interaction with smart grids
This book is about how electricity has profoundly changed the way we live, work, and play. Some twenty topics are covered, with an abundance of graphs and images to build a comprehensive picture. Each looks at the developments, and the people who initiated them, together with how one led to the next and their subsequent impact on society. Topics include electric supply, lighting through X-rays, and all those appliances that make our homes so comfortable. Most homes at the end of the twentieth century were full of electrical equipment, much of which was regarded as essential. It ran from lights, washing machines, fridges, freezers, kettles, telephones and so on, to the more subtle things such as wipers and starter motors on cars. In 1900, in all but a tiny minority of houses, there were none of these things. It is very difficult for us now to imagine a world without electrical equipment everywhere, and yet it has only taken a century. The Electric Century examines how we got from then to now. The nineteenth is often described as the century of steam from the impact it had on employment and transport, and The Electric Century makes a similar claim as the description of the twentieth. Electricity and the equipment using it are so pervasive that they have affected every corner of modern life.
This book discusses topics related to power electronics, especially electromagnetic transient analysis and control of high-power electronics conversion. It focuses on the re-evaluation of power electronics, transient analysis and modeling, device-based system-safe operating area, and energy balance-based control methods, and presenting, for the first time, numerous experimental results for the transient process of various real-world converters. The book systematically presents both theoretical analysis and practical applications. The first chapter discusses the structure and attributes of power electronics systems, highlighting the analysis and synthesis, while the second chapter explores the transient process and modeling for power electronics systems. The transient features of power devices at switching-on/off, transient conversion circuit with stray parameters and device-based system-safe operating area are described in the subsequent three chapters. The book also examines the measurement of transient processes, electromagnetic pulses and their series, as well as high-performance, closed-loop control, and expounds the basic principles and method of the energy-balanced control strategy. Lastly, it introduces the applications of transient analysis of typical power electronics systems. The book is valuable as a textbook for college students, and as a reference resource for electrical engineers as well as anyone working in the field of high-power electronics system.
This textbook provides students, researchers, and engineers in the area of electrical engineering with advanced mathematical optimization methods. Presented in a readable format, this book highlights fundamental concepts of advanced optimization used in electrical engineering. Chapters provide a collection that ranges from simple yet important concepts such as unconstrained optimization to highly advanced topics such as linear matrix inequalities and artificial intelligence-based optimization methodologies. The reader is motivated to engage with the content via numerous application examples of optimization in the area of electrical engineering. The book begins with an extended review of linear algebra that is a prerequisite to mathematical optimization. It then precedes with unconstrained optimization, convex programming, duality, linear matrix inequality, and intelligent optimization methods. This book can be used as the main text in courses such as Engineering Optimization, Convex Engineering Optimization, Advanced Engineering Mathematics and Robust Optimization and will be useful for practicing design engineers in electrical engineering fields. Author provided cases studies and worked examples are included for student and instructor use.
A comprehensive survey of advanced multilevel converter design, control, operation and grid-connected applications Advanced Multilevel Converters and Applications in Grid Integration presents a comprehensive review of the core principles of advanced multilevel converters, which require fewer components and provide higher power conversion efficiency and output power quality. The authors - noted experts in the field - explain in detail the operation principles and control strategies and present the mathematical expressions and design procedures of their components. The text examines the advantages and disadvantages compared to the classical multilevel and two level power converters. The authors also include examples of the industrial applications of the advanced multilevel converters and offer thoughtful explanations on their control strategies. Advanced Multilevel Converters and Applications in Grid Integration provides a clear understanding of the gap difference between research conducted and the current industrial needs. This important guide: Puts the focus on the new challenges and topics in related areas such as modulation methods, harmonic analysis, voltage balancing and balanced current injection Makes a strong link between the fundamental concepts of power converters and advances multilevel converter topologies and examines their control strategies, together with practical engineering considerations Provides a valid reference for further developments in the multilevel converters design issue Contains simulations files for further study Written for university students in electrical engineering, researchers in areas of multilevel converters, high-power converters and engineers and operators in power industry, Advanced Multilevel Converters and Applications in Grid Integration offers a comprehensive review of the core principles of advanced multilevel converters, with contributions from noted experts in the field.
This book reports on advanced theories and methods in three related fields of research: applied physics, system science and computers. The first part covers applied physics topics, such as lasers and accelerators; fluid dynamics, optics and spectroscopy, among others. It also addresses astrophysics, security, and medical and biological physics. The second part focuses on advances in computers, such as those in the area of social networks, games, internet of things, deep learning models and more. The third part is especially related to systems science, covering swarm intelligence, smart cities, complexity and more. Advances in and application of computer communication, artificial intelligence, data analysis, simulation and modeling are also addressed. The book offers a collection of contributions presented at the 3nd International Conference on Applied Physics, System Science and Computers (APSAC), held in Dubrovnik, Croatia on September 26-28, 2018. Besides presenting new methods, it is also intended to promote collaborations between different communities working on related topics at the interface between physics, computer science and engineering.
This book is very specifically targeted to problems in communications and compression by providing the fundamental principles and results in information theory and rate distortion theory for these applications and presenting methods that have proved and will prove useful in analyzing and designing real systems. The chapters contain treatments of entropy, mutual information, lossless source coding, channel capacity, and rate distortion theory; however, it is the selection, ordering, and presentation of the topics within these broad categories that is unique to this concise book. While the coverage of some standard topics is shortened or eliminated, the standard, but important, topics of the chain rules for entropy and mutual information, relative entropy, the data processing inequality, and the Markov chain condition receive a full treatment. Similarly, lossless source coding techniques presented include the Lempel-Ziv-Welch coding method. The material on rate Distortion theory and exploring fundamental limits on lossy source coding covers the often-neglected Shannon lower bound and the Shannon backward channel condition, rate distortion theory for sources with memory, and the extremely practical topic of rate distortion functions for composite sources. The target audience for the book consists of graduate students at the master's degree level and practicing engineers. It is hoped that practicing engineers can work through this book and comprehend the key results needed to understand the utility of information theory and rate distortion theory and then utilize the results presented to analyze and perhaps improve the communications and compression systems with which they are familiar.
Everything needed to pass the first part of the City & Guilds 2365 Diploma in Electrical Installations. Basic Electrical Installation Work will be of value to students taking the first year course of an electrical installation apprenticeship, as well as lecturers teaching it. The book provides answers to all of the 2365 syllabus learning outcomes, and one chapter is dedicated to each of the five units in the City & Guilds course. This edition is brought up to date and in line with the 18th Edition of the IET Regulations: It can be used to support independent learning or a college based course of study Full-colour diagrams and photographs explain difficult concepts and clear definitions of technical terms make the book a quick and easy reference Extensive online material on the companion website www.routledge.com/cw/linsley helps both students and lecturers
This book includes the original, peer-reviewed research papers from the 2nd International Conference on Electrical Systems, Technology and Information (ICESTI 2015), held in September 2015 at Patra Jasa Resort & Villas Bali, Indonesia. Topics covered include: Mechatronics and Robotics, Circuits and Systems, Power and Energy Systems, Control and Industrial Automation, and Information Theory. It explores emerging technologies and their application in a broad range of engineering disciplines, including communication technologies and smart grids. It examines hybrid intelligent and knowledge-based control, embedded systems, and machine learning. It also presents emerging research and recent application in green energy system and storage. It discusses the role of electrical engineering in biomedical, industrial and mechanical systems, as well as multimedia systems and applications, computer vision and image and signal processing. The primary objective of this series is to provide references for dissemination and discussion of the above topics. This volume is unique in that it includes work related to hybrid intelligent control and its applications. Engineers and researchers as well as teachers from academia and professionals in industry and government will gain valuable insights into interdisciplinary solutions in the field of emerging electrical technologies and its applications.
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