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This book is about how electricity has profoundly changed the way we live, work, and play. Some twenty topics are covered, with an abundance of graphs and images to build a comprehensive picture. Each looks at the developments, and the people who initiated them, together with how one led to the next and their subsequent impact on society. Topics include electric supply, lighting through X-rays, and all those appliances that make our homes so comfortable. Most homes at the end of the twentieth century were full of electrical equipment, much of which was regarded as essential. It ran from lights, washing machines, fridges, freezers, kettles, telephones and so on, to the more subtle things such as wipers and starter motors on cars. In 1900, in all but a tiny minority of houses, there were none of these things. It is very difficult for us now to imagine a world without electrical equipment everywhere, and yet it has only taken a century. The Electric Century examines how we got from then to now. The nineteenth is often described as the century of steam from the impact it had on employment and transport, and The Electric Century makes a similar claim as the description of the twentieth. Electricity and the equipment using it are so pervasive that they have affected every corner of modern life.
This textbook provides students, researchers, and engineers in the area of electrical engineering with advanced mathematical optimization methods. Presented in a readable format, this book highlights fundamental concepts of advanced optimization used in electrical engineering. Chapters provide a collection that ranges from simple yet important concepts such as unconstrained optimization to highly advanced topics such as linear matrix inequalities and artificial intelligence-based optimization methodologies. The reader is motivated to engage with the content via numerous application examples of optimization in the area of electrical engineering. The book begins with an extended review of linear algebra that is a prerequisite to mathematical optimization. It then precedes with unconstrained optimization, convex programming, duality, linear matrix inequality, and intelligent optimization methods. This book can be used as the main text in courses such as Engineering Optimization, Convex Engineering Optimization, Advanced Engineering Mathematics and Robust Optimization and will be useful for practicing design engineers in electrical engineering fields. Author provided cases studies and worked examples are included for student and instructor use.
This book reports on advanced theories and methods in three related fields of research: applied physics, system science and computers. The first part covers applied physics topics, such as lasers and accelerators; fluid dynamics, optics and spectroscopy, among others. It also addresses astrophysics, security, and medical and biological physics. The second part focuses on advances in computers, such as those in the area of social networks, games, internet of things, deep learning models and more. The third part is especially related to systems science, covering swarm intelligence, smart cities, complexity and more. Advances in and application of computer communication, artificial intelligence, data analysis, simulation and modeling are also addressed. The book offers a collection of contributions presented at the 3nd International Conference on Applied Physics, System Science and Computers (APSAC), held in Dubrovnik, Croatia on September 26-28, 2018. Besides presenting new methods, it is also intended to promote collaborations between different communities working on related topics at the interface between physics, computer science and engineering.
A comprehensive survey of advanced multilevel converter design, control, operation and grid-connected applications Advanced Multilevel Converters and Applications in Grid Integration presents a comprehensive review of the core principles of advanced multilevel converters, which require fewer components and provide higher power conversion efficiency and output power quality. The authors - noted experts in the field - explain in detail the operation principles and control strategies and present the mathematical expressions and design procedures of their components. The text examines the advantages and disadvantages compared to the classical multilevel and two level power converters. The authors also include examples of the industrial applications of the advanced multilevel converters and offer thoughtful explanations on their control strategies. Advanced Multilevel Converters and Applications in Grid Integration provides a clear understanding of the gap difference between research conducted and the current industrial needs. This important guide: Puts the focus on the new challenges and topics in related areas such as modulation methods, harmonic analysis, voltage balancing and balanced current injection Makes a strong link between the fundamental concepts of power converters and advances multilevel converter topologies and examines their control strategies, together with practical engineering considerations Provides a valid reference for further developments in the multilevel converters design issue Contains simulations files for further study Written for university students in electrical engineering, researchers in areas of multilevel converters, high-power converters and engineers and operators in power industry, Advanced Multilevel Converters and Applications in Grid Integration offers a comprehensive review of the core principles of advanced multilevel converters, with contributions from noted experts in the field.
This book is very specifically targeted to problems in communications and compression by providing the fundamental principles and results in information theory and rate distortion theory for these applications and presenting methods that have proved and will prove useful in analyzing and designing real systems. The chapters contain treatments of entropy, mutual information, lossless source coding, channel capacity, and rate distortion theory; however, it is the selection, ordering, and presentation of the topics within these broad categories that is unique to this concise book. While the coverage of some standard topics is shortened or eliminated, the standard, but important, topics of the chain rules for entropy and mutual information, relative entropy, the data processing inequality, and the Markov chain condition receive a full treatment. Similarly, lossless source coding techniques presented include the Lempel-Ziv-Welch coding method. The material on rate Distortion theory and exploring fundamental limits on lossy source coding covers the often-neglected Shannon lower bound and the Shannon backward channel condition, rate distortion theory for sources with memory, and the extremely practical topic of rate distortion functions for composite sources. The target audience for the book consists of graduate students at the master's degree level and practicing engineers. It is hoped that practicing engineers can work through this book and comprehend the key results needed to understand the utility of information theory and rate distortion theory and then utilize the results presented to analyze and perhaps improve the communications and compression systems with which they are familiar.
Classical Feedback Control with Nonlinear Multi-Loop Systems describes the design of high-performance feedback control systems, emphasizing the frequency-domain approach widely used in practical engineering. It presents design methods for high-order nonlinear single- and multi-loop controllers with efficient analog and digital implementations. Bode integrals are employed to estimate the available system performance and to determine the ideal frequency responses that maximize the disturbance rejection and feedback bandwidth. Nonlinear dynamic compensators provide global stability and improve transient responses. This book serves as a unique text for an advanced course in control system engineering, and as a valuable reference for practicing engineers competing in today's industrial environment.
* Provides an overall understanding of all aspects of AC electrical drives, from the motor and converter to the implemented control algorithm, with minimum mathematics needed * Demonstrates how to implement and debug electrical drive systems using a set of dedicated hardware platforms, motor setup and software tools in VisSim (TM) and PLECS (TM) * No expert programming skills required, allowing the reader to concentrate on drive development * Enables the reader to undertake real-time control of a safe (low voltage) and low cost experimental drive This book puts the fundamental and advanced concepts behind electric drives into practice. Avoiding involved mathematics whenever practical, this book shows the reader how to implement a range of modern day electrical drive concepts, without requiring in depth programming skills. It allows the user to build and run a series of AC drive concepts, ranging from very basic drives to sophisticated sensorless drives. Hence the book is the only modern resource available that bridges the gap between simulation and the actual experimental environment. Engineers who need to implement an electrical drive, or transition from sensored to sensorless drives, as well as students who need to understand the practical aspects of working with electrical drives, will greatly benefit from this unique reference.
This book presents the most relevant and recent results in the study of "Nanoelectromagnetics", a recently born fascinating research discipline, whose popularity is fast arising with the intensive penetration of nanotechnology in the world of electronics applications. Studying nanoelectromagnetics means describing the interaction between electromagnetic radiation and quantum mechanical low-dimensional systems: this requires a full interdisciplinary approach, the reason why this book hosts contributions from the fields of fundamental and applied electromagnetics, of chemistry and technology of nanostructures and nanocomposites, of physics of nano-structures systems, etc. The book is aimed at providing the reader with the state of the art in Nanoelectromagnetics, from theoretical modelling to experimental characterization, from design to synthesis, from DC to microwave and terahertz applications, from the study of fundamental material properties to the analysis of complex systems and devices, from commercial thin-film coatings to metamaterials to circuit components and nanodevices. The book is intended as a reference in advanced courses for graduate students and as a guide for researchers and industrial professionals involved in nanoelectronics and nanophotonics applications.
A new edition of the classic text explaining the fundamentals of competitive electricity marketsnow updated to reflect the evolution of these markets and the large scale deployment of generation from renewable energy sources The introduction of competition in the generation and retail of electricity has changed the ways in which power systems function. The design and operation of successful competitive electricity markets requires a sound understanding of both power systems engineering and underlying economic principles of a competitive market. This extensively revised and updated edition of the classic text on power system economics explains the basic economic principles underpinning the design, operation, and planning of modern power systems in a competitive environment. It also discusses the economics of renewable energy sources in electricity markets, the provision of incentives, and the cost of integrating renewables in the grid. Fundamentals of Power System Economics, Second Edition looks at the fundamental concepts of microeconomics, organization, and operation of electricity markets, market participants strategies, operational reliability and ancillary services, network congestion and related LMP and transmission rights, transmission investment, and generation investment. It also expands the chapter on generation investmentsdiscussing capacity mechanisms in more detail and the need for capacity markets aimed at ensuring that enough generation capacity is available when renewable energy sources are not producing due to lack of wind or sun. Retains the highly praised first editions focus and philosophy on the principles of competitive electricity markets and application of basic economics to power system operating and planning Includes an expanded chapter on power system operation that addresses the challenges stemming from the integration of renewable energy sources Addresses the need for additional flexibility and its provision by conventional generation, demand response, and energy storage Discusses the effects of the increased uncertainty on system operation Broadens its coverage of transmission investment and generation investment Supports self-study with end-of-chapter problems and instructors with solutions manual via companion website Fundamentals of Power System Economics, Second Edition is essential reading for graduate and undergraduate students, professors, practicing engineers, as well as all others who want to understand how economics and power system engineering interact.
The Instrument and Automation Engineers' Handbook (IAEH) is the #1 process automation handbook in the world. Volume two of the Fifth Edition, Analysis and Analyzers, describes the measurement of such analytical properties as composition. Analysis and Analyzers is an invaluable resource that describes the availability, features, capabilities, and selection of analyzers used for determining the quality and compositions of liquid, gas, and solid products in many processing industries. It is the first time that a separate volume is devoted to analyzers in the IAEH. This is because, by converting the handbook into an international one, the coverage of analyzers has almost doubled since the last edition. Analysis and Analyzers: Discusses the advantages and disadvantages of various process analyzer designs Offers application- and method-specific guidance for choosing the best analyzer Provides tables of analyzer capabilities and other practical information at a glance Contains detailed descriptions of domestic and overseas products, their features, capabilities, and suppliers, including suppliers' web addresses Complete with 82 alphabetized chapters and a thorough index for quick access to specific information, Analysis and Analyzers is a must-have reference for instrument and automation engineers working in the chemical, oil/gas, pharmaceutical, pollution, energy, plastics, paper, wastewater, food, etc. industries. About the eBook The most important new feature of the IAEH, Fifth Edition is its availability as an eBook. The eBook provides the same content as the print edition, with the addition of thousands of web addresses so that readers can reach suppliers or reference books and articles on the hundreds of topics covered in the handbook. This feature includes a complete bidders' list that allows readers to issue their specifications for competitive bids from any or all potential product suppliers.
Guidance Note 5: Protection Against Electric Shock provides a core element of safety for specifiers, designers, contractors and inspectors. It includes clear guidance on how to apply the safety requirements of BS 7671 concerning electric shock and has been fully updated to BS 7671:2018. The 18th Edition of the IET Wiring Regulations published in July 2018 and came into effect in January 2019. Changes from the previous edition include requirements concerning Surge Protection Devices, Arc Fault Detection Devices and the installation of electric vehicle charging equipment as well as many other areas.
Fuel cell technology has gained increasing attentions as it provides a promising sustainable approach for facing the existing energy crisis and environmental concerns. Fuel cell based power generation has been proposed to be applied in transport and distributed energy supply. However, the development of fuel cell is still in its early stages, which must overcome several issues before its commercial application, such as cost, process efficiency and working stability. This book provides a general picture on the development of fuel cells. In particular, two representative fuel cells, (ie: PEM fuel cells and solid oxide fuel cells), were reviewed in detail. The book is intended to serve as a reference for both researchers and postgraduate students within the field of chemical/biological fuel cells.
This first volume in the series on nanocarbons for advanced applications presents the latest achievements in the design, synthesis, characterization, and applications of these materials for electrochemical energy storage. The highly renowned series and volume editor, Xinliang Feng, has put together an internationally acclaimed expert team who covers nanocarbons such as carbon nanotubes, fullerenes, graphenes, and porous carbons. The first two parts focus on nanocarbon-based anode and cathode materials for lithium ion batteries, while the third part deals with carbon material-based supercapacitors with various applications in power electronics, automotive engineering and as energy storage elements in portable electric devices. This book will be indispensable for materials scientists, electrochemists, physical chemists, solid state physicists, and those working in the electrotechnical industry.
An in-depth examination of large scale wind projects and electricity production in China Presents the challenges of electrical power system planning, design, operation and control carried out by large scale wind power, from the Chinese perspective Focuses on the integration issue of large scale wind power to the bulk power system, probing the interaction between wind power and bulk power systems Wind power development is a burgeoning area of study in developing countries, with much interest in offshore wind farms and several big projects under development English translation of the Chinese language original which won the "Fourth China Outstanding Publication Award nomination" in March 2013
This book presents a comprehensive, ordered relationship between malfunctions and symptoms occurring in large turbogenerators. With this book, the operator and/or engineer in a generating station could identify underlying causes of a developing component degradation or a failure quicker, which could potentially save both time and money and reduce the trial-and-error troubleshooting process. Large turbogenerators are the most important source of electricity. They can be found in thousands of power stations in every country. Forced outages, failures and degradation of these very expensive machines have an enormous aggregate cost to society. As such, any tool that can ameliorate loss of production by shaving time from troubleshooting activities, and avoiding unnecessary costs by detecting and promptly responding to component degradation, represents a step forward.
The book deals with the increasingly complex test systems for powertrain components and systems giving an overview of the diverse types of test beds for all components of an advanced powertrain focusing on specific topics such as instrumentation, control, simulation, hardware-in-the-loop, automation or test facility management. This book is intended for powertrain (component) development engineers, test bed planners, test bed operators and beginners.
This book examines the key aspects that will define future sustainable energy systems: energy supply, energy storage, security and limited environmental impacts. It clearly explains the need for an integrated engineering approach to sustainable energies, based on mathematical, biogeophysical, and engineering arguments. Resilient and efficient alternatives are compared to non-sustainable options. This book results from the collaboration of 50 international contributors.
The book provides theory concerned with a large number of numerical problems. Questions related to the topic at the end of each chapter are also given. Solved question papers of previous years and important formulas are appended at the end of the book. Salient features: More than 500 solved numerical problems. Problems of GATE and other competitive exams. Solutions and discussion on the UPSC problems and solutions. Standard tricks to solve the difficult problems that will help the students not only in the university exams but also in the competitive exams.
This book includes a collection of research articles presented at the "6th International Workshop on Hydro Scheduling in Competitive Electricity Markets". The workshop was a unique and intimate forum for researchers and practitioners to present state-of-the-art research and development concerning novel methodological findings, best practices and real-life applications of hydro scheduling. It also provided a platform for discussing the developments that are taking place in the industry, sharing different experiences and discussing future trends related to this area. This proceedings book is a collection of the most relevant, high-quality articles from the workshop. Discussing the state-of-the-art in the field of hydro scheduling, it is a valuable resource for a wide audience of researchers and practitioners in the field now and in the interesting and challenging times ahead.
This collection of research papers from across the African continent illustrates the complex and ever-changing rules of the land tenure game, and how government legislation and reform (formalization) interact with local innovations (informalization) to form land tenure systems.
This book focuses on two of the most important aspects of wind farm operation: decisions and control. The first part of the book deals with decision-making processes, and explains that hybrid wind farm operation is governed by a set of alternatives that the wind farm operator must choose from in order to achieve optimal delivery of wind power to the utility grid. This decision-making is accompanied by accurate forecasts of wind speed, which must be known beforehand. Errors in wind forecasting can be compensated for by pumping power from a reserve capacity to the grid using a battery energy storage system (BESS). Alternatives based on penalty cost are assessed using certain criteria, and MCDM methods are used to evaluate the best choice. Further, considering the randomness in the dynamic phenomenon in wind farms, a fuzzy MCDM approach is applied during the decision-making process to evaluate the best alternative for hybrid wind farm operation. Case studies from wind farms in the USA are presented, together with numerical solutions to the problem. In turn, the second part deals with the control aspect, and especially with yaw angle control, which facilitates power maximization at wind farms. A novel transfer function-based methodology is presented that controls the wake center of the upstream turbine(s); lidar-based numerical simulation is carried out for wind farm layouts; and an adaptive control strategy is implemented to achieve the desired yaw angle for upstream turbines. The proposed methodology is tested for two wind farm layouts. Wake management is also implemented for hybrid wind farms where BESS life enhancement is studied. The effect of yaw angle on the operational cost of BESS is assessed, and case studies for wind farm datasets from the USA and Denmark are discussed. Overall, the book provides a comprehensive guide to decision and control aspects for hybrid wind farms, which are particularly important from an industrial standpoint.
Intelligent Transportation Systems: Functional Design for Economical and Efficient Traffic Management provides practical guidance on the efficient use of resources in the design of ITS. The author explains how functional design alternatives can meet project objectives and requirements with optimal cost effectiveness and clarifies how transportation planning and traffic diversion principles relate to functional ITS device selections and equipment locations. Methodologies for translating objectives to functional device types, determining device deployment densities and determining the best placement of CCTV cameras and message signs are provided, as are models for evaluating the benefits of design alternatives based on traffic conditions. Readers will learn how to reduce recurrent congestion, improve incident clearance time in non-recurrent congestion, provide real-time incident information to motorists, and leverage transportation management center data for lane control through important new active transportation and demand management (ATDM) methods. Finally, the author examines exciting developments in connected vehicle technologies, exploring their potential to greatly improve safety, mobility and energy efficiency. This resource will greatly benefit all ITS designers and managers and is of pivotal importance for operating agencies performing evaluations to justify operational funding and system expansions.
Fuel cell technology attracts increasing attention nowadays,
because it offers potential for lowering emissions owing to a
potentially superior efficiency compared to conventional power
generation. Fuel cells require hydrogen for their operation and
consequently numerous technologies are under worldwide
investigation for hydrogen storage aiming for distributed, mobile
and portable applications.
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