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Intended for use on courses that train students to at least approved electrician status, this book covers the requirements of a number of electrical installation syllabuses and courses. It covers the theoretical knowledge and the practical aspects of electrician's work. The book explains: about working in outdoor conditions, at heights and in awkward and confined spaces; how to diagnose faults on/in electrical installations, machines and appliances, and to carry out repairs; and how to read wiring diagrams, layouts of equipment and specifications from architect's and builder's plans, and to transfer the information to the actual building.
This book introduces the reader to the optical switching technology for its application to data centers. In addition, it takes a picture of the status of the technology and system architecture evolution and of the research in the area of optical switching in data center. The book is organized in four parts: the first part is focused on the system aspects of optical switching in intra-data center networking, the second part is dedicated to describing the recently demonstrated optical switching networks, the third part deals with the latest technologies developed to enable optical switching and, finally, the fourth part of the book outlines the future prospects and trends.
This book presents the fundamental scientific principles of long afterglow phosphorescent materials and a comprehensive review of both commercialized afterglow materials and the latest advances in the development of novel long afterglow materials. It is designed to supply much needed information about inorganic and organic afterglow materials, including detailed treatment of structure, classification, preparation techniques, characterization, surface modification chemistry, and optical measurements. Special attention is given to technological applications such as photovoltaics, photocatalytic reactions, and lighting and molecular sensing. Although traditional long afterglow phosphors have been widely investigated and used in industry, and significant efforts have recently been made toward the use of these materials for bioimaging, there is to date no scientific monograph dedicated to afterglow materials. This book not only provides a beginners' guide to the fundamentals of afterglow luminescence and materials, but also gives skilled researchers essential updates on emerging trends and efforts. The work provides a special focus on organic afterglow materials, which offer several advantages such as light-weight, flexible, and wide varieties; mild preparation conditions; and good processability. This book is aimed at postgraduate students, researchers, and technologists who are engaged in the synthesis, development, and commercialization of afterglow materials. It represents essential reading on interdisciplinary frontiers in the materials science, chemistry, photophysics, and biological aspects of afterglow materials.
In Mathematical Finance, the authors consider a mathematical model for the pricing of emissions permits. The model has particular applicability to the European Union Emissions Trading System (EU ETS) but could also be used to consider the modeling of other cap-and-trade schemes. As a response to the risk of Climate Change, carbon markets are currently being implemented in regions worldwide and already represent more than $30 billion. However, scientific, and particularly mathematical, studies of these carbon markets are needed in order to expose their advantages and shortcomings, as well as allow their most efficient implementation. This Brief reviews mathematical properties such as the existence and uniqueness of solutions for the pricing problem, stability of solutions and their behavior. These fit into the theory of fully coupled forward-backward stochastic differential equations (FBSDEs) with irregular coefficients. The authors present a numerical algorithm to compute the solution to these non-standard FBSDEs. They also carry out a case study of the UK energy market. This involves estimating the parameters to be used in the model using historical data and then solving a pricing problem using the aforementioned numerical algorithm. The Brief is of interest to researchers in stochastic processes and their applications, and environmental and energy economics. Most sections are also accessible to practitioners in the energy sector and climate change policy-makers.
"A fully comprehensive introduction to smart grid standards and their applications for developers, consumers and service providers"
The critical role of standards for smart grid has already been realized by world-wide governments and industrial organizations. There are hundreds of standards for Smart Grid which have been developed in parallel by different organizations. It is therefore necessary to arrange those standards in such a way that it is easier for readers to easily understand and select a particular standard according to their requirements without going into the depth of each standard, which often spans from hundreds to thousands of pages.
The book will allow people in the smart grid areas and in the related industries to easily understand the fundamental standards of smart grid, and quickly find the building-block standards they need from hundreds of standards for implementing a smart grid system. The authors highlight the most advanced works and efforts now under way to realize an integrated and interoperable smart grid, such as the "NIST Framework and Roadmap for Smart Grid Interoperability Standards Release 2.0," the" IEC Smart Grid Standardization Roadmap," the ISO/IEC's "Smart Grid Standards for Residential Customers," the ZigBee/HomePlug's "Smart Energy Profile Specification 2.0," IEEE's P2030 "Draft Guide for Smart Grid Interoperability of Energy Technology and Information Technology Operation with the Electric Power System (EPS), and End-Use Applications and Loads," and the latest joint research project results between the world's two largest economies, US and China. The book enables readers to fully understand the latest achievements and ongoing technical works of smart grid standards, and assist industry utilities, vendors, academia, regulators, and other smart grid stakeholders in future decision making.
The book begins with an overview of the smart grid, and introduces the opportunities in both developed and developing countries. It then examines the standards for power grid domain of the smart grid, including standards for blackout prevention and energy management, smart transmission, advanced distribution management and automation, smart substation automation, and condition monitoring. Communication and security standards as a whole are the backbone of smart grid and their standards, including those for wired and wireless communications, are then assessed. Finally the authors consider the standards and on-going work and efforts for interoperability and integration between different standards and networks, including the latest joint research effort between the world's two largest economies, US and China. A fully comprehensive introduction to smart grid standards and their applications for developers, consumers and service providersCovers all up-to-date standards of smart grid, including the key standards from NIST, IEC, ISO ZigBee, IEEE, HomePlug, SAE, and other international and regional standardization organizations. The Appendix summarizes all of the standards mentioned in the bookPresents standards for renewable energy and smart generation, covering wind energy, solar voltaic, fuel cells, pumped storage, distributed generation, and nuclear generation standards. Standards for other alternative sources of energy such as geothermal energy, and bioenergy are briefly introducedIntroduces the standards for smart storage and plug-in electric vehicles, including standards for distributed energy resources (DER), electric storage, and E-mobility/plug-in vehicles
The book is written in an accessible style, ideal as an introduction to the topic, yet contains sufficient detail and research to appeal to the more advanced and specialist reader.
This textbook is intended for engineering students taking courses in power electronics, renewable energy sources, smart grids or static power converters. It is also appropriate for students preparing a capstone project where they need to understand, model, supply, control and specify the grid side power converters. The main goal of the book is developing in students the skills that are required to design, control and use static power converters that serve as an interface between the ac grid and renewable power sources. The same skills can be used to design, control and use the static power converters used within the micro-grids and nano-grids, as the converters that provide the interface between such grids and the external grid. The author's approach starts with basic functionality and the role of grid connected power converters in their typical applications, and their static and dynamic characteristics. Particular effort is dedicated to developing simple, concise, intuitive and easy-to-use mathematical models that summarize the essence of the grid side converter dynamics. Mathematics is reduced to a necessary minimum, solved examples are used extensively to introduce new concepts, and exercises are used to test mastery of new skills.
Accurate knowledge of electromagnetic power system transients is crucial to the operation of an economic, efficient and environmentally friendly power systems network without compromising on the reliability and quality of electrical power supply. Electromagnetic transient (EMT) simulation has therefore become a universal tool for the analysis of power system electromagnetic transients in the range of nanoseconds to seconds, and is the backbone for the design and planning of power systems, as well as for the investigation of problems. In this fully revised and updated new edition of this classic book, a thorough review of EMT simulation is provided, with many simple examples included to clarify difficult concepts. Topics covered include analysis of continuous and discrete systems; state variable analysis; numerical integrator substitution; the root-matching method; transmission lines and cables; transformers and rotating plant; control and protection; power electronic systems; frequency-dependent network equivalents; steady-state assessment; mixed time-frame simulation; transient simulation in real-time; and applications.
Today's electrical grid is considered one of the greatest engineering accomplishments of all time. It was recognized in 2003 by the National Academy of Engineering as the preeminent engineering achievement of the twentieth century. The grid and its importance to our economy, our national security, and to the lives of the hundreds of millions it serves, remains a critical national engine, but we have taken this marvelous machine for granted for far too long. Because electricity and electronic devices now permeate every facet of our lives, the demands placed upon the grid are growing exponentially. The utility industry is facing a number of challenges that are bringing about the need to make major changes to the grid. This book discusses these challenges. The book also includes topics on the techno-economic merits of DC microgrid deployment; machine-learning aided optimal customer decisions in interactive smart grids; a game-theory attack and defense model for smart grids; and high-availability seamless redundance (HSR) protocol for smart grid communications.
Build first-class recording studios and listening spaces
Design and build your own audiophile-grade recording and playback environments using proven, cost-effective plans and techniques. "Handbook of Sound Studio Construction: Rooms for Recording and Listening" explains practical acoustical properties and describes how to engineer acoustically sensitive spaces, including music recording studios, control rooms, voice studios, home project studios, A/V suites, media rooms, and surround-sound home theaters.
Learn how to choose room dimensions, select building materials, construct your own custom treatments, maximize isolation, and generate and analyze response curves. This do-it-yourself guide incorporates decades of roomdesign experience and provides you with the practical knowledge to design and build your own acoustical spaces or improve existing spaces.
Coverage includes: An introduction to room acoustics and acoustical design Reflecting, absorbing, and diffusing materials Room geometry, modes, and treatment Acoustic isolation, site selection, and HVAC design Wall, floor, and ceiling construction Window and door design considerations Reverberation times, early reflections, and psychoacoustics Objective and subjective room evaluation Plans and specifications for 10 recording and listening rooms
This book presents both the fundamental theory and numerical calculations and field experiments used in a range of practical engineering projects. It not only provides theoretical formulations and various solutions, but also offers concrete methods to extend the life of existing bridge structures and presents a guide to the rational design of new bridges, such as high-speed railway bridges and long-span bridges. Further, it offers a reference resource for solving vehicle-structure dynamic interaction problems in the research on and design of all types of highways, railways and other transport structures.
This book proposes a proportional integral type sliding function, which does not facilitate the finite reaching and hence the responses of the load voltage results in an exponential steady state. To facilitate finite time reaching, it also presents the new Integral Sliding Mode Control with Finite Time Reaching (ISMCFTR). The book also extends the application of the proposed controller to another type of PEC, the DC-DC Boost converter, and also proposes the PI type sliding surface for the Zeta converter, which is non-inverting type Buck Boost converter. An important source of practical implementations, it presents practical implementations as simulation and experimental results to demonstrate the efficacy of the converter.
This book details aluminum alloys with special focus on the aluminum silicon (Al-Si) systems - that are the most abundant alloys second only to steel. The authors include a description of the manufacturing principles, thermodynamics, and other main characteristics of Al-Si alloys. Principles of processing, testing, and in particular applications in the Automotive, Aeronautical and Aerospace fields are addressed.
Power Line Communication (PLC) is a well-established technology that allows the transmission of data through electrical wires. A key advantage of PLC is its low cost of deployment when the electrical wiring infrastructure already exists, enabling it to compete or work in conjunction with wireless technologies. PLC has recently received growing attention and significant investments within the development of the Smart Grid (SG), that in turn requires sophisticated data exchange and communication. This book presents a comprehensive introduction to the principals involved in the use of narrowband and broadband PLC technologies in the SG, and to using these technologies particularly when intermittent renewable energies sources are employed. Chapters cover fundamental concepts of modern digital communications, the main coding techniques, specific characteristics of the PLC channels, the fundamentals of the SG, and the differences between the narrowband and broadband technologies for SG applications. The work covers the main standards and several related state-of-the-art works, as well as some key aspects of the use of renewable energy sources. Power Line Communication Systems for Smart Grids is essential reading for researchers, professionals and graduate students involved with the study and development of PLC systems, SG and related subjects.
The residential sector consumes a vast amount of energy. This situation has resulted in an increased interest by the scientific community in the subject of energy saving. In the present work, the authors examine the characteristics of some newer systems and options for energy savings in residential buildings. Sources for optimally heating buildings, energy systems distribution, thermal energy storage systems, control systems among other improvements and operations, which may help to reduce energy consumption in the residential sector, are discussed. The possibilities of use of heat pumps in technical systems, passive solar heating and water heating in domestic hot-water systems are also outlined. Special attention is paid to the problem of energy storage in energy systems.
The first book applying HBFEM to practical electronic nonlinear field and circuit problems Examines and solves wide aspects of practical electrical and electronic nonlinear field and circuit problems presented by HBFEM Combines the latest research work with essential background knowledge, providing an all-encompassing reference for researchers, power engineers and students of applied electromagnetics analysis There are very few books dealing with the solution of nonlinear electric- power-related problems The contents are based on the authors many years research and industry experience; they approach the subject in a well-designed and logical way It is expected that HBFEM will become a more useful and practical technique over the next 5 years due to the HVDC power system, renewable energy system and Smart Grid, HF magnetic used in DC/DC converter, and Multi-pulse transformer for HVDC power supply HBFEM can provide effective and economic solutions to R&D product development Includes Matlab exercises
Since the first edition of this book was published seven years ago, the field of modeling and simulation of communication systems has grown and matured in many ways, and the use of simulation as a day-to-day tool is now even more common practice. With the current interest in digital mobile communications, a primary area of application of modeling and simulation is now in wireless systems of a different flavor from the `traditional' ones. This second edition represents a substantial revision of the first, partly to accommodate the new applications that have arisen. New chapters include material on modeling and simulation of nonlinear systems, with a complementary section on related measurement techniques, channel modeling and three new case studies; a consolidated set of problems is provided at the end of the book.
This book discusses electric power transmission and related policy issues. Transmission is a prominent federal issue because of a perceived need to improve reliability and reduce costs, transmission's role in meeting national energy goals (such as increased use of renewable electricity), and the potential efficiency advantages of "smart grid" modernisation. Proposals before the 111th Congress for changing federal transmission law and regulations to meet these and other objectives include the Clean Renewable Energy and Economic Development Act and the majority staff transmission siting draft of the Senate Energy and Natural Resources Committee. Transmission development and regulation are complex and sometimes contentious policy areas and this book reviews transmission planning and permitting, financing and cost allocation, system modernisation and the smart grid and transmission system reliability.
Power generation is a relatively recent concern because humans had little need for sustained power until the dawn of the Industrial Revolution. Today, modern civilization is wholly dependent on the production and distribution of power. Without it, our way of life would be extinguished. In Lights On!, Mark Denny reveals the mysterious world of power generation. He takes us on a fun tour, examining the nature of energy, tracing the history of power generation, explaining the processes from production through transmission to use, and addressing questions that are currently in the headlines, such as:* Is natural gas the best alternative energy source in the near term? * Could solar power be the answer to all our problems? * Why is nuclear power such a hard sell, and are the concerns valid? Devoting individual chapters to each of the forms of power in use today-electrical, coal, oil and natural gas, hydro, nuclear, and solar-Denny explains the pros and cons of each, their availability worldwide, and which are in dwindling supply. Making clear that his approach is that of "a scientist and engineer, not a politician or businessman," Denny addresses environmental concerns by providing information to help readers understand the science and engineering of power generation so they can discuss contemporary energy issues from an informed perspective. For those who wish to delve deeper into the science, a technical appendix provides estimations for a variety of power generators. Anyone who is interested in how energy works and how it is transformed to power our lives will get a charge out of Lights On!
This much-loved textbook introduces electrical and electronic principles and technology to students who are new to the subject. Real-world situations and engineering examples put the theory into context. The inclusion of worked problems with solutions really help aid your understanding and further problems then allow you to test and confirm you have mastered each subject. In total the books contains 410 worked problems, 540 further problems, 340 multiple-choice questions, 455 short-answer questions, and 7 revision tests with answers online. This an ideal text for vocational courses enabling a sound understanding of the knowledge required by technicians in fields such as electrical engineering, electronics and telecommunications. It will also be an excellent refresher for foundation and undergraduate degree students. It is supported by a companion website that contains solutions to the 540 questions in the practice exercises, formulae to help students answer the questions, multiple choice questions linked to each of the 23 chapters and information about the famous mathematicians and scientists mentioned in the book. Lecturers also have access to full solutions and the marking scheme for the 7 revision tests, lesson plans and illustrations from the book.
This book presents essential information on systems and
interactions in automotive transmission technology and outlines the
methodologies used to analyze and develop transmission concepts and
designs. Functions of and interactions between components and
subassemblies of transmissions are introduced, providing a basis
for designing transmission systems and for determining their
potentials and properties in vehicle-specific applications:
passenger cars, trucks, buses, tractors and motorcycles. With these
fundamentals the presentation provides universal resources for both
state-of-the-art and future transmission technologies, including
systems for electric and hybrid electric vehicles.
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