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The high temperature solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) is identified as one of the leading fuel cell technology contenders to capture the energy market in years to come. However, in order to operate as an efficient energy generating system, the SOFC requires an appropriate control system which in turn requires a detailed modelling of process dynamics. Introducting state-of-the-art dynamic modelling, estimation, and control of SOFC systems, this book presents original modelling methods and brand new results as developed by the authors. With comprehensive coverage and bringing together many aspects of SOFC technology, it considers dynamic modelling through first-principles and data-based approaches, and considers all aspects of control, including modelling, system identification, state estimation, conventional and advanced control. Key features: * Discusses both planar and tubular SOFC, and detailed and simplified dynamic modelling for SOFC * Systematically describes single model and distributed models from cell level to system level * Provides parameters for all models developed for easy reference and reproducing of the results * All theories are illustrated through vivid fuel cell application examples, such as state-of-the-art unscented Kalman filter, model predictive control, and system identification techniques to SOFC systems The tutorial approach makes it perfect for learning the fundamentals of chemical engineering, system identification, state estimation and process control. It is suitable for graduate students in chemical, mechanical, power, and electrical engineering, especially those in process control, process systems engineering, control systems, or fuel cells. It will also aid researchers who need a reminder of the basics as well as an overview of current techniques in the dynamic modelling and control of SOFC.
This volume contains a selection of revised and extended research articles written by prominent researchers participating in the 25th International MultiConference of Engineers and Computer Scientists (IMECS 2017) which was held in Hong Kong, 15-17 March, 2017. Topics covered include electrical engineering, communications systems, engineering mathematics, engineering physics, and industrial applications. With contributions carefully chosen to represent the most cutting-edge research presented during the conference, the book offers the state of art in engineering technologies and physical science and applications, and also serves as an excellent reference work for researchers and graduate students working with/on engineering technologies and physical science and applications.
A COMPREHENSIVE REFERENCE TO THE MOST RECENT ADVANCEMENTS IN OFFSHORE WIND TECHNOLOGY Offshore Wind Energy Technology offers a reference based on the research material developed by the acclaimed Norwegian Research Centre for Offshore Wind Technology (NOWITECH) and material developed by the expert authors over the last 20 years. This comprehensive text covers critical topics such as wind energy conversion systems technology, control systems, grid connection and system integration, and novel structures including bottom-fixed and floating. The text also reviews the most current operation and maintenance strategies as well as technologies and design tools for novel offshore wind energy concepts. The text contains a wealth of mathematical derivations, tables, graphs, worked examples, and illustrative case studies. Authoritative and accessible, Offshore Wind Energy Technology: Contains coverage of electricity markets for offshore wind energy and then discusses the challenges posed by the cost and limited opportunities Discusses novel offshore wind turbine structures and floaters Features an analysis of the stochastic dynamics of offshore/marine structures Describes the logistics of planning, designing, building, and connecting an offshore wind farm Written for students and professionals in the field, Offshore Wind Energy Technology is a definitive resource that reviews all facets of offshore wind energy technology and grid connection.
This book presents revealing case studies on carbon footprint calculation and mitigation in various industrial sectors. There are numerous sectors whose carbon footprints need to be calculated, and effective ways to mitigate the greenhouse-gas emissions from these sectors need to be found. Using representative case studies, this book highlights the carbon footprint of national power generation systems, crude glycerol production plants and the Brazilian highway network system, as well as the integration of renewable energy sources in expansion planning, so as to promote and implement power system decarbonization.
Dynamic Vulnerability Assessment and Intelligent Control for Sustainable Power Systems Jose Luis Rueda-Torres, TU Delft, The Netherlands Francisco Gonzalez-Longatt, Loughborough University, UK Identifying, assessing, and mitigating electric power grid vulnerabilities is a growing focus in short-term operational planning of power systems. Through illustrated application, this important guide surveys state-of-the-art methodologies for the assessment and enhancement of power system security in short term operational planning and real-time operation. The methodologies employ advanced methods from probabilistic theory, data mining, artificial intelligence, and optimization, to provide knowledge-based support for monitoring, control (preventive and corrective), and decision making tasks. Key features: * Introduces behavioural recognition in wide-area monitoring and security constrained optimal power flow for intelligent control and protection and optimal grid management. * Provides in-depth understanding of risk-based reliability and security assessment, dynamic vulnerability assessment methods, supported by the underpinning mathematics. * Develops expertise in mitigation techniques using intelligent protection and control, controlled islanding, model predictive control, multi-agent and distributed control systems * Illustrates implementation in smart grid and self-healing applications with examples and real-world experience from the WAMPAC (Wide Area Monitoring Protection and Control) scheme. * Supplementary material, including Matlab codes, available through the companion website: www.wiley.com/go/rueda-torres/dynamic Dynamic Vulnerability Assessment and Intelligent Control for Power Systems is a valuable reference for postgraduate students and researchers in power system stability as well as practicing engineers working in power system dynamics, control, and network operation and planning.
This new edition of a proven textbook provides comprehensive, in-depth coverage of the fundamental concepts of electrical and computer engineering. It is written from an engineering perspective, with special emphasis on circuit functionality and applications. Reliance on higher-level mathematics and physics, or theoretical proofs has been intentionally limited in order to prioritize the practical aspects of electrical engineering. This text is therefore suitable for a number of introductory circuit courses for other majors such as robotics, mechanical, biomedical, aerospace, civil, architecture, petroleum, and industrial engineering. The authors' primary goal is to teach the aspiring engineering student all fundamental tools needed to understand, analyze and design a wide range of practical circuits and systems. Their secondary goal is to provide a comprehensive reference, for both major and non-major students as well as practicing engineers.
This brochure offers numerical models of wind-induced aeolian vibrations and sub-span oscillations of the conductors. It highlights what can be expected from numerical models regarding conductor vibrations. Assessment of the aeolian vibration condition of particular lines, with conductors whose mechanical properties are poorly defined, or with special terrain conditions, may require field measurements; Analytical methods based on the EBP and shaker-based technology can provide a useful tool to design damping systems for the protection of single conductors against aeolian vibrations This work reports the state of the art for professionals regarding aeolian vibrations and subspan oscillations modelling.
A fully comprehensive text for courses in electrical principles, circuit theory and electrical technology, providing 800 worked examples and over 1,350 further problems for students to work through at their own pace. This book is ideal for students studying engineering for the first time as part of BTEC National and other pre-degree vocational courses, as well as Higher Nationals, Foundation Degrees and first-year undergraduate modules.
This ready reference is unique in collating in one scientifically precise and comprehensive handbook the widespread data on what is feasible and realistic in modern fuel cell technology. Edited by one of the leading scientists in this exciting area, the short, uniformly written chapters provide economic data for cost considerations and a full overview of demonstration data, covering such topics as fuel cells for transportation, fuel provision, codes and standards. The result is highly reliable facts and figures for engineers, researchers and decision makers working in the field of fuel cells.
Optimal Control for Chemical Engineers gives a detailed treatment of optimal control theory that enables readers to formulate and solve optimal control problems. With a strong emphasis on problem solving, the book provides all the necessary mathematical analyses and derivations of important results, including multiplier theorems and Pontryagin's principle. The text begins by introducing various examples of optimal control, such as batch distillation and chemotherapy, and the basic concepts of optimal control, including functionals and differentials. It then analyzes the notion of optimality, describes the ubiquitous Lagrange multipliers, and presents the celebrated Pontryagin principle of optimal control. Building on this foundation, the author examines different types of optimal control problems as well as the required conditions for optimality. He also describes important numerical methods and computational algorithms for solving a wide range of optimal control problems, including periodic processes. Through its lucid development of optimal control theory and computational algorithms, this self-contained book shows readers how to solve a variety of optimal control problems.
Combining academic and practical approaches to this important topic, Numerical and Analytical Methods with MATLAB(r) for Electrical Engineers is the ideal resource for electrical and computer engineering students. Based on a previous edition that was geared toward mechanical engineering students, this book expands many of the concepts presented in that book and replaces the original projects with new ones intended specifically for electrical engineering students.
This book includes:
Exploring the numerical methods that electrical engineers use for design analysis and testing, this book comprises standalone chapters outlining a course that also introduces students to computational methods and programming skills, using MATLAB as the programming environment. Helping engineering students to develop a feel for structural programming-not just button-pushing with a software program-the illustrative examples and extensive assignments in this resource enable them to develop the necessary skills and then apply them to practical electrical engineering problems and cases.
Publisher's Note: Products purchased from Third Party sellers are not guaranteed by the publisher for quality, authenticity, or access to any online entitlements included with the product. THE LATEST SUSTAINABLE DESIGN TECHNIQUES FOR SOLAR MODULESSolar Manufacturing: Environmental Design Concepts for Solar Modules explains the sustainable development methods used by today's leading photovoltaic companies. After reviewing various photovoltaic technologies and providing an overview of sustainable development, this practical guide illustrates how to apply sustainable development metrics to solar modules. The book describes how metrics are included in regulations, and how regulations can present barriers to market entry. Innovative product development trends used to improve the environmental attributes of solar modules are discussed in this timely resource. COVERAGE INCLUDES: * Introduction to photovoltaic technology * Motivation for sustainable development initiatives in the photovoltaic industry * Environmental metrics used by photovoltaic companies and example calculations * Environmental regulations used as trade barriers * Current trends to increase environmental sustainability * A full glossary and common abbreviations used in the industry
This book presents emerging technology management approaches and applied cases from leading infrastructure sectors such as energy, healthcare, transportation and education. Featuring timely topics such as fracking technology, electric cars, Google's eco-friendly mobile technology and Amazon Prime Air, the volume's contributions explore the current management challenges that have resulted from the development of new technologies, and present tools, applications and frameworks that can be utilized to overcome these challenges. Emerging technologies make us rethink how our infrastructure will look in the future. Solar and wind generation, for example, have already changed the dynamics of the power sector. While they have helped to reduce the use of fossil fuels, they have created management complications due to their intermittent natures. Meanwhile, information technologies have changed how we manage healthcare, making it safer and more accessible, but not without implications for cost and administration. Autonomous cars are around the corner. On-line education is no longer a myth but still a largely unfulfilled opportunity. Digitization of car ownership is achievable thanks to emerging business models leveraging new communication technologies. The major challenge is how to evaluate the relative costs and benefits of these technologies. This book offers insights from both researchers and industry practitioners to address this challenge and anticipate the impact of new technologies on infrastructure now and in the future.
Beginning with an overview and historical background of Copper Zinc Tin Sulphide (CZTS) technology, subsequent chapters cover properties of CZTS thin films, different preparation methods of CZTS thin films, a comparative study of CZTS and CIGS solar cell, computational approach, and future applications of CZTS thin film solar modules to both ground-mount and rooftop installation. The semiconducting compound (CZTS) is made up earth-abundant, low-cost and non-toxic elements, which make it an ideal candidate to replace Cu(In, Ga)Se2 (CIGS) and CdTe solar cells which face material scarcity and toxicity issues. The device performance of CZTS-based thin film solar cells has been steadily improving over the past 20 years, and they have now reached near commercial efficiency levels (10%). These achievements prove that CZTS-based solar cells have the potential to be used for large-scale deployment of photovoltaics. With contributions from leading researchers from academia and industry, many of these authors have contributed to the improvement of its efficiency, and have rich experience in preparing a variety of semiconducting thin films for solar cells.
Covers all your testing and inspection needs to help you pass your exams on City & Guilds 2391 and EAL 600/4338/6 and 600/4340/4 and Part P courses. Entirely up to date with the 18th Edition IET Wiring Regulations Step-by-step descriptions and photographs of the tests show exactly how to carry them out Completion of inspection and test certification and periodic reporting Fault finding techniques Testing 3 phase and single phase motors Supporting video footage of the tests contained in this book are available on the companion website This book covers everything you need to learn about inspection and testing, with clear reference to the latest updates to the legal requirements and wiring regulations. It answers all of your questions on the basics of inspection and testing, using clear and easy to remember language, along with sample questions and scenarios as they will be encountered in the exams. Christopher Kitcher tells you what tests are needed and describes them in a step-by-step manner with the help of colour photographs and the accompanying website. All of the theory required for passing the inspecting and testing element of all electrical installation qualifications along with the AM2, City & Guilds 2391 certificate and the EAL 600/4338/6 and 600/4340/4 qualifications is contained within this easy-to-follow guide - along with some top tips to help you pass the exam itself. With a strong focus on the practical element of inspection and testing for NVQs or apprenticeships, this is also an ideal reference tool for experienced electricians and those working in allied industries on domestic and industrial installations. www.routledge.com/cw/kitcher provides a large bank of helpful video demonstrations, multiple choice questions to test your learning, and further supporting materials.
"Industrial Application of Environmentally Conscious Design" describes the transition that companies are making towards incorporating environmental thinking into their design and product development activities. Based upon the experiences, ideas and opinions of a collection of practitioners from product development companies in Europe and the USA, a pattern is identified, describing the cause and effect of the changes that industry moves through when learning and adopting environmental principles. Design managers within product development companies will find "Industrial Applications of Environmentally Conscious Design" a useful guide. Although based upon the electrical and electronics industry, useful parallels can be drawn from this book to many industry sectors. For companies who are just beginning to consider incorporating environmental considerations into their product development processes, this publication will act as a guide for the steps ahead. For companies who are more progressed in environmentally conscious design, the identification of a pattern will assist the continued effort required to lead industry toward continued environmental improvement. To academics, the book should act as an inspiration for empirical research methodology, and also present a base-theory that can be built upon by subsequent research efforts. "Industrial Application of Environmentally Conscious Design" is the first book to be published as part of the Engineering Research Series. This new series, under the guidance of series editor Duncan Dowson, offers the opportunity to engineers in universities and industry to disseminate wider accounts of engineering research progress than are currently available. Material is selected for publication on the basis of its intrinsic quality, and potential applications and relevance to the wider professional engineering community. A range of engineering applications are covered each year to provide a useful information resource of significant developments in engineering research. Each title represents an important contribution to engineering research literature and will provide a valuable addition to university and other institutional libraries, as well as making leading topical research in specialist areas of engineering available to R&D experts in industry.
High-speed, power-efficient analog integrated circuits can be used as standalone devices or to interface modern digital signal processors and micro-controllers in various applications, including multimedia, communication, instrumentation, and control systems. New architectures and low device geometry of complementary metaloxidesemiconductor (CMOS) technologies have accelerated the movement toward system on a chip design, which merges analog circuits with digital, and radio-frequency components. CMOS: Analog Integrated Circuits: High-Speed and Power-Efficient Design describes the important trends in designing these analog circuits and provides a complete, in-depth examination of design techniques and circuit architectures, emphasizing practical aspects of integrated circuit implementation.
Focusing on designing and verifying analog integrated circuits, the author reviews design techniques for more complex components such as amplifiers, comparators, and multipliers. The book details all aspects, from specification to the final chip, of the development and implementation process of filters, analog-to-digital converters (ADCs), digital-to-analog converters (DACs), phase-locked loops (PLLs), and delay-locked loops (DLLs). It also describes different equivalent transistor models, design and fabrication considerations for high-density integrated circuits in deep-submicrometer process, circuit structures for the design of current mirrors and voltage references, topologies of suitable amplifiers, continuous-time and switched-capacitor circuits, modulator architectures, and approaches to improve linearity of Nyquist converters. The text addresses the architectures and performance limitation issues affecting circuit operation and provides conceptual and practical solutions to problems that can arise in the design process.
This reference provides balanced coverage of theoretical and practical issues that will allow the reader to design CMOS analog integrated circuits with improved electrical performance. The chapters contain easy-to-follow mathematical derivations of all equations and formulas, graphical plots, and open-ended design problems to help determine most suitable architecture for a given set of performance specifications. This comprehensive and illustrative text for the design and analysis of CMOS analog integrated circuits serves as a valuable resource for analog circuit designers and graduate students in electrical engineering.
This unique resource explains the fundamental physics of semiconductor nanolasers, and provides detailed insights into their design, fabrication, characterization, and applications. Topics covered range from the theoretical treatment of the underlying physics of nanoscale phenomena, such as temperature dependent quantum effects and active medium selection, to practical design aspects, including the multi-physics cavity design that extends beyond pure electromagnetic consideration, thermal management and performance optimization, and nanoscale device fabrication and characterization techniques. The authors also discuss technological applications of semiconductor nanolasers in areas such as photonic integrated circuits and sensing. Providing a comprehensive overview of the field, detailed design and analysis procedures, a thorough investigation of important applications, and insights into future trends, this is essential reading for graduate students, researchers, and professionals in optoelectronics, applied photonics, physics, nanotechnology, and materials science.
This Code of Practice provides a clear overview of EV charging equipment, as well as setting out the considerations needed prior to installation and the necessary physical and electrical installation requirements. It also details what needs to be considered when installing electric vehicle charging equipment in various different locations - such as domestic dwellings, on-street locations, and commercial and industrial premises. Key changes from the second edition include: Two completely new sections Vehicles as Energy Storage Integration with smart metering and control, automation and monitoring systems A new Annex A complete update to the new requirements in BS 7671:2018 Bringing the Code in line with revised regulations and good practice The risk assessments and checklists have also been reviewed and revised. This very well established Code of Practice, supported by all the major stakeholders in the industry, is essential reading for anyone involved in the rapid expansion of EV charging points, and those involved in maintenance, extension, modification and periodic verification of electrical installations that incorporate EV charging.
The electrochemical energy storage is a means to conserve electrical energy in chemical form. This form of storage benefits from the fact that these two energies share the same vector, the electron. This advantage allows us to limit the losses related to the conversion of energy from one form to another. The RS2E focuses its research on rechargeable electrochemical devices (or electrochemical storage) batteries and supercapacitors. The materials used in the electrodes are key components of lithium-ion batteries. Their nature depend battery performance in terms of mass and volume capacity, energy density, power, durability, safety, etc. This book deals with current and future positive and negative electrode materials covering aspects related to research new and better materials for future applications (related to renewable energy storage and transportation in particular), bringing light on the mechanisms of operation, aging and failure.
Significantly expanded and updated with extensive revisions, new material, and a new chapter on emerging applications of switching converters, Power-Switching Converters, Third Edition offers the same trusted, accessible, and comprehensive information as its bestselling predecessors. Similar to the two previous editions, this book can be used for an introductory as well as a more advanced course. Chapters begin with an introduction to switching converters and basic switching converter topologies. Entry level chapters continue with a discussion of resonant converters, isolated switching converters, and the control schemes of switching converters. Skipping to chapters 10 and 11, the subject matter involves an examination of interleaved converters and switched capacitor converters to round out and complete the overview of switching converter topologies. More detailed chapters include the continuous time-modeling and discrete-time modeling of switching converters as well as analog control and digital control. Advanced material covers tools for the simulation of switching converters (including both PSpice and Matlab simulations) and the basic concepts necessary to understand various actual and emerging applications for switching converters, such as power factor correction, LED drivers, low-noise converters, and switching converters topologies for solar and fuel cells. The final chapter contains several complete design examples, including experimental designs that may be used as technical references or for class laboratory projects. Supplementary information is available at crcpress.com including slides, PSpice examples (designed to run on the OrCAD 9.2 student version and PSIM software) and MATLAB scripts. Continuing the august tradition of its predecessors, Power-Switching Converters, Third Edition provides introductory and advanced information on all aspects of power switching converters to give students the solid foundation and applicable knowledge required to advance in this growing field.
This book addresses the latest findings on practical ultra-high voltage AC/DC (UHVAC/UHVDC) power transmission. Firstly, it reviews current constructions and future plans for major UHVDC and UHVAC projects around the world. The book subsequently illustrates the basic theories, economic analysis, and key technologies of UHV power networks in detail, and describes the design of the UHVAC substations and UHVDC converter stations and transmission lines. A wealth of clear and specific figures and formulas help readers to understand the fundamental theories underlying UHVAC and UHVDC technologies, as well as their developmental trends. This book is intended for graduate students, researchers and engineers in the fields of power systems and electrical engineering.
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