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All the essential calculations required for advanced electrical installation work The Electrical Installation Calculations series has proved an invaluable reference for over forty years, for both apprentices and professional electrical installation engineers alike. The book provides a step-by-step guide to the successful application of electrical installation calculations required in day-to-day electrical engineering practice A step-by-step guide to everyday calculations used on the job An essential aid to the City & Guilds certificates at Levels 2 and 3 For apprentices and electrical installation engineers Now in its eighth edition, this book is in line with the amendments to the 17th Edition IET Wiring Regulations (BS 7671:2008) and references the material covered in the Wiring Regulations throughout. The content also meets the requirements of the latest Level 3 Diploma qualifications from City & Guilds (including the 2365 and 2357). Essential calculations which may not necessarily feature as part of the requirements of the syllabus are retained for electrical installation engineers and students wishing to progress to higher levels of study. Key terms are explained in a glossary section and worked examples and exercises are included throughout the text. A complete question and answer section is included at the back of the book to enable readers to check their understanding of the calculations presented.
Updated with the latest technology, machines, and controls in the industry, ELECTRIC MOTOR CONTROL, 10E delivers comprehensive coverage and practical insight for anyone who will install, monitor, and/or maintain motor controls. Extremely reader friendly, the book begins by introducing the simplest of equipment and then helps you build on your knowledge as you learn step by step how to draw and interpret motor control schematic diagrams. Subsequent units offer detailed coverage of motor control components and how they are connected to form complete control circuits. The book ends with troubleshooting techniques that provide real-world practice.
Pragmatic Circuits: DC and Time Domain deals primarily with circuits and how they function, beginning with a review of Kirchhoff's and Ohm's Laws analysis of d-c circuits and op-amps, and the sinusoidal steady state. The author then looks at formal circuit analysis through nodal and mesh equations. Useful theorems like Thevenin are added to the circuits toolbox. This first of three volumes ends with a chapter on design. The two follow-up volumes in the Pragmatic Circuits series include titles on Frequency Domain and Signals and Filters. These short lecture books will be of use to students at any level of electrical engineering and for practicing engineers, or scientists, in any field looking for a practical and applied introduction to circuits and signals. The author's "pragmatic" and applied style gives a unique and helpful "non-idealistic, practical, opinionated" introduction to circuits.
This textbook is intended for engineering students taking courses in power electronics, renewable energy sources, smart grids or static power converters. It is also appropriate for students preparing a capstone project where they need to understand, model, supply, control and specify the grid side power converters. The main goal of the book is developing in students the skills that are required to design, control and use static power converters that serve as an interface between the ac grid and renewable power sources. The same skills can be used to design, control and use the static power converters used within the micro-grids and nano-grids, as the converters that provide the interface between such grids and the external grid. The author's approach starts with basic functionality and the role of grid connected power converters in their typical applications, and their static and dynamic characteristics. Particular effort is dedicated to developing simple, concise, intuitive and easy-to-use mathematical models that summarize the essence of the grid side converter dynamics. Mathematics is reduced to a necessary minimum, solved examples are used extensively to introduce new concepts, and exercises are used to test mastery of new skills.
This book focuses on the two-phase flow problems relevant in the automotive and power generation sectors. It includes fundamental studies on liquid-gas two-phase interactions, nucleate and film boiling, condensation, cavitation, suspension flows as well as the latest developments in the field of two-phase problems pertaining to power generation systems. It also discusses the latest analytical, numerical and experimental techniques for investigating the role of two-phase flows in performance analysis of devices like combustion engines, gas turbines, nuclear reactors and fuel cells. The wide scope of applications of this topic makes this book of interest to researchers and professionals alike.
This book focusses on power quality improvement and enhancement techniques with aid of intelligent controllers and experimental results. It covers topics ranging from the fundamentals of power quality indices, mitigation methods, advanced controller design and its step by step approach, simulation of the proposed controllers for real time applications and its corresponding experimental results, performance improvement paradigms and its overall analysis, which helps readers understand power quality from its fundamental to experimental implementations. The book also covers implementation of power quality improvement practices. Key Features Provides solution for the power quality improvement with intelligent techniques Incorporated and Illustrated with simulation and experimental results Discusses renewable energy integration and multiple case studies pertaining to various loads Combines the power quality literature with power electronics based solutions Includes implementation examples, datasets, experimental and simulation procedures
This book describes advanced research results on Modeling and Control designs for Fuel Cells and their hybrid energy systems. Filled with simulation examples and test results, it provides detailed discussions on Fuel Cell Modeling, Analysis, and Nonlinear control. Beginning with an introduction to Fuel Cells and Fuel Cell Power Systems, as well as the fundamentals of Fuel Cell Systems and their components, it then presents the Linear and Nonlinear modeling of Fuel Cell Dynamics. Typical approaches of Linear and Nonlinear Modeling and Control Design methods for Fuel Cells are also discussed. The authors explore the Simulink implementation of Fuel Cells, including the modeling of PEM Fuel Cells and Control Designs. They cover the applications of Fuel cells in vehicles, utility power systems, and stand-alone systems, which integrate Fuel Cells, Wind Power, and Solar Power. Mathematical preliminaries on Linear and Nonlinear Control are provided in an appendix.
An invaluable academic reference for the area of high-power converters, covering all the latest developments in the field High-power multilevel converters are well known in industry and academia as one of the preferred choices for efficient power conversion. Over the past decade, several power converters have been developed and commercialized in the form of standard and customized products that power a wide range of industrial applications. Currently, the modular multilevel converter is a fast-growing technology and has received wide acceptance from both industry and academia. Providing adequate technical background for graduate- and undergraduate-level teaching, this book includes a comprehensive analysis of the conventional and advanced modular multilevel converters employed in motor drives, HVDC systems, and power quality improvement. Modular Multilevel Converters: Analysis, Control, and Applications provides an overview of high-power converters, reference frame theory, classical control methods, pulse width modulation schemes, advanced model predictive control methods, modeling of ac drives, advanced drive control schemes, modeling and control of HVDC systems, active and reactive power control, power quality problems, reactive power, harmonics and unbalance compensation, modeling and control of static synchronous compensators (STATCOM) and unified power quality compensators. Furthermore, this book: Explores technical challenges, modeling, and control of various modular multilevel converters in a wide range of applications such as transformer and transformerless motor drives, high voltage direct current transmission systems, and power quality improvement Reflects the latest developments in high-power converters in medium-voltage motor drive systems Offers design guidance with tables, charts graphs, and MATLAB simulations Modular Multilevel Converters: Analysis, Control, and Applications is a valuable reference book for academic researchers, practicing engineers, and other professionals in the field of high power converters. It also serves well as a textbook for graduate-level students.
This book presents a comprehensive set of techniques that enhance all key aspects of a modern Virtual Prototype (VP)-based design flow. The authors emphasize automated formal verification methods, as well as advanced coverage-guided analysis and testing techniques, tailored for SystemC-based VPs and also the associated Software (SW). Coverage also includes VP modeling techniques that handle functional as well as non-functional aspects and also describes correspondence analyses between the Hardware- and VP-level to utilize information available at different levels of abstraction. All approaches are discussed in detail and are evaluated extensively, using several experiments to demonstrate their effectiveness in enhancing the VP-based design flow. Furthermore, the book puts a particular focus on the modern RISC-V ISA, with several case-studies covering modeling as well as VP and SW verification aspects.
This book provides a comparative analysis of both diesel and gasoline engine particulates, and also of the emissions resulting from the use of alternative fuels. Written by respected experts, it offers comprehensive insights into motor vehicle particulates, their formation, composition, location, measurement, characterisation and toxicology. It also addresses exhaust-gas treatment and legal, measurement-related and technological advancements concerning emissions. The book will serve as a valuable resource for academic researchers and professional automotive engineers alike.
This book presents theoretical aspects of short-circuit performance of power transformers, transformer testing experiences, short current testing laboratories and high-voltage thyristor valves for electrodynamic testing. The questions of the original application experience of LVI-testing, Frequency Response Analysis (FRA) to check the condition of transformer windings, infra-red control, ultraviolet control, and Partial Discharges (PD) for the insulation monitoring of electrical equipment are examined in this book. The LVI method and short-circuit inductive reactance measurements are sensitive for detecting such faults as radial and axial winding deformations, a twisting of low-voltage or regulating winding, a loss of winding pressing, etc. The most important elements of "intellectual networks" (Smart Grid) are the systems for monitoring the parameters of electrical equipment. Information-measuring systems (IMS), which are described in this paper, were proposed to be used together with rapid digital protection against short-circuit regimes in transformer windings. Short-circuit performance of power transformers, transformer testing experience, short current testing laboratories and high-voltage thyristor valve for electrodynamic test of power transformer are examined in this book. High-voltage electrical equipment with the SF6 (sulfur hexafluoride) gas insulation, analysis of accident rate and service experience are represented. Estimation of the technical condition state of substation electrical equipment with the use of software and information tools allows for increasing the effectiveness of technical diagnostics and reliability of electrical equipment in service. The following diagnostic models for evaluating the technical condition state of electrical equipment are examined: model of the electrodynamic stability (mechanical state) of the transformer and reactor windings, multi-frequency diagnostic model of n-layer paper-oil insulation and model of the drift of temperatures of the bus arrangement of transformer. Monitoring, control and analysis of breakdowns of overhead transmission lines (6-500 V) in the Middle Volga region have been analysed. The book is based on the previous author's researches. The author has more than 200 scientific and technical publications. The main research interests concentrate on the field of transformer short-circuit testing, transformer winding fault diagnostic, Frequency Response Analysis, mart Grid and information-measuring systems.
Distance protection provides the basis for network protection in
transmission systems and meshed distribution systems. This book
covers the fundamentals of distance protection and the special
features of numerical technology. The emphasis is placed on the
application of numerical distance relays in distribution and
Small Hydroelectric Engineering Practice is a comprehensive reference book covering all aspects of identifying, building, and operating hydroelectric schemes between 500 kW and 50 MW. In this range of outputs there are many options for all aspects of the scheme and it is very important that the best options are chosen. As small hydroelectric schemes are usually built against a limited budget it is extremely important that the concept design is optimum and every component is designed to maximise the benefi t and minimise the cost. As operating costs are often a high proportion of the income it is very important to make sure that everything is designed to be simple, reliable and long lasting. The book is based on the experience gained over 45 years on the overall and detailed design, construction and commissioning of more than 30 small hydropower schemes. It includes contributions from experts in the field of intakes, water diversion structures, geology, canals, painting and other aspects of hydropower development. It is intensely practical with many drawings and photographs of schemes designed and commissioned by Leyland Consultants and others. There are also sections on preparing specifi cations, tender assessment and operation and maintenance. The book includes a CD with spreadsheet programs for analysing aspects of small hydropower development and many arrangement drawings and detail designs for gates, penstocks, electrical systems and control systems. Typical specifi cations for generating plant are also included. The spreadsheets will be useful during the feasibility stage and the drawings will enable designers to scale the designs as needed for their own projects. Consultants, developers, designers, builders and operators of small hydroelectric schemes will find this book invaluable..
This book consolidates some of the most promising advanced smart grid functionalities and provides a comprehensive set of guidelines for their implementation/evaluation using DIgSILENT Power Factory. It includes specific aspects of modeling, simulation and analysis, for example wide-area monitoring, visualization and control, dynamic capability rating, real-time load measurement and management, interfaces and co-simulation for modeling and simulation of hybrid systems. It also presents key advanced features of modeling and automation of calculations using PowerFactory, such as the use of domain-specific (DSL) and DIgSILENT Programming (DPL) languages, and utilizes a variety of methodologies including theoretical explanations, practical examples and guidelines. Providing a concise compilation of significant outcomes by experienced users and developers of this program, it is a valuable resource for postgraduate students and engineers working in power-system operation and planning.
This book offers methods to improve energy access and support social and economic development through the appropriate and reliable design of isolated wind energy systems. The findings reported on wind based isolated power generation show that the proper match of turbine diameter and generator rating is vital, and is governed by the site wind resource and the load profile to be served. The methodology for sizing and selecting appropriate system parameters, taking into account the resource uncertainty, is demonstrated throughout the chapters of this monograph. Readers will discover information on the methodologies for modelling, design and optimization of the systems in terms of safety, functionality, longevity, and practicality. Details are provided on the design space of wind-battery systems, multiple wind generator systems, and wind-PV-battery hybrids to cover all the bases of isolated wind energy systems. This monograph aims to serve as a guide to system developers, manufacturers, and financing institutions on the design aspects of isolated wind energy systems.
The expected end of the "oil age" will lead to increasing focus and reliance on alternative energy conversion devices, among which fuel cells have the potential to play an important role. Not only can phosphoric acid and solid oxide fuel cells already efficiently convert today's fossil fuels, including methane, into electricity, but other types of fuel cells, such as polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells, have the potential to become the cornerstones of a possible future hydrogen economy. This handbook offers concise yet comprehensive coverage of the current state of fuel cell research and identifies key areas for future investigation. Internationally renowned specialists provide authoritative introductions to a wide variety of fuel cell types and hydrogen production technologies, and discuss materials and components for these systems. Sustainability and marketing considerations are also covered, including comparisons of fuel cells with alternative technologies.
The book provides an overview of the policy frameworks that have been employed to support offshore wind power, and their efficacy in nurturing sustainable cost reductions across the industry.A growing number of countries are increasingly receptive to the prospect of implementing policies to support the deployment of large-scale renewable energy. The promise of carbon-free, utility-scale power generation from offshore wind farms has incentivised and nurtured offshore wind development. However, the high relative costs of deploying offshore wind compared to alternatives have a history of making it political divisive pursuit. At the same time when many countries are just beginning to explore the possibility of developing an offshore wind industry, many other countries are experiencing what can be described as policy fatigue over supporting offshore wind. If cost reductions are not proven sustainable by the early 2020's, then government support for offshore wind may start to erode and even completely evaporate in several key offshore wind markets - with global repercussions. This book will provide the reader with a clear picture of the current status and future challenges of the offshore wind industry globally, incorporating both a technical analysis of the cost drivers as well as a detailed analysis of policy design and economics of industry.
This thesis describes the research done regarding communication reliability when using the Internet to realize the communications for cyber-physical systems (CPSs). In a nutshell, the book first presents the obtained results from real-world measurements describing the reliability of today's Internet in terms of the availability and diversity of a wide set of end-to-end paths in the Internet. After that, the book describes a new approach along with its realization as a transport protocol to improve reliability and enable the utilization of Internet within future CPSs. In the first chapters of the book, the need for reliable communication to realize CPSs and the challenges of using the Internet as a communication network for such systems are described. The existing literature is analyzed after that and the identified research gap is highlighted. The proposed approach along with conducted measurements to evaluate it are described in the remaining chapters of the book.
Energy storage technology has great potential to improve electric power grids, to enable growth in renewable electricity generation, and to provide alternatives to oil-derived fuels in the nation's transportation sector. In the electric power system, the promise of this technology lies in its potential to increase grid efficiency and reliability, optimizing power flows and supporting variable power supplies from wind and solar generation. In transportation, vehicles powered by batteries or other electric technologies have the potential to displace vehicles burning gasoline and diesel fuel, reducing associated emissions and demand for oil. This book summarizes the current state of knowledge regarding energy storage technologies for both electric power grid and electric vehicle applications. It also addresses the significant policy, market, and other non-technical factors that may impede storage adoption, and considers eight major categories of storage technology; pumped hydro, compressed air, batteries, capacitors, superconducting magnetic energy storage, flywheels, thermal storage, and hydrogen.
The rather specialized field of solar and infrared radiation measurements has become increasingly important due to the increased demands by the renewable energy and climate change research communities for data with higher accuracy and increased temporal and spatial resolutions. Recent advances in radiometry, measurement systems, and information dissemination also have increased the need for refreshing the literature available for this topic. This book provides the reader with an up-to-date review of the important aspects of solar and infrared radiation measurements: radiometer design; equipment installation, operation, maintenance, and calibration; data quality assessment parameters; and the knowledge necessary to properly interpret and apply the measured data to a variety of topics. Each of the authors has more than 40 years of experience with this subject, primarily as the result of developing and operating multiple measurement stations, working with the industry to improve radiometry, and conducting various research projects. The book's scope and subject matter have been designed to help a wide audience gain a general understanding of this subject and to serve as a technical reference. A student new to the field will benefit from the review of terminology and the historical perspective for radiometry before addressing more detailed topics in radiometry that we hope will be of interest to the more experienced reader. Describes the strengths and weaknesses of irradiance instruments Provides detailed information on how to assess uncertainty in measurements Offers comprehensive background information needed to understand the use of solar instrumentation Discusses design concepts for shadowband radiometers, sky imagers, and satellite-based estimates of solar irradiance at the Earth's surface Includes chapter-end questions, references, and useful links
The liberalization process, tightening environmental standards and the need for replacing aged power plants force European utilities to optimize their future generation mix. Power plants are real assets and as a consequence the power plant park of a utility firm equals a portfolio of different generation assets. This thesis adds to the understanding how to identify an efficient generation portfolio through time by assuming a non-constant feasible set. According to our results a combination of conventional thermal and renewable energies turn out to be efficient in terms of expected value and risks. Therefore, implementing a strategy based on renewable energies which cause less CO2 per MWh generated electricity clearly pays off. Potential readership includes scholars from energy economics and energy finance as well as interested practitioners involved in these areas.
Within the marine and offshore industry, there is a clear and growing need for increased training and education on the use of electrical power systems. The number of electrical plant and appliances now in service has grown at an alarming rate in recent years, as has the amount of electrical power generated and utilised on board. Large passenger ships now carry as many electrical officers as marine engineers, and electrical propulsion is now in common use by LNG carriers, small parcel tankers, oil tankers, ferries, offshore support, the navy, fleet auxiliary, cable layers and cruise ships. A number of shipping companies now award the Chief Electro Technical Officer the equivalent rank to the ship's master and Chief Engineer. These developments have resulted in the establishment of a Foundation Degree programme for Electro Technical Officers and the current development of full degree programmes. As such, a targeted textbook for students on the subject is required. As with all titles in the Reeds Marine Engineering Series, this book will be written in clear, accessible language, so as to be of use to all students and particularly those for whom English isn't their first language. Technical drawings and diagrams will be used throughout and each chapter will be accompanied by example examination questions.
Ensure Your Jobs Comply with Important Safety Standards with Ugly's Electrical Safety and NFPA 70E (R), 2015 Edition! Ugly's Electrical Safety and NFPA 70E (R), 2015 Edition is the market leading pocket-sized reference manual for electrical safety. Based on NFPA 70E 2015, this new edition summarizes current OSHA regulations as well as the National Electrical Code (R). Designed for electricians, engineers, contractors, designers, maintenance workers, inspectors, instructors, and students, this invaluable resource provides fast access to the most commonly referenced sections of the latest NFPA 70E and related safety standards. Important updates in the 2015 NFPA 70E include: * Arc flash hazard analysis is now arc flash risk assessment * Hazard/risk category (HRC) is now arc flash PPE category * A new table has been added to identify when arc flash PPE is required * A new table has been added to determine the arc flash PPE category
Finally filling a gap in the literature for a text that also adopts the chemist's view of this hot topic, Professor Likhtenshtein, an experienced author and internationally renowned scientist, considers different physical and engineering aspects in solar energy conversion. From theory to real-life systems, he shows exactly which chemical reactions take place when converting light energy, providing an overview of the chemical perspective from fundamentals to molecular harvesting systems and solar cells. This essential guide will thus help researchers in academia and industry better understand solar energy conversion, and so ultimately help this promising, multibillion dollar fi eld to expand. From the contents: * Electron Transfer Theories * Principle Stages of Photosynthetic Light Energy Conversion * Photochemical Systems of Light Energy Conversion * Redox Processes on Surface of Semiconductors and Metals * Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells * Photocatalytic Reduction and Oxidation of Water
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