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In this comprehensive work, experts in the field detail recent advances in medical and biological microwave sensors and systems, with chapters on topics such as implantable sensors, wearable microwave tags, and UWB technology. Each chapter explores the theory behind the technology, as well as its design and implementation. This is supported by practical examples and details of experimental results, along with discussion of system design, design trade-offs, and possible constraints and manufacturing issues. Applications described include intracranial pressure monitoring, vital signs monitoring, and non-invasive molecular and cellular investigations. Presenting new research and advances in the field, and focusing on the state of the art in medical and biological microwave sensors, this work is an invaluable resource for enthusiastic researchers and practicing engineers in the fields of electrical engineering, biomedical engineering, and medical physics.
The 'go-to' text for non-specialists requiring a serious introduction to radio. Designed for those without a specialist theoretical background in electronic and electromagnetic engineering, it uses a holistic, physics-based approach to describe the theory underpinning radio science and engineering. It covers a wide range of topics, from fundamentals such as radio wave theory, the electronics of radio, antennas, and radio wave propagation, to software radio, spread spectrum, and MIMO. With a wealth of practical exercises and examples accompanying the book online, this is the ideal text for graduate students, professionals and researchers who work on radio systems and need to understand both the science and practice of radio.
Do you design and build vacuum electron devices, or work with the systems that use them? Quickly develop a solid understanding of how these devices work with this authoritative guide, written by an author with over fifty years of experience in the field. Rigorous in its approach, it focuses on the theory and design of commercially significant types of gridded, linear-beam, crossed-field and fast-wave tubes. Essential components such as waveguides, resonators, slow-wave structures, electron guns, beams, magnets and collectors are also covered, as well as the integration and reliable operation of devices in microwave and RF systems. Complex mathematical analysis is kept to a minimum, and Mathcad worksheets supporting the book online aid understanding of key concepts and connect the theory with practice. Including coverage of primary sources and current research trends, this is essential reading for researchers, practitioners and graduate students working on vacuum electron devices.
Wearable antennas are meant to be incorporated as part of clothing or placed close to the body. Wearable antennas can be used in countless communication applications including tracking and navigation, medical applications, imaging and detection, RFID, mobile computing and public safety. The book "Novel Wearable Antennas for Communication and Medical Systems" discusses the challenges and technology to develop compact, efficient, wearable antennas. The book begins by presenting elementary communication, electromagnetics and antenna topics needed for engineers and students that do not have a background in design, principles, and features of antennas, printed antennas, wearable antennas, and compact antennas for communication and medical applications. Throughout the book each chapter also covers sufficient mathematical details, physical details and explanations to enable the reader to follow and understand the topics presented. New topics and design methods in the area of wearable antennas, metamaterial antennas, active printed antennas and fractal antennas for communication and medical systems are presented and discussed throughout the book. The book presents computed and measured results in the vicinity of the human body. The book also covers topics such as RF measurement techniques, measurement setups and design considerations. The antennas developed and analyzed in this book were designed and optimized by using 3D full-wave electromagnetics software.
Dosimetry refers to the calculation and assessment of the radiation dose received by the human body. The proposed book will place emphasis on the existence of physical and biophysical dosimetry. It will be discussed for the proper description and evaluation of the signal at the power generation system. It will cover in detail 10 different parameters of EMF (electromagnetism) exposure such as amplitude, frequency, vector, time of exposure, orientation, etc. In most published papers, these parameters are not well defined.
With this self-contained, introductory text, readers will easily understand the fundamentals of microwave and radar image generation. Written with the complete novice in mind, and including an easy-to-follow introduction to electromagnetic scattering theory, it covers key topics such as forward models of scattering for interpreting S-parameter and time-dependent voltage data, S-parameters and their analytical sensitivity formulae, basic methods for real-time image reconstruction using frequency-sweep and pulsed-radar signals, and metrics for evaluating system performance. Numerous application examples and practical tutorial exercises provided throughout allow quick understanding of key concepts, and sample MATLAB codes implementing key reconstruction algorithms accompany the book online. This one-stop resource is ideal for graduate students taking introductory courses in microwave imaging, as well as researchers and industry professionals wanting to learn the fundamentals of the field.
Fundamentals of Applied Electromagnetics is intended for use in one- or two-semester courses in electromagnetics. It also serves as a reference for engineers. Widely acclaimed both in the U.S. and abroad, this authoritative text bridges the gap between circuits and new electromagnetics material. Ulaby begins coverage with transmission lines, leading students from familiar concepts into more advanced topics and applications. A user-friendly approach, full-color figures and images, and a set of interactive simulations will help readers understand the concepts presented.
This thesis proposes a reliable and repeatable method for implementing Spoof Surface Plasmon (SSP) modes in the design of various circuit components. It also presents the first equivalent circuit model for plasmonic structures, which serves as an insightful guide to designing SSP-based circuits. Today, electronic circuits and systems are developing rapidly and becoming an indispensable part of our daily life; however the issue of compactness in integrated circuits remains a formidable challenge. Recently, the Spoof Surface Plasmon (SSP) modes have been proposed as a novel platform for highly compact electronic circuits. Despite extensive research efforts in this area, there is still an urgent need for a systematic design method for plasmonic circuits. In this thesis, different SSP-based transmission lines, antenna feeding networks and antennas are designed and experimentally evaluated. With their high field confinement, the SSPs do not suffer from the compactness limitations of traditional circuits and are capable of providing an alternative platform for the future generation of electronic circuits and electromagnetic systems.
Drawing on over twenty years of teaching experience, this comprehensive yet self-contained text provides an in-depth introduction to the field of integrated microwave electronics. Ideal for a first course on the subject, it covers essential topics such as passive components and transistors, linear, low-noise and power amplifiers, and microwave measurements. An entire chapter is devoted to CAD techniques for analysis and design, covering examples of easy-to-medium difficulty for both linear and non-linear subsystems, and supported online by ADS and AWR project files. More advanced topics are also covered, providing an up-to-date overview of compound semiconductor technologies and treatment of electromagnetic issues and models. Readers can test their knowledge with end-of-chapter questions and numerical problems, and solutions and lecture slides are available online for instructors. This is essential reading for graduate and senior undergraduate students taking courses in microwave, radio-frequency and high-frequency electronics, as well as professional microwave engineers.
This engaging text offers an accessible and clear treatment of the fundamentals of electromagnetics and optics, a core part of the standard undergraduate physics curriculum. Starting with static electric and magnetic fields, the book works through electromagnetic oscillations and the formation and propagation of electromagnetic waves, before moving on to geometric and wave optics, optical instrumentation and some discussion of new technologies in optics. The text is written from the experimental physics point of view, giving numerous real life examples and applications of devices. This highly motivating presentation deepens the knowledge in a very accessible way, carefully interweaving theory and practical applications. Students are guided through the material with well-chosen examples and case studies, and helpful chapter summaries are provided together with numerous exercises and detailed solutions, all intended to motivate and develop a well-founded understanding of the subject matter.
This volume comprises chapters on the cutting-edge research in photonics undertaken at IIT Kanpur. Photonics requires scientists and engineers to work closely together in addressing challenges which are interdisciplinary in nature. At IIT Kanpur, research is being pursued in several key areas of photonics namely fiber-optics, nanophotonics, quantum optics, optical spectroscopy and imaging, biophotonics, and photonic devices. This volume brings together contributions from experts to obtain a contemporary perspective in photonics research. The reader will find articles about coherent optical communications, novel photonic nanostructures, nano-structured materials for light control, optical tweezers with nanoscale applications, quantum coherence and entanglement, photodiode arrays and quantum metrology. The volume also includes chapters on cancer diagnostics with optical tomography, protein fluctuations at microsecond scale at single-molecule level, and visualization of motion in a droplet which are interdisciplinary in nature. The contents of this book will be of use to researchers, students, and professionals working across all domains of photonics.
Microwave and radio frequency (RF) elements play an important role in communication systems, and, due to the proliferation of radar, satellite and mobile wireless systems, there is a need for the study of electromagnetism. Each of the nine chapters of this book provides a complete analysis and modeling of the microwave structure used for emission or reception technology, providing students with a set of approaches that can be used for current and future RF and microwave circuit designs. The authors emphasize the practical nature of the subject by summarizing the analysis steps and giving numerous examples of problems and exercises complete with solutions, making this book theoretical, but also experimental, with over 16 microwave problems. This approach has produced a coherent and practical treatment of the subject. The book has grown out of the authors own teaching and, as such, has a unity of methodology and style. It provides basic knowledge of microwave and RF range and is intended for microwave engineers and for advanced graduate students.
This book presents the dispersion relation in heavily doped nano-structures. The materials considered are III-V, II-VI, IV-VI, GaP, Ge, Platinum Antimonide, stressed, GaSb, Te, II-V, HgTe/CdTe superlattices and Bismuth Telluride semiconductors. The dispersion relation is discussed under magnetic quantization and on the basis of carrier energy spectra. The influences of magnetic field, magneto inversion, and magneto nipi structures on nano-structures is analyzed. The band structure of optoelectronic materials changes with photo-excitation in a fundamental way according to newly formulated electron dispersion laws. They control the quantum effect in optoelectronic devices in the presence of light. The measurement of band gaps in optoelectronic materials in the presence of external photo-excitation is displayed. The influences of magnetic quantization, crossed electric and quantizing fields, intense electric fields on the on the dispersion relation in heavily doped semiconductors and super-lattices are also discussed. This book contains 200 open research problems which form the integral part of the text and are useful for graduate students and researchers. The book is written for post graduate students, researchers and engineers.
This reference provides a complete discussion of the conversion from standard lead-tin to lead-free solder microelectronic assemblies for low-end and high-end applications. Written by more than 45 world-class researchers and practitioners, the book discusses general reliability issues concerning microelectronic assemblies, as well as factors specific to the tin-rich replacement alloys commonly utilized in lead-free solders. It provides real-world manufacturing accounts of the introduction of reduced-lead and lead-free technology and discusses the functionality and cost effectiveness of alternative solder alloys and non-solder alternatives replacing lead-tin solders in microelectronics.
Build high-performance, spectrally clean, energy-efficient mm-wave power amplifiers and transmitters with this cutting-edge guide to designing, modeling, analysing, implementing and testing new mm-wave systems. Suitable for students, researchers and practicing engineers, this self-contained guide provides in-depth coverage of state-of-the-art semiconductor devices and technologies, linear and nonlinear power amplifier technologies, efficient power combining systems, circuit concepts, system architectures and system-on-a-chip realizations. The world's foremost experts from industry and academia cover all aspects of the design process, from device technologies to system architectures. Accompanied by numerous case studies highlighting practical design techniques, tradeoffs and pitfalls, this is a superb resource for those working with high-frequency systems.
Recent advances in theory and observations using passive microwave remote sensing have hightlighted the potential of spaceborne sensors for contributing to the required land surface measurements of soils, vegetation, snow cover and precipitation. Furthermore, the spatial resolution of passive microwave observations matches the special scales of large-scale models of land-atmosphere interactions both for data assimilation and validation. In order to stimulate and focus this research a workshop, sponsored by ESA and NASA, was organized to review the state-of-the-art in microwave radiometry related to land applications and to exchange ideas leading into new directions for future research. This volume contains the refereed papers from the aforementioned ESA/NASA workshop, which are arranged by topic, as well as the (edited) working group reports.
Learn how envelope tracking, polar modulation, and hybrid designs using these techniques, really work. The first physically based and coherent book to bring together a complete overview of such circuit techniques, this is an invaluable resource for practising engineers, researchers and graduate students working on RF power amplifiers and transmitters. Learn how to create more successful designs. * Step-by-step design guidelines and real world case studies show you how to put these techniques into practice * A survey of how various transistor technologies help you to choose which transistor type to use for best results * Detail on the test and measurement of all aspects of these designs explains how to measure what the circuit is actually doing and how to interpret measurement results.
This book provides an overview of the current state of the art in novel piezo-composites based on ferroelectrics. Covering aspects ranging from theoretical materials simulation and manufacturing and characterization methods, to the application and performance of these materials, it focuses on the optimization of the material parameters. Presenting the latest findings on modern composites and highlighting the applications of piezoelectric materials for sensors, transducers and hydro-acoustics, the book addresses an important gap in the physics of active dielectrics and materials science and describes new trends in the research on ferroelectric composites.
With a design-centric approach, this textbook bridges the gap between fundamental analog electronic circuit textbooks and more advanced RF IC design texts. The major issues that must be taken into account when combining analog and digital circuit building blocks are covered, together with the key criteria and parameters that are used to describe system-level performance. Simple circuit models enable a robust understanding of high-frequency design fundamentals, and SPICE simulations are used to check results and fine-tune the design. With solved design examples to guide the reader through the decision process that accompanies each design task, this is an ideal textbook for senior undergraduate and graduate courses in RF CMOS circuits, RF circuit design, and high-frequency analog circuit design. Analog integrated circuit designers and RF circuit designers in industry who need help making design choices will also find this a practical and valuable reference.
Discover the nonlinear methods and tools needed to design real-world microwave circuits with this tutorial guide. Balancing theoretical background with practical tools and applications, it covers everything from the basic properties of nonlinear systems such as gain compression, intermodulation and harmonic distortion, to nonlinear circuit analysis and simulation algorithms, and state-of-the-art equivalent circuit and behavioral modeling techniques. Model formulations discussed in detail include time-domain transistor compact models and frequency-domain linear and nonlinear scattering models. Learn how to apply these tools to designing real circuits with the help of a power amplifier design example, which covers all stages from active device model extraction and the selection of bias and terminations, through to performance verification. Realistic examples, illustrative insights and clearly conveyed mathematical formalism make this an essential learning aid for both professionals working in microwave and RF engineering and graduate students looking for a hands-on guide to microwave circuit design.
This book is a practical guide to optical, optoelectronic, and semiconductor materials and provides an overview of the topic from its fundamentals to cutting-edge processing routes to groundbreaking technologies for the most recent applications. The book details the characterization and properties of these materials. Chemical methods of synthesis are emphasized by the authors throughout the publication. Describes new materials and updates to older materials that exhibit optical, optoelectronic and semiconductor behaviors; Covers the structural and mechanical aspects of the optical, optoelectronic and semiconductor materials for meeting mechanical property and safety requirements; Includes discussion of the environmental and sustainability issues regarding optical, optoelectronic, and semiconductor materials, from processing to recycling.
This book provides a basic understanding of spectroscopic ellipsometry, with a focus on characterization methods of a broad range of solar cell materials/devices, from traditional solar cell materials (Si, CuInGaSe2, and CdTe) to more advanced emerging materials (Cu2ZnSnSe4, organics, and hybrid perovskites), fulfilling a critical need in the photovoltaic community. The book describes optical constants of a variety of semiconductor light absorbers, transparent conductive oxides and metals that are vital for the interpretation of solar cell characteristics and device simulations. It is divided into four parts: fundamental principles of ellipsometry; characterization of solar cell materials/structures; ellipsometry applications including optical simulations of solar cell devices and online monitoring of film processing; and the optical constants of solar cell component layers.
This volume presents the selected papers of the First International Conference on Fundamental Research in Electrical Engineering, held at Khwarazmi University, Tehran, Iran in July, 2017. The selected papers cover the whole spectrum of the main four fields of Electrical Engineering (Electronic, Telecommunications, Control, and Power Engineering).
This fourth edition of the text reflects the continuing increase in awareness and use of computational electromagnetics and incorporates advances and refinements made in recent years. Most notable among these are the improvements made to the standard algorithm for the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method and treatment of absorbing boundary conditions in FDTD, finite element, and transmission-line-matrix methods. It teaches the readers how to pose, numerically analyze, and solve EM problems, to give them the ability to expand their problem-solving skills using a variety of methods, and to prepare them for research in electromagnetism. Includes new homework problems in each chapter. Each chapter is updated with the current trends in CEM. Adds a new appendix on CEM codes, which covers commercial and free codes. Provides updated MATLAB code.
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