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This book provides the critical knowledge and technological bases required for meeting one of the ultimate engineering challenges: the design and construction of smart structures and systems. Research in smart materials and structures seeks to apply multifunctional capabilities of new and existing materials to develop structures and systems that are capable of self-sensing and monitoring, self-diagnosis and prognosis with intelligence, self-healing and repair, and adaptive response to prevent loss of human life and catastrophe, to minimize maintenance and life-cycle costs, and to prolong service life. The papers contained herein, representing the state-of-the-art in the field, were presented at the World Forum on Smart Materials and Smart Structures Technology (SMSS) held in Chongqing and Nanjing, China on May 22-27, 2007.
This new edition describes the state of the art regarding metal complexes of N4-ligands, such as porphyrins and phthalocyanines. Volume 2 focuses on the electro assisted use of N4 complexes as biomimetic models for studying several biological redox processes. It focuses on molecular oxygen transport and catalytic activation to mimic monooxygenase enzymes of the cytochrome P450 in particular. It also examines N4 complexes' use as catalysts for the oxidative degradation of various types of pollutants (organo-halides, for example) and residual wastes. The remarkable activity of these complexes towards a large number of significantly relevant biological compounds makes them excellent candidates as electrode modifiers for electrochemical sensing. This volume also discusses applications of N4 Macrocyclic Metal Complexes to photoelectrochemistry and photocatalysis, and concludes with an exciting section on Electrosynthesis of N4.
This book provides a review of the latest research findings and key applications in the field of nanomaterials. The book contains twelve chapters on different aspects of nanomaterials. It begins with key fundamental concepts to aid readers new to the discipline of nanomaterials, and then moves to the different types of nanomaterials studied. The book includes chapters based on the applications of nanomaterials for nano-biotechnology and solar energy. Overall, the book comprises chapters on a variety of topics on nanomaterials from expert authors across the globe. This book will appeal to researchers and professional alike, and may also be used as a reference for courses in nanomaterials.
This book presents select proceedings of the International Conference on Advanced Lightweight Materials and Structures (ICALMS) 2020, and discusses the triad of processing, structure, and various properties of lightweight materials. It provides a well-balanced insight into materials science and mechanics of both synthetic and natural composites. The book includes topics such as nano composites for lightweight structures, impact and failure of structures, biomechanics and biomedical engineering, nanotechnology and micro-engineering, tool design and manufacture for producing lightweight components, joining techniques for lightweight structures for similar and dissimilar materials, design for manufacturing, reliability and safety, robotics, automation and control, fatigue and fracture mechanics, and friction stir welding in lightweight sandwich structures. The book also discusses latest research in composite materials and their applications in the field of aerospace, construction, wind energy, automotive, electronics and so on. Given the range of topics covered, this book can be a useful resource for beginners, researchers and professionals interested in the wide ranging applications of lightweight structures.
As the name suggests this book discusses how nanotechnology has influenced the provision of implant treatment from surgery to prosthetic reconstruction and post treatment biological complications. This book is a sequel to the earlier book "Dental Applications of Nanotechnology" published by Springer. It aims to present both the nanotechnology and allied research along with the clinical concepts of almost every different aspect of implantology in one volume. These two fraternities promote the translation of the research ideas and product development into fruitful practicalities. The first section covers nanobiomaterials in implant applications, in bone regeneration, prosthetic rehabilitation, to control biofilm and peri-implantitis, bone grafting and tissue engineering. The second section explores applications of such new technologies in the field of implantology that gives this book a unique feature by bringing science and technology into clinical application. It covers implant stability, peri-implantitis, lasers, CAD/CAM technology, impressions, 3D printing, reconstruction with bone grafts and zygomatic implants. Comprehensive coverage includes both simple and complicated clinical cases, with practical guidance on how to apply the latest research, diagnostic tools, treatment planning, implant designs, materials, and techniques to provide superior patient outcomes. The book is well written and structured making it easy for experienced clinicians and those new to dental implantology as well as students, researchers, scientists and faculties of dental universities
This book deals with the synthesis of nanomaterials with a strong focus on the underlying reaction kinetics and various synthesis mechanisms. It gives a detailed description of all major synthesis routes of many types of novel nanomaterials including nanowires, carbon nanotubes, semiconductor nanotubes, carbon nanobelts, nanofibers, nanorings, nanodots and quantum dots. In addition, it articulates the fundamental mechanisms of nanomaterials synthesis via vapor-phase, liquid-phase and solid-phase processes, highlighting the various strengths and weaknesses of each mechanism. This monograph provides the reader with a thorough review of the known state-of-the-art, along with a detailed comparison and analysis of all possible nanomaterials synthesis mechanisms. An important element of the book is how to obtain critical knowledge for controlling the morphology of nanomaterials and thereby fine tune their materials properties. The book is an ideal guide for graduate students and researchers new to the field seeking to establish or enhance their understanding of the physical and chemical fundamentals of nanomaterials synthesis mechanisms.
This book summarizes many of the recent developments in the area of bamboo composites with emphasis on new challenges for the synthesis characterization, properties of bamboo composites and practical applications. The book provides an update of all the important areas of (synthesis, processing, properties and application) bamboo fibers and its composites in a comprehensive manner. The chapters contributed by leading researchers from industry, academy, government and private research institutions across the globe benefit academics, researchers, scientists, engineers and students in the field of natural fiber composites.
This volume contains the proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on the Micromechanics of Granular Media, Powders and Grains 2005. Powders and Grains is an international scientific conference held every 4 years that brings together engineers and physicists interested in the micromechanics of granular media. The book is a guide to the hottest topics in the general problem of the microscopic description and understanding of granulates. Powders and Grains offer an excellent overview of the state of the art research on granular media. Authors from all over the world and different backgrounds discuss their most up-to-date research interests and results in more than 280 concise articles. Included are experimental, numerical, and theoretical investigations by both engineers and physicists. The result is a valuable tool for engineers, physicists as well as for applied mathematicians, geologists, and other scientists concerned with problems ranging from the most basic and theoretical, to the daily problems of industry production, process performance or construction design.
This definitive guide to modern organic electro-optic and photonic technologies provides critical insight into recent advances in organic electro-optic materials, from the underlying quantum and statistical concepts through to the practical application of materials in modern devices and systems. * Introduces theoretical and experimental methods for improving organic electro-optic and photonic technologies * Reviews the central concepts of nonlinear optics, focusing on multi-scale theoretical methods * Provides clear insight into the structure and function relationships critical to optimizing the performance of devices based on organic electro-optic materials. Serving as a primer for the systematic nano-engineering of soft matter materials, this is an invaluable resource for those involved in the development of modern telecommunication, computing, and sensing technologies depending on electro-optic technology. It is also an indispensable work of reference for academic researchers and graduate students in the fields of chemistry, physics, electrical engineering, materials science and engineering, and chemical engineering.
Copper and its alloys have been utilized for more than 10,000 years. Today, copper is one of the most commonly used metals in the world; 24 million tons are consumed worldwide. A wide variety of copper alloys are used in a range of applications. As well as good mechanical properties, the excellent electrical conductivity and thermal conduction are reasons copper alloys are deployed in many industrial fields. Copper plays a role in electronic and electrical applications and all forms of heat transfer. In automobiles as well as in houses copper could not be replaced. In the sanitary industry copper and brass are well established, for example, drinking water pipes have been used for decades without problems. While the corrosion resistance of copper and its alloys is excellent in unpolluted air and drinking water, corrosion rates in impure environments can be much higher and lead to severe material damage. Corrosion is a system property, so it is important to find the right copper material with regard to the environmental conditions it will be exposed to. This handbook highlights the limitations of the use of copper and its alloys in various corrosive solutions and provides vital information on corrosion protection measures.
Advanced Polymeric Materials: Structure Property Relationships addresses the issues, characterization, durability, processing, and properties of state-of-the-art polymers. In chapters contributed by international experts-all in the vanguard of their respective specialties-it explores four distinct areas of the field that are now undergoing explosive growth: fiber reinforced composites, nanocomposites, polymer blends, and bioengineering. This welcome narrative treatment presents a unique, one-stop opportunity to discover the latest research on polymer modification from laboratories around the world.
The Handbook of Aluminum: Vol. 1: Physical Metallurgy and Processes covers all aspects of the physical metallurgy, analytical techniques, and processing of aluminium, including hardening, annealing, aging, property prediction, corrosion, residual stress and distortion, welding, casting, forging, molten metal processing, machining, rolling, and extrusion. It also features an extensive, chapter-length consideration of quenching.
The papers in this volume deal with materials science, theoretical mechanics and experimental and computational techniques at multiple scales, providing a sound base and a framework for many applications which are hitherto treated in a phenomenological sense. The basic principles are formulated of multiscale modeling strategies towards modern complex multiphase materials subjected to various types of mechanical, thermal loadings and environmental effects. The focus is on problems where mechanics is highly coupled with other concurrent physical phenomena. Attention is also focused on the historical origins of multiscale modeling and foundations of continuum mechanics currently adopted to model non-classical continua with substructure, for which internal length scales play a crucial role.
Highlighting a broad range multiscale modeling and methods for anticipating the morphologies and the properties of interfaces and multiphase materials, this reference covers the methodology of predicting polymer properties and its potential application to a wider variety of polymer types than previously thought possible. A comprehensive source, the book features discussions of the interplay between thermodynamic and kinetic factors in multiphase materials, analytical and numerical methods for predicting thermoelastic and transport properties of multiphase materials, mechanical properties under large deformation, and influence of interfaces via simulations.
Based on polymer conferences held in 1999 and 2001, Polymer Composites II: Composites Applications in Infrastructure Renewal and Economic Development is a collection of status reports, success stories, and new opportunities from specific composite applications in infrastructure renewal that provide insight to the resulting economic development and effects. This volume brings together multidisciplinary experts involved with polymer composites who validate their design, construction, and performance and present the role that composites play in infrastructure renewal, detail the technical and regualtory barriers, identify helpful agencies, and estimate the possibilities of economic development.
Aerospace Materials provides a grounding in state-of-the-art aerospace materials technology, including developments in aluminum, titanium, and nickel alloys, as well as polymers and polymer composites. Experts in each topic have contributed key overviews that summarize current knowledge and indicate future trends. The book begins by outlining the industrial applications to airframes, aeroengines, and spacecraft before delving systematically into specific materials. It examines lightweight materials and then focuses on materials suited to high-temperature applications. The book combines perspectives in physics, materials science, and mechanical and aeronautical engineering.
Humans first used carbon as chars from firewood in ritual paintings and primitive metallurgical processes. Natural forms of carbon have been known since antiquity, yet the knowledge of the carbon element in chemistry and its technical applications on a larger scale are a relatively recent development. The industrial revolution in Europe two centuries ago led the way to the numerous applications of these graphitic forms that are still used today. Graphite and Precursors features short tutorial articles on different topics related to the science and technology of carbons intended for engineers, students of Materials Science and scientists who are seeking a fundamental understanding without "reinventing the wheel." This first volume of the World of Carbon book series focuses on graphite and its precursors, including its origin and various implications. The basic properties of hexagonal graphite are developed, and several theoretical and experimental approaches explain why this crystalline solid is fascinating in solid state physics. Also featured are the numerous applications connected to thermal, mechanical and chemical graphites, as well as their various industrial uses in polycrystalline form. Finally, carbon precursors are introduced.
Revised and expanded for the second edition, this text details the principal concepts and developments in wood science, chemistry and technology. It includes new chapters on the chemical synthesis of cellulose and its technology, preservation of wood resources and the conservation of waterlogged wood.
Written by the founder of the field, this is the first text of its kind, providing a definitive introduction to structural DNA nanotechnology. Readers will learn everything there is to know about the subject from the unique perspective of the leading expert in the field. Topics covered range from origins and history, to design, experimental techniques, DNA nanomechanics devices, computing, and the uses of DNA nanotechnology in organising other materials. Clearly written, and benefiting from over 200 full colour illustrations, readers will find this an accessible and easy to follow text that is essential reading for anyone who wants to enter this rapidly growing field. Ideal for advanced undergraduate and graduate students, as well as researchers in a range of disciplines including nanotechnology, materials science, physics, biology, chemistry, computational science and engineering.
Focusing on the uses of lead in pure or alloy form for engineering applications, this text presents data on the physical, mechanical, corrosive, accoustic, damping and nuclear properties of lead and lead alloys. It organizes information according to alloy type in tables, graphs and text, and examines the processing of commercially available lead products, including casting, rolling, extrusion, machining, welding and mechanical joining techniques.
This standardization handbook has been developed and is being
maintained as a joint effort of the Department of Defense and the
Federal Aviation Administration. It provides guidelines and
material properties for polymer (organic) and metal matrix
composite materials. This handbook aims to provide a standard
source of statistically-based mechanical property data, procedures,
and overall materials guidelines for characterization of composite
Fluid Bed Technology in Materials Processing comprehensively covers the various aspects of fluidization engineering and presents an elaborate examination of the applications in a multitude of materials processing techniques. This singular resource discusses: -All the basic aspects of fluidization essential to understand and learn about various techniques -The range of industrial applications -Several examples in extraction and process metallurgy -Fluidization in nuclear engineering and nuclear fuel cycle with numerous examples -Innovative techniques and several advanced concepts of fluidization engineering, including use and applications in materials processing as well as environmental and bio-engineering -Pros and cons of various fluidization equipment and specialty of their applications, including several examples -Design aspects and modeling -Topics related to distributors effects and flow regimes A separate chapter outlines the importance of fluidization engineering in high temperature processing, including an analysis of the fundamental concepts and applications of high temperature fluidized bed furnaces for several advanced materials processing techniques. Presenting information usually not available in a single source, Fluid Bed Technology in Materials Processing serves -Fluidization engineers -Practicing engineers in process metallurgy, mineral engineering, and chemical metallurgy -Researchers in the field of chemical, metallurgical, nuclear, biological, environmental engineering -Energy engineering professionals -High temperature scientists and engineers -Students and professionals who adopt modeling of fluidization in their venture for design and scale up
Plastics and rubber materials, or polymers, are increasingly the first choice of engineers when reliable, cost-effective performance and safety are essential. The volume of polymers used in the Western economy now exceeds that of metals, which requires today's engineering students to have a thorough grounding in the properties and applications of polymeric materials. The first chapters of Engineering with Polymers explain what polymers are, how they behave, and how articles are made from them. The authors then show how the standard engineering techniques of stress analysis, structures, fluid mechanics, heat transfer and design can be adopted or adapted to cover plastics and rubber materials. The book ends with chapters detailing interactions between processing and properties, and a description of a variety of approaches to designing plastics products, from practical advice to the use or further development of theoretical principles, backed up by examples and case studies. The book is aimed at mechanical engineering students and design engineers in industry and also at materials' and chemical engineers.
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