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As the ability to produce nanomaterials advances, it becomes more important to understand how the energy of the atoms in these materials is affected by their reduced dimensions. Written by an acclaimed author team, Kinetics in Nanoscale Materials is the first book to discuss simple but effective models of the systems and processes that have recently been discovered. The text provides researchers and graduate students with a combination of the novelty of nanoscale processes and systems with the transparency of mathematical models and generality of basic ideas relating to nanoscience and nanotechnology.
"Made to Measure" introduces a general audience to one of today's most exciting areas of scientific research: materials science. Philip Ball describes how scientists are currently inventing thousands of new materials, ranging from synthetic skin, blood, and bone to substances that repair themselves and adapt to their environment, that swell and flex like muscles, that repel any ink or paint, and that capture and store the energy of the Sun. He shows how all this is being accomplished precisely because, for the first time in history, materials are being "made to measure": designed for particular applications, rather than discovered in nature or by haphazard experimentation. Now scientists literally put new materials together on the drawing board in the same way that a blueprint is specified for a house or an electronic circuit. But the designers are working not with skylights and alcoves, not with transistors and capacitors, but with molecules and atoms.
This book is written in the same engaging manner as Ball's popular book on chemistry, "Designing the Molecular World," and it links insights from chemistry, biology, and physics with those from engineering as it outlines the various areas in which new materials will transform our lives in the twenty-first century. The chapters provide vignettes from a broad range of selected areas of materials science and can be read as separate essays. The subjects include photonic materials, materials for information storage, smart materials, biomaterials, biomedical materials, materials for clean energy, porous materials, diamond and hard materials, new polymers, and surfaces and interfaces.
Mercury cadmium telluride (MCT) is the third most well-regarded semiconductor after silicon and gallium arsenide and is the material of choice for use in infrared sensing and imaging. The reason for this is that MCT can be 'tuned' to the desired IR wavelength by varying the cadmium concentration.
"Mercury Cadmium Telluride: Growth, Properties and Applications" provides both an introduction for newcomers, and a comprehensive review of this fascinating material. Part One discusses the history and current status of both bulk and epitaxial growth techniques, Part Two is concerned with the wide range of properties of MCT, and Part Three covers the various device types that have been developed using MCT. Each chapter opens with some historical background and theory before presenting current research. Coverage includes: Bulk growth and properties of MCT and CdZnTe for MCT epitaxial growthLiquid phase epitaxy (LPE) growthMetal-organic vapour phase epitaxy (MOVPE)Molecular beam epitaxy (MBE)Alternative substratesMechanical, thermal and optical properties of MCTDefects, diffusion, doping and annealingDry device processingPhotoconductive and photovoltaic detectorsAvalanche photodiode detectorsRoom-temperature IR detectors
This book presents recent advances in the development of biomaterials for industrial applications, and discusses the potential for substituting environmentally hazardous substances with environmentally friendly and degradable components. Focusing on both the material development and production technologies, it reviews different materials, as well as new production technologies and application areas. It also highlights the importance of incorporating organic materials into different composites to enable consumption of otherwise waste materials. Further it addresses biopolymers for the food industry, e.g. edible films and coatings in food production and biodegradable materials; the automotive industry; bio fuels, such as biodiesel based on organic constituents; and green composites in marine applications. Environmental protection aspects related to the protection of cultural heritage, and new nanoparticles, such as nano zerovalent iron, are also reviewed. Aimed at young research ers, professionals, chemical engineers and marine engineers, the book is the result of the joint efforts of different academic and research institutions participating in the WIMB Tempus project, 543898-TEMPUS-1-2013-1-ES-TEMPUS-JPHES, "Development of Sustainable Interrelations between Education, Research and Innovation at WBC Universities in Nanotechnologies and Advanced Materials where Innovation Means Business", co-funded by the European Union Tempus Program.
Increasing interest in lightweight and high-performance materials is leading to significant research activity in the area of polymers and composites. One recent focus is to develop multifunctional materials that have more than one property tailored as to the specified design requirements, in addition to achieving low density. The possibility of simultaneously tailoring several desired properties is attractive but very challenging, and it requires significant advancement in the science and technology of high-performance functional polymers and composites. This volume presents a selection of new approaches in the field of composites and nanomaterials, polymer synthesis and applications, and materials and their properties. Some composites/nanocomposites and interfaces are explored as well, some with medical applications. The authors also look at simulations and modeling, synthesis involving photochemistry, self-assembled hydrogels, and sol-gel processing.
Edited by the leaders in the fi eld, with chapters from highly renowned international researchers, this is the fi rst coherent overview of the latest in silicon nanomembrane research. As such, it focuses on the fundamental and applied aspects of silicon nanomembranes, ranging from synthesis and manipulation to manufacturing, device integration and system level applications, including uses in bio-integrated electronics, three-dimensional integrated photonics, solar cells, and transient electronics. The first part describes in detail the fundamental physics and materials science involved, as well as synthetic approaches and assembly and manufacturing strategies, while the second covers the wide range of device applications and system level demonstrators already achieved, with examples taken from electronics and photonics and from biomedicine and energy.
This book provides a comprehensive overview of a series of bismuth oxyhalide compounds of BiOX (X=F, Cl, Br, I), in terms of their microstructure, electronic/band structure, preparation techniques, optical properties and their applications. The book brings together, for the first time, a compilation of advances in this area, including results achieved at the authors' lab (such as ultra-microscopy characterization by means of aberration-corrected STEM), offering a valuable guide for researchers and students alike.
Complex behavior models (plasticity, cracks, visco elascticity) face some theoretical difficulties for the determination of the behavior law at the continuous scale. When homogenization fails to give the right behavior law, a solution is to simulate the material at a meso scale in order to simulate directly a set of discrete properties that are responsible of the macroscopic behavior. The discrete element model has been developed for granular material. The proposed set shows how this method is capable to solve the problem of complex behavior that are linked to discrete meso scale effects.
Fiber reinforced composite materials encompass a wide range of
material classes from reinforced glasses, plastics, and rubbers
through to more recently developed metals and ceramics.
Fundamentals of Fibre Reinforced Composite Materials is a
comprehensive and authoritative book that introduces the topic with
a brief history of composite development, a review of composite
applications, the types of fibre used, and their respective
indiviual properties. An entire chapter considers organic matrices
and their behavior, reviewing all of the most commonly encountered
polymer matrix systems. Composite manufacturing techniques are then
discussed, including those methods employed in the production of
advanced metal and ceramic matrix composites.
This book provides an overview of the environmental problems that arise from construction activity, focusing on refurbishment as an alternative to the current crisis in the construction sector, as well as on measures designed to minimize the effects on the environment. Furthermore, it offers professionals insights into alternative eco-efficient solutions using new materials to minimize environmental impacts and offers solutions that they can incorporate into their own designs and buildings. It also demonstrates best practices in the cooperation between various universities in Andalusia in Spain and Latin America and many public and private companies and organizations. This book serves as a valuable reference resource for professionals and researchers and provides an overview on the status of investigations to find solutions to improve sustainable development in terms of materials, systems, facilities, neighborhoods, buildings, and awareness of the society involved.
This book comprehensively covers new and existing methods for the design and analysis of composites structures with damage present. It provides efficient and accurate approaches for analysing structures with holes and impact damage. It introduces a new methodology for fatigue analysis of composites. It provides design guidelines, and step by step descriptions of how to apply the methods, along with evaluation of their accuracy and applicability. It includes problems and exercises. It is accompanied by a website hosting lecture slides and solutions.
Written by two specialists with over twenty-five years of experience in the field, this valuable text presents a wide range of topics within the growing field of nonequilibrium molecular dynamics (NEMD). It introduces theories which are fundamental to the field - namely, nonequilibrium statistical mechanics and nonequilibrium thermodynamics - and provides state-of-the-art algorithms and advice for designing reliable NEMD code, as well as examining applications for both atomic and molecular fluids. It discusses homogenous and inhomogenous flows and pays considerable attention to highly confined fluids, such as nanofluidics. In addition to statistical mechanics and thermodynamics, the book covers the themes of temperature and thermodynamic fluxes and their computation, the theory and algorithms for homogenous shear and elongational flows, response theory and its applications, heat and mass transport algorithms, applications in molecular rheology, highly confined fluids (nanofluidics), the phenomenon of slip and how to compute it from basic microscopic principles, and generalized hydrodynamics.
Today, the silicon feedstock for photovoltaic cells comes from processes which were originally developed for the microelectronic industry. It covers almost 90% of the photovoltaic market, with mass production volume at least one order of magnitude larger than those devoted to microelectronics. However, it is hard to imagine that this kind of feedstock (extremely pure but heavily penalized by its high energy cost) could remain the only source of silicon for a photovoltaic market which is in continuous expansion, and which has a cumulative growth rate in excess of 30% in the last few years. Even though reports suggest that the silicon share will slowly decrease in the next twenty years, finding a way to manufacture a specific solar grade feedstock in large quantities, at a low cost while maintaining the quality needed, still remains a crucial issue. Thin film and quantum confinement-based silicon cells might be a complementary solution. Advanced Silicon Materials for Photovoltaic Applications has been designed to describe the full potentialities of silicon as a multipurpose material and covers: * Physical, chemical and structural properties of silicon * Production routes including the promise of low cost feedstock for PV applications * Defect engineering and the role of impurities and defects * Characterization techniques, and advanced analytical techniques for metallic and non-metallic impurities * Thin film silicon and thin film solar cells * Innovative quantum effects, and 3rd generation solar cells With contributions from internationally recognized authorities, this book gives a comprehensive analysis of the state-of-the-art of process technologies and material properties, essential for anyone interested in the application and development of photovoltaics.
Inorganic materials are at the heart of many contemporary real-world applications, in electronic devices, drug delivery, bio-inspired materials and energy storage and transport. In order to underpin novel synthesis strategies both to facilitate these applications and to encourage new ones, a thorough review of current and emerging techniques for materials characterisation is needed. Examining important techniques that allow investigation of the structures of inorganic materials on the local atomic scale, Local Structural Characterisation discusses: * Solid-State NMR Spectroscopy * X-Ray Absorption and Emission Spectroscopy * Neutrons and Neutron Spectroscopy * EPR Spectroscopy of Inorganic Materials * Analysis of Functional Materials by X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy This addition to the Inorganic Materials Series provides a detailed and thorough review of these spectroscopic techniques and emphasises the interplay between chemical synthesis and physical characterisation.
The demands of production, such as thin films in microelectronics, rely on consideration of factors influencing the interaction of dissimilar materials that make contact with their surfaces. Bond formation between surface layers of dissimilar condensed solids-termed adhesion-depends on the nature of the contacting bodies. Thus, it is necessary to determine the characteristics of adhesion interaction of different materials from both applied and fundamental perspectives of surface phenomena. Given the difficulty in obtaining reliable experimental values of the adhesion strength of coatings, the theoretical approach to determining adhesion characteristics becomes more important. Surface Physics: Theoretical Models and Experimental Methods presents straightforward and efficient approaches and methods developed by the authors that enable the calculation of surface and adhesion characteristics for a wide range of materials: metals, alloys, semiconductors, and complex compounds. The authors compare results from the proposed theories-developed within the framework of the electron density functional theory and dielectric formalism-to experimental data. The book begins with a discussion of the thermodynamics of surface phenomena and covers experimental and theoretical methods for studying surface characteristics of solids. Chapters describe calculations of surface and adhesion characteristics of metals using the density functional method. They also examine the calculation of adhesion characteristics of metals, semiconductors, and complex compounds based on dielectric formalism. In addition, the text covers dry friction, adsorption of metal atoms, and ferromagnetic films. The principles and methods presented in this book are useful in selecting optimum materials and coatings for various applications, including minimizing friction for increased efficiency of microelectronic components.
Composite materials are used as substitutions of metals/traditional materials in aerospace, automotive, civil, mechanical and other industries. The present book collects the current knowledge and recent developments in the characterization and application of composite materials. To this purpose the volume describes the outstanding properties of this class of advanced material which recommend it for various industrial applications.
This book describes two different museums using construction technology as the common language that brings architecture and engineering together. The first is the Museum of the Ibere Camargo Foundation at Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, by Alvaro Siza and GOP, and the second is the Coach Museum at Lisbon in Portugal, by Paulo Mendes da Rocha and AFAconsult. Both projects put special emphasis on the design process as a construction language, achieved by a close collaboration promoted by the integrated design methodology that both teams follow. Besides its importance from an architectural and urban point of view, these two buildings suggest interesting topics that are present in current building research such as sustainability, the construction of facades with a heavy use of unrendered white concrete and the integration of all the technical infrastructure needed to build a successful high-tech museum.
Mechanics of Biological Systems and Materials, Volume 6 of the Proceedings of the 2016 SEM Annual Conference & Exposition on Experimental and Applied Mechanics, the sixth volume of ten from the Conference, brings together contributions to this important area of research and engineering. The collection presents early findings and case studies on a wide range of areas, including: Soft Material Mechanics Bio-Engineering and Biomechanics Cells Mechanics Biomaterials and Mechanics Across Multiple Scales Biomechanics Biotechnologies Traumatic Brain Injury Mechanics
Analysis of Structures offers an original way of introducing engineering students to the subject of stress and deformation analysis of solid objects, and helps them become more familiar with how numerical methods such as the finite element method are used in industry. Eisley and Waas secure for the reader a thorough understanding of the basic numerical skills and insight into interpreting the results these methods can generate. Throughout the text, they include analytical development alongside the computational equivalent, providing the student with the understanding that is necessary to interpret and use the solutions that are obtained using software based on the finite element method. They then extend these methods to the analysis of solid and structural components that are used in modern aerospace, mechanical and civil engineering applications. Analysis of Structures is accompanied by a book companion website www.wiley.com/go/waas housing exercises and examples that use modern software which generates color contour plots of deformation and internal stress.It offers invaluable guidance and understanding to senior level and graduate students studying courses in stress and deformation analysis as part of aerospace, mechanical and civil engineering degrees as well as to practicing engineers who want to re-train or re-engineer their set of analysis tools for contemporary stress and deformation analysis of solids and structures. * Provides a fresh, practical perspective to the teaching of structural analysis using numerical methods for obtaining answers to real engineering applications * Proposes a new way of introducing students to the subject of stress and deformation analysis of solid objects that are used in a wide variety of contemporary engineering applications * Casts axial, torsional and bending deformations of thin walled objects in a framework that is closely amenable to the methods by which modern stress analysis software operates.
This book provides an abundance of information about the science and application of nanoparticles in the creation of nanocomposite materials, covering the synthesis, properties, and applications of nanomaterials. Written by experts in their fields, the chapters provide important updates on a number of aspects of nanomaterials and their practical applications to create new materials, particularly polymer composite materials. The book is an outgrowth of notes the authors have compiled and used to teach advanced courses on polymers for many years. Useful for engineers and researchers, the book also functions as a highly practical and useful ancillary text for advanced-level students studying nanomaterials and polymer science.
This fourth volume of the landmark handbook focuses on the design, testing and thermal management of 3D-integrated devices, both from a technological and a materials science perspective. Edited and authored by key figures from top research institutions and high-tech companies, the first part of the book provides an overview of the latest developments in 3D chip design, including the particular challenges and potential. The second part is concerned with the test methods used to assess the quality and reliability of the 3D-integrated devices, while the third and final part deals with thermal management.
The Magnesium Technology Symposium, the event on which this collection is based, is one of the largest yearly gatherings of magnesium specialists in the world. Papers represent all aspects of the field, ranging from primary production to applications to recycling. Moreover, papers explore everything from basic research findings to industrialization. Magnesium Technology 2019 covers a broad spectrum of current topics, including alloys and their properties; cast products and processing; wrought products and processing; forming, joining, and machining; corrosion and surface finishing; and structural applications. In addition, there is coverage of new and emerging applications.
This important book is an overall analysis of different innovative methods and ways of recycling in connection with various types of materials. It aims to provide a basic understanding about polymer recycling and its reuse as well as presents an in-depth look at various recycling methods. It provides a thorough knowledge about the work being done in recycling in different parts of the world and throws light on areas that need to be further explored. Emphasizing eco-friendly methods and recovery of useful materials The book covers a wide variety of innovative recycling methods and research, including * Green methods of recycling * Effective conversion of biomass and municipal wastes to energy-generating systems * A catalyst for the reuse of glycerol byproduct * Methods of adsorption to treat wastewater and make it suitable for irrigation and other purposes * Disposal of sludge * The use of calcined clay to replace both fine and coarse aggregates * Recycling of rubbers * The production of a sorbent material for paper mill sludge * Replacing polypropylene absorbent in oil spill sanitations * The use of natural fibers for various industrial applications * Cashew nut shell liquid as a source of surface active reagents * Integrated power and cooling systems based on biomass * Recycling water from household laundering * much more
With chapters by the editors and other experts in the field of polymer science, this book covers a broad selection of important research advances in the field, including updates on enzymatic destruction and photoelectric characteristics, studies on the changes in the polymer molecular mass during hydrolysis and a new type of bioadditive for motor fuel, and an exploration of the interrelation of viscoelastic and electromagnetic properties of densely cross-linked polymers. Also included are chapters that discuss the problems of mechanics of textile performance, new aspects of polymeric nanofibers, a mathematical model of nanofragment cross-linked polymers, and much more.
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