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This book provides an abundance of information about the science and application of nanoparticles in the creation of nanocomposite materials, covering the synthesis, properties, and applications of nanomaterials. Written by experts in their fields, the chapters provide important updates on a number of aspects of nanomaterials and their practical applications to create new materials, particularly polymer composite materials. The book is an outgrowth of notes the authors have compiled and used to teach advanced courses on polymers for many years. Useful for engineers and researchers, the book also functions as a highly practical and useful ancillary text for advanced-level students studying nanomaterials and polymer science.
This fourth volume of the landmark handbook focuses on the design, testing and thermal management of 3D-integrated devices, both from a technological and a materials science perspective. Edited and authored by key figures from top research institutions and high-tech companies, the first part of the book provides an overview of the latest developments in 3D chip design, including the particular challenges and potential. The second part is concerned with the test methods used to assess the quality and reliability of the 3D-integrated devices, while the third and final part deals with thermal management.
The Magnesium Technology Symposium, the event on which this collection is based, is one of the largest yearly gatherings of magnesium specialists in the world. Papers represent all aspects of the field, ranging from primary production to applications to recycling. Moreover, papers explore everything from basic research findings to industrialization. Magnesium Technology 2019 covers a broad spectrum of current topics, including alloys and their properties; cast products and processing; wrought products and processing; forming, joining, and machining; corrosion and surface finishing; and structural applications. In addition, there is coverage of new and emerging applications.
This important book is an overall analysis of different innovative methods and ways of recycling in connection with various types of materials. It aims to provide a basic understanding about polymer recycling and its reuse as well as presents an in-depth look at various recycling methods. It provides a thorough knowledge about the work being done in recycling in different parts of the world and throws light on areas that need to be further explored. Emphasizing eco-friendly methods and recovery of useful materials The book covers a wide variety of innovative recycling methods and research, including * Green methods of recycling * Effective conversion of biomass and municipal wastes to energy-generating systems * A catalyst for the reuse of glycerol byproduct * Methods of adsorption to treat wastewater and make it suitable for irrigation and other purposes * Disposal of sludge * The use of calcined clay to replace both fine and coarse aggregates * Recycling of rubbers * The production of a sorbent material for paper mill sludge * Replacing polypropylene absorbent in oil spill sanitations * The use of natural fibers for various industrial applications * Cashew nut shell liquid as a source of surface active reagents * Integrated power and cooling systems based on biomass * Recycling water from household laundering * much more
With chapters by the editors and other experts in the field of polymer science, this book covers a broad selection of important research advances in the field, including updates on enzymatic destruction and photoelectric characteristics, studies on the changes in the polymer molecular mass during hydrolysis and a new type of bioadditive for motor fuel, and an exploration of the interrelation of viscoelastic and electromagnetic properties of densely cross-linked polymers. Also included are chapters that discuss the problems of mechanics of textile performance, new aspects of polymeric nanofibers, a mathematical model of nanofragment cross-linked polymers, and much more.
This first book devoted to this hot field of science covers
materials with bimodal, trimodal and multimodal pore size, with an
emphasis on the successful design, synthesis and characterization
of all kinds of hierarchically porous materials using different
synthesis strategies. It details formation mechanisms related to
different synthesis strategies while also introducing natural
phenomena of hierarchy and perspectives of hierarchical science in
polymers, physics, engineering, biology and life science.
Researchers and engineers working in nuclear laboratories, nuclear electric plants, and elsewhere in the radiochemical industries need a comprehensive handbook describing all possible radiation-chemistry interactions between irradiation and materials, the preparation of materials under distinct radiation types, the possibility of damage of materials under irradiation, and more. Radiation nanotechnology is still practically an undeveloped field, except for some achievements in the fabrication of metallic nanoparticles under ionizing flows. Radiation Synthesis of Materials and Compounds presents the state of the art of the synthesis of materials, composites, and chemical compounds, and describes methods based on the use of ionizing radiation. It is devoted to the preparation of various types of materials (including nanomaterials) and chemical compounds using ionizing radiation (alpha particles, beta particles, gamma rays, x-rays, and neutron, proton, and ion beams). The book presents contributions from leaders in the areas of radiation synthesis of materials and radiation damage, providing thorough and expert information for a wide range of readers, including advanced students, researchers, industrial practitioners, and university educators.
The magneto luminous chemical vapor deposition (MLCVD) method is the perfect example of the "front-end green process." It employs an entirely new process that expends the minimum amount of materials in gas phase, yields virtually no effluent, and therefore requires no environmental remediation. Unlike the "back-end green process," which calls for add-on processes to deal with effluent problems, the newer MLCVD approach is a completely different phenomenon that has never been adequately described, until now.
Dispelling previous misconceptions and revealing new areas for investigation, Magneto Luminous Chemical Vapor Deposition describes the key process of dielectric breakdown of gas molecules under the influence of a magnetic field. It emphasizes behavioral distinctions between molecular gasses that cause plasma polymerization (such as methane and trimethylsilane) and mono-atomic gases (e.g., helium and argon) when dealing with the dielectric breakdown of the gas phase under low pressure. The author also reveals his minimum perturbation theory of biocompatibility. This is based on the realization that nanofilms prepared using MLCVD have unique, stable interfacial characteristics necessary to achieve a surface that can be tolerated in various biological environments.
The author presents alternating views based on NASA's recent discovery that a magnetic field burst from the earth triggers the inception of the aurora borealis. Detailing similarities between this phenomenon and the inception of the magneto luminous gas phase described in this book, the author proposes that proof of the one occurrence could shed light on the other. Expanding on the author's previous works, this book introduces new discoveries, highlights the newfound errors of previous assumptions, and juxtaposes many cutting-edge alternative views and anomalies associated with the field.
The metal casting, uses large amounts of natural resources, energy and metals as well as generates significant amounts of gases and solid wastes, which have an essential influence on the natural environment and work conditions in casting houses. The condition of the further development is the adjustment to the strategy of the sustainable development.This book examines potential solutions to the economic, ecological, and occupational hazards generated by the foundry industry. It focuses on emissions of chemical compounds during the preparation and formation of molding sands, molds pouring with molten metal, molds cooling and castings knocking out. It also addresses the effects of the spent molding sands reclamation process and the influence of spent sands on the environment during their storage. Establishing the most sustainable techniques for limiting the negative impact of foundry processes on the environment is explored in detail. The book will be valuable to academics and industry professionals alike. Describes the mechanisms of hardening and thermal destruction of individual binders in moulding and core sands; Assesses the influence of moulding and core sands technology on the environment; Discusses state of the art moulding and core sand technology.
Composite Fabrication Handbook #3 continues this practical,
hands-on series on composites with helpful how-to projects that
cover a variety of topics geared toward assisting home-builders in
completing their composite projects. Handbook #3 starts off where
Handbook #2 ended, expanding on mold-making techniques including
special methods for creating molds and composite copies of existing
parts, fabricating molds from clay models, and making advanced mold
systems using computer modeling software. Several alternative
methods of fabricating one-off parts are presented in this book,
including molding over frameworks and human forms, as well as using
stock composites to build simple structures.Hands-on projects
include an automotive body panel, (formed by using an existing
panel to make the mold), a camper shell, and a hollow-body guitar.
Composite repairs are also covered in this book, along with a
primer on computer-aided analysis of composites structures and an
inside look at how professional fabricators build high tech
composite parts for aerospace, racing and the sports
industries.Composite Materials handbook #3 demonstrates advanced
mold making techniques, including the use of routers and CNC
machines in the making of molds. The use of silicone-compression
molds, to form complex shapes, is also included.This is the book
for anyone who's ready to advance beyond the methods and projects
presented in Handbooks #1 and #2. Like those two books, this one
documents a variety of projects that can be duplicated in your shop
or garage. Take your composite fabrication skills to the next level
with Composite Materials Handbook #3.
What kind of information on the electrons' organisation in solids is yielded by measuring their thermoelectric response? Fundamentals of Thermoelectricity gives an account of our current understanding of thermoelectric phenomena in solids by presenting basic theoretical concepts and numerous experimental results. Many readers will be surprised to learn that even in the case of simple metals (considered to be domesticated long ago by the quantum theory of solids) our understanding lags far behind known experimental facts. The two theories of phonon drag, the positive Seebeck coefficient of noble metals, and the three-orders-of-magnitude gap between theory and experiment regarding the thermoelectric response of Bogoliubov quasi-particles of a superconductor are among the forgotten puzzles discussed in this book. Among other novelties, it contains an original discussion of the role of the de Broglie thermal wave-length in setting the magnitude of the thermoelectric response in Fermi liquids.
This book is a practical guide to help investigators choose the right experiment, carry it out properly and analyse the data to give the best reliable result. It book gives readers insights to extract what they need from the world of large scale experimental facilities like synchrotrons. Key features: * A no-nonsense introduction to the technique and applications of x-ray absorption spectroscopy * XAFS is now an everyday tool for the structural analysis of material science, biology and catalysts * Features Questions and Answers to support the student s learning through the book * Relevant to all working on synchrotron sources and applications in physics, materials, environment/geology, and biomedical materials * Four-colour representation to allow easy interpretation of images and data for the reader
The complexity of specifications and the number of materials options available today for concrete production mean that the traditional procedure of making trial mixes is now unnecessary, expensive and time consuming. However the data generated by trial mixes can be incorporated into the development of computer-based systems and combined with knowledge generated through research and practice. J.D Dewar has spent much of the 20 years between 1979 and 1999 developing systems by which a small amount of materials data can be used confidently to predict the composition of the ideal product to satisfy a specification with maximim economy, or to provide the "batch book" to fulfill all requirements using a specified combination of materials. Equally useful is the potential for forward control by the continuous adjustment of designs to take account of current or developing materials properties.
The first reference on this rapidly growing topic provides an essential up-to-date guide to current and emerging trends. A group of international experts has been carefully selected by the editors to cover all the central aspects, with a focus on molecular species while also including industrial applications. The resulting unique overview is a must-have for researchers, both in academia and industry, who are entering or already working in the field.
This book chronicles the proceedings of the Fifth International Symposium held on this topic in Toronto. A total of 26 papers covering many ramifications of silanes and other coupling agents are included in this book. The topics covered include: various ways to deposit silanes; silane adsorption; investigation of interfacial interactions between silanes and substrates; factors affecting effectiveness of silanes as adhesion promotors; silanes for corrosion inhibition/protection; application of silanes in a variety of technological areas; silanes in dental biomaterials, in understanding cellular adhesion, and in the field of textiles; and other (non-silane) coupling agents. This book provides a wealth of latest information on this highly technologically important topic and anyone interested in the use of these materials will find this book of great value and interest.
Filling a gap in the literature and all set to become the standard
in this field, this monograph begins with a look at computational
viscoelastic fluid mechanics and studies of turbulent flows of
dilute polymer solutions. It then goes on discuss simulations of
nanocomposites, polymerization kinetics, computational approaches
for polymers and modeling polyelectrolytes. Further sections deal
with tire optimization, irreversible phenomena in polymers, the
hydrodynamics of artificial and bacterial flagella as well as
modeling and simulation in liquid crystals.
Focusing on the effects of porosity and microcracking on the physical properties of ceramics, particularly nominally single phase ceramics, this comprehensive reference/text elucidates the fundamental interrelationships determining the development and use of materials for actual and potential engineering needs. Aids in the understanding of porosity effects on other materials from ceramic composites, cements, and plasters to rocks, metals, and polymers Providing the reader with helpful chapter summaries and recommendations, Porosity of Ceramics details the porosity dependence of mechanical properties, as well as thermal and electrical conductivity, surface area, and permeability of pore systems reviews new and promising applications and processing technologies as well as the engineering trade-offs involved in producing improved porosities assesses the applicability and limits of models and actual experimental data using pore and microcrack occurrence, characterization, and idealization as bases emphasizes the need for better characterization by addressing generally overlooked topics, such as pore orientation, shape and size heterogeneity, and spatial distribution and much more Complemented with bibliographic citations and over 275 tables, equations, drawings, and photographs, Porosity of Ceramics is an invaluable reference for materials, ceramic, mechanical, and chemical engineers and scientists; and metallurgists; as well as a readily accessible text for graduate-level and continuing education students in these disciplines.
A comprehensive overview of recent developments in the field of non-oxide ceramics with special emphasis placed on the combustion synthesis of group I-VI nitrides and oxynitrides. To ensure the widest possible perspective, the authors are experts in academia, industry, or government research, and each chapter discusses different synthetic methods and process parameters, as well as important material properties and applications. The result is invaluable reading for researchers and practitioners in the industry as well as those looking for an introduction to the field. It is equally of great interest to chemists and materials scientists as well as engineers working in the area of inorganic and solid-state chemistry, structural and functional materials, catalysis, metallurgy, and electrochemistry.
Adsorption and desorption in solution play significant roles in separations, detoxification of waste streams, in purification, chromatography, heterogeneous catalysis, metabolism of medicinal drugs, and beyond. Metal-Organic Frameworks (MOFs) are well-ordered 3-dimensional hybrid organic-inorganic polymers which contain metal cations and the structure-building organic "linker" units. Mesoporous MOFs with pore sizes 2-50 nm are particularly suitable for adsorption and adsorption-based separations of large molecules of organic and bio-organic compounds. Thousands of organic compounds and, in particular, aromatic and heterocyclic compounds are widely used as feedstock for industrial chemical synthesis, as fine chemicals, major components of liquid fossil fuels, dyestuffs, industrial solvents, agricultural chemicals, medicinal drugs, pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs), and active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs). There is a strong interest towards synthesis, characterization and studies of both known and newly synthesized mesoporous MOFs for adsorption in solution to achieve the high adsorption capacity, selectivity, and the possibility of multiple regeneration of "spent" sorbent. This book covers experimental fundamental research on using mesoporous MOFs in emerging applications of major industrial, environmental and academic importance, especially purification of water and liquid fossil fuels and in advanced biomedical technologies.
This book offers a complete and concise overview of the different strategies used to prepare microstructured surfaces employing information regarding surface instabilities and physical processes. Based upon the concept of the remarkably uniform layer of water vapor that is applied when one simply breathes onto a surface in cold temperatures, the book presents a comprehensive treatise addressing chemical and physical fundamentals, fabrication, and applications of the breath figures approach to surface wetting, coating, and modification (breath figures self-assembly) of various materials. The main topics of the book are divided into six parts: the control of surface properties in polymer blends; block copolymer design with the aim of providing order at different lengths; combination of block copolymer blends with the breath figures (BFs); dynamic templating; the breath figures method; biorecognition; and alternative approaches for surface structuring and functionalization. Discusses various physical processing methods in preparing microstructured surfaces; Describes relevant aspects of micro- and nanostructured surfaces from fabrication to final applications, including additive manufacturing, bacterial adhesion and entrapment, optical and electro-optical applications, and membrane technology; Details the breath figures approach to surface structuring while discussing alternative strategies that tie morphology to functionality of materials.
This monograph discusses in detail the compacting conditions and the resultant structure and properties of metals, composites and ceramics. It covers the basic aspects of science and technology of explosive compaction. Comprise chapters on Shock Waves in Matter, Technology of Explosive Compaction, Explosive Compaction of Metallic Powders, Explosive Compaction of Composites, Explosive Compaction of Ceramic and Super-Hard Materials, Industrial Applications and Directions for future Research including Shock Synthesis of New Materials. The coverage is extensive and the style is simple. A number of figures and micrographs enrich the presentation further. This monograph is well structured to be a textbook to students of engineering in colleges and universities and to engineers interested in using this technology.
The Manual of Biocorrosion explains the microbiology,
electrochemistry, and surface phenomena involved in biocorrosion
and biofouling processes. Written primarily for non-specialists,
the information in this manual is practical and offers a
comprehensive look at the three components of biocorrosion: the
microorganisms, the metal, and the aqueous environment. It also
addresses methods for the monitoring, prevention, and control of
biocorrosion. The first part of the book covers the fundamental
aspects of microbiology, electrochemistry, and biofouling of metal
surfaces. The second half describes biocorrosion assessment in the
laboratory and the field, the main control and mitigation
procedures used, practical case studies, and laboratory methods and
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