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This book details the analysis and design of high rise buildings for gravity and seismic analysis. It provides the knowledge structural engineers need to retrofit existing structures in order to meet safety requirements and better prevent potential damage from such disasters as earthquakes and fires. Coverage includes actual case studies of existing buildings, reviews of current knowledge for damages and their mitigation, protective design technologies, and analytical and computational techniques. This monograph also provides an experimental investigation on the properties of fiber reinforced concrete that consists of natural fibres like coconut coir and also steel fibres that are used for comparison in both Normal Strength Concrete (NSC) and High Strength Concrete (HSC). In addition, the authors examine the use of various repair techniques for damaged high rise buildings. The book will help upcoming structural design engineers learn the computer aided analysis and design of real existing high rise buildings by using ACI code for application of the gravity loads, UBC- 97 for seismic analysis and retrofitting analysis by computer models. It will be of immense use to the student community, academicians, consultants and practicing professional engineers and scientists involved in the planning, design, execution, inspection and supervision for the proper retrofitting of buildings.
This thesis presents systematic experimental research on chiral-lattice crystals referred to as B20-type germanium compounds, especially focusing on skyrmion spin textures and Dirac electrons. An emergent electromagnetic field observed in MnGe demonstrates a formation of three-dimensional skyrmion crystals. Detection of skyrmions in nanoscale Hall bar devices made of FeGe is realized by measuring the topological Hall effect, a transport property reflecting emergent fields produced by skyrmions. By measuring the electron-filling dependence of thermopower in CoGe, a pronounced thermoelectric property in this compound is revealed to stem from the asymmetric density of states appearing at certain levels of Fermi energy in the Dirac electron state. The three main results named above will contribute to enriching a variety of novel electromagnetic responses of emergent gauge fields in solids, to realizing high-performance skyrmion-based magnetic memory, and to designing high-efficiency thermoelectric materials, respectively.
This work provides an overview of a posteriori error assessment techniques for Finite Element (FE) based numerical models. These tools aim at estimating and controlling the discretization error in scientific computational models, being the basis for the numerical verification of the FE solutions. The text discusses the capabilities and limitations of classical methods to build error estimates which can be used to control the quality of numerical simulations and drive adaptive algorithms, with a focus on Computational Mechanics engineering applications. Fundamentals principles of residual methods, smoothing (recovery) methods, and constitutive relation error (duality based) methods are thus addressed along the manuscript. Attention is paid to recent advances and forthcoming research challenges on related topics. The book constitutes a useful guide for students, researchers, or engineers wishing to acquire insights into state-of-the-art techniques for numerical verification.
This pedagogical and self-contained text describes the modern mean field theory of simple structural glasses. The book begins with a thorough explanation of infinite-dimensional models in statistical physics, before reviewing the key elements of the thermodynamic theory of liquids and the dynamical properties of liquids and glasses. The central feature of the mean field theory of disordered systems, the existence of a large multiplicity of metastable states, is then introduced. The replica method is then covered, before the final chapters describe important, advanced topics such as Gardner transitions, complexity, packing spheres in large dimensions, the jamming transition, and the rheology of glass. Presenting the theory in a clear and pedagogical style, this is an excellent resource for researchers and graduate students working in condensed matter physics and statistical mechanics.
Intended as a textbook for courses involving preparative solid-state chemistry, this book offers clear and detailed descriptions on how to prepare a selection of inorganic materials that exhibit important optical, magnetic and electrical properties, on a laboratory scale. The text covers a wide range of preparative methods and can be read as separate, independent chapters or as a unified coherent body of work. Discussions of various chemical systems reveal how the properties of a material can often be influenced by modifications to the preparative procedure, and vice versa. References to mineralogy are made throughout the book since knowledge of naturally occurring inorganic substances is helpful in devising many of the syntheses and in characterizing the product materials.
A set of questions at the end of each chapter helps to connect theory with practice, and an accompanying solutions manual is available to instructors. This book is also of appeal to postgraduate students, post-doctoral researchers and those working in industry requiring knowledge of solid-state synthesis.
Recently, a new research stimulus has derived from the observation that soft structures, such as biological systems, but also rubber and gel, may work in a post critical regime, where elastic elements are subject to extreme deformations, though still exhibiting excellent mechanical performances. This is the realm of 'extreme mechanics', to which this book is addressed. The possibility of exploiting highly deformable structures opens new and unexpected technological possibilities. In particular, the challenge is the design of deformable and bi-stable mechanisms which can reach superior mechanical performances and can have a strong impact on several high-tech applications, including stretchable electronics, nanotube serpentines, deployable structures for aerospace engineering, cable deployment in the ocean, but also sensors and flexible actuators and vibration absorbers. Readers are introduced to a variety of interrelated topics involving the mechanics of extremely deformable structures, with emphasis on bifurcation, instability and nonlinear behavior, both in the quasi-static and dynamic regimes. Essential and up-to-date theoretical, numerical and experimental methodologies are covered, as a tool to progress towards a satisfactory modeling of the nonlinear behavior of structures.
Defence managers, like their counterparts in both the public and private sector need to learn to cope with change and the resulting uncertainty. This is no easy task for uncertain situations meaning that there are no sure answers or solutions. This volume represents the attempts of its contributors, military and academic, to assist in the process. To some extent uncertainty is nothing new, indeed it may be the only certainty in an era of rapid social change, increasing economic pressures. The end of the Cold War, a rise in global terrorism and rapid developments in informatics have accelerated the pace of change. Tried and trusted techniques that served well in the past are no longer appropriate in an era where defence services must be ready to challenge unknown adversaries, accept a range of responsibilities in operations other than war, and where even fundamental social values are being changed and challenged. This volume maintains a practical focus by offering contributions from serving officers as well as academics. Subjects covered range from the broad context of international affairs since 11 September 2001, to the finer detail of maintaining a proper work-life balance for se
Pioneered by the pharmaceutical industry and adapted for the
purposes of materials science and engineering, the combinatorial
method is now widely considered a watershed in the accelerated
discovery, development, and optimization of new materials.
Combinatorial Materials Synthesis reveals the gears behind
combinatorial materials chemistry and thin-film technology, and
discusses the prime techniques involved in synthesis and property
determination for experimentation with a variety of materials.
Funneling historic innovations into one source, the book explores
core approaches to synthesis and rapid characterization techniques
for work with combinatorial materials libraries.
Symposium EE, 'Solid-State Chemistry of Inorganic Materials VIII', was held Nov. 29 Dec. 3 at the 2010 MRS Fall Meeting in Boston, Massachusetts. Solid-state chemistry is a truly interdisciplinary field, attracting investigators from chemistry, condensed-matter physics, materials science engineering, ceramics, metallurgy, chemical engineering, and mineralogy/geology. It encompasses synthesis of new materials; preparation of materials in new forms (nanocrystalline, thin-film heterostructures, porous, etc.); investigations of the relationships between composition, structure and properties; as well as the application of cutting-edge characterization methods. The scope and importance of solid-state chemistry has grown not only with the discovery of new materials but also through the advancement of techniques for preparing and studying them, and in advanced computational predictions for structures and properties. The intent of the symposium was to provide researchers from academics, government, and industrial laboratories an interdisciplinary forum for interaction, discussion, and exchange of ideas on recent fundamental advances in solid-state chemistry and their impact on the development and application of inorganic materials.
This highly readable, popular textbook for upper undergraduates and graduates comprehensively covers the fundamentals of crystallography and symmetry, applying these concepts to a large range of materials. New to this edition are more streamlined coverage of crystallography, additional coverage of magnetic point group symmetry and updated material on extraterrestrial minerals and rocks. New exercises at the end of chapters, plus over 500 additional exercises available online, allow students to check their understanding of key concepts and put into practice what they have learnt. Over 400 illustrations within the text help students visualise crystal structures and more abstract mathematical objects, supporting more difficult topics like point group symmetries. Historical and biographical sections add colour and interest by giving an insight into those who have contributed significantly to the field. Supplementary online material includes password-protected solutions, over 100 crystal structure data files, and Powerpoints of figures from the book.
A first on ultrafast phenomena in carbon nanostructures like graphene, the most promising candidate for revolutionizing information technology and communication The book introduces the reader into the ultrafast nanoworld of graphene and carbon nanotubes, including their microscopic tracks and unique optical finger prints. The author reviews the recent progress in this field by combining theoretical and experimental achievements. He offers a clear theoretical foundation by presenting transparently derived equations. Recent experimental breakthroughs are reviewed. By combining both theory and experiment as well as main results and detailed theoretical derivations, the book turns into an inevitable source for a wider audience from graduate students to researchers in physics, materials science, and electrical engineering who work on optoelectronic devices, renewable energies, or in the semiconductor industry.
This book promotes understanding of the raw material selection, refractory design, tailor-made refractory developments, refractory properties, and methods of application. It provides a complete analysis of modern iron and steel refractories. It describes the daily demands on modern refractories and describes how these needs can be addressed or improved upon to help achieve the cleanest and largest yields of iron and steel. The text contains end-of-chapter summaries to help reinforce difficult concepts. It also includes problems at the end of chapters to confirm the reader's understanding of topics such as hoop stress modeling in steel ladle and vessels, establishment of thermal gradient modeling , refractory corrosion dynamics, calculation of Blast furnace trough dimension based on thermal modeling, to name a few. Led by editors with backgrounds in both academia and industry, this book can be used in college courses, as a reference for industry professionals, and as an introduction to the technology for those making the transition to industry. Stands as a comprehensive introduction to the science and technology of modern steel and iron-making refractories that examines the processes, construction, and potential improvement of refractory performance and sustainability; Serves as a versatile resource appropriate for all levels, from the student to industry novices to professionals; Reinforces difficult-to-grasp concepts with end-of-chapter summaries; Maximizes reader understanding of key topics, such as refractory selection for steel ladle and vessels, and their corrosion dynamics, with real life problems.
Advances in nanotechnology have allowed physicists and engineers to miniaturize electronic structures to the limit where finite-size related phenomena start to impact their properties. This book discusses such phenomena and models made for their description. The book starts from the semiclassical description of nonequilibrium effects, details the scattering theory used for quantum transport calculations, and explains the main interference effects. It also describes how to treat fluctuations and correlations, how interactions affect transport through small islands, and how superconductivity modifies these effects. The last two chapters describe new emerging fields related with graphene and nanoelectromechanics. The focus of the book is on the phenomena rather than formalism, but the book still explains in detail the main models constructed for these phenomena. It also introduces a number of electronic devices, including the single-electron transistor, the superconducting tunnel junction refrigerator, and the superconducting quantum bit.
Provides in-depth knowledge on novel materials that make electronics work under high-temperature and high-pressure conditions This book reviews the state of the art in research and development of lead-free interconnect materials for electronic packaging technology. It identifies the technical barriers to the development and manufacture of high-temperature interconnect materials to investigate into the complexities introduced by harsh conditions. It teaches the techniques adopted and the possible alternatives of interconnect materials to cope with the impacts of extreme temperatures for implementing at industrial scale. The book also examines the application of nanomaterials, current trends within the topic area, and the potential environmental impacts of material usage. Written by world-renowned experts from academia and industry, Harsh Environment Electronics: Interconnect Materials and Performance Assessment covers interconnect materials based on silver, gold, and zinc alloys as well as advanced approaches utilizing polymers and nanomaterials in the first section. The second part is devoted to the performance assessment of the different interconnect materials and their respective environmental impact. -Takes a scientific approach to analyzing and addressing the issues related to interconnect materials involved in high temperature electronics -Reviews all relevant materials used in interconnect technology as well as alternative approaches otherwise neglected in other literature -Highlights emergent research and theoretical concepts in the implementation of different materials in soldering and die-attach applications -Covers wide-bandgap semiconductor device technologies for high temperature and harsh environment applications, transient liquid phase bonding, glass frit based die attach solution for harsh environment, and more -A pivotal reference for professionals, engineers, students, and researchers Harsh Environment Electronics: Interconnect Materials and Performance Assessment is aimed at materials scientists, electrical engineers, and semiconductor physicists, and treats this specialized topic with breadth and depth.
Adopting a novel approach, this book provides a unique "molecular
perspective" on plasmonics, concisely presenting the fundamentals
and applications in a way suitable for beginners entering this hot
field as well as for experienced researchers and
From the Preface This book is the first extended look at a new and multifaceted polymer processing technology that has already been discussed in numerous articles. Called Solid-State Shear Pulverization (S3P), this innovative process produces polymeric powders with unique physical properties not found in the output of conventional size-reduction methods.... This technology, which utilizes a pulverizer based on a modified co-rotating twin-screw extruder..., has profound implications for both the creation of new polymer blends and recycling of plastic and rubber waste. Unlike [earlier processes] where polymers are melted prior to pulverization, ...pulverizing mixtures of polymers with the S3P process...does not involve melting. By contrast, S3P maintains polymers in the solid state and avoids the additional heat history that occurs during [other processes], which can be detrimental to the physical properties of pulverized materials. The research and development of the S3P technology...has grown significantly since 1990 from the development of a new plastics recycling process to a much broader polymer processing method that allows intimate mixing of polymers with very different viscosities, sold-state dispersion of additives, including pigments, and continuous production of powder with unique shapes and larger surface areas. Polymeric powders are of growing importance to plastics processors due to the increase use of plastics in various applications, such as rotational molding, powder coatings, and compounding, which require powder as the feedstock. ...[I]t has become clear that this process allows for in-situ compatibilization of dissimilar polymers by applying mechanical energy to cause chemical reactions. This aspect of S3P technology that we describe in this book should [be useful in] developing new polymer blends with the use of pre-made compatibilizing agents. In addition, it has been discovered that S3P efficiently mixes polymer blends with different component viscosities, resulting in the elimination of phase inversion. The S3P process directly produces blends with matrix and dispersed phase morphology like those obtained after phase inversion during a long melt-mixing process. This phenomenon is of practical importance because a long processing time is required by conventional melt-mixing to produce a stable blend morphology. S3P is also advantageous for producing thermoplastic or thermoset powder-coating compounds in a one-step process as opposed to a conventional multi-step operation that involves melt extrusion followed by batch grinding. The major capabilities of this new process can be summarized as follows: o Continuous powder production from plastics or rubber feedstocks o Blending of immiscible polymers o Efficient mixing of polymers with unmatched viscosities o Environmentally friendly recycling of multicolored, commingled plastics waste o Sold-state dispersion of heat-sensitive additives o Engineered plastic/rubber blends Materials and processes well illustrated The text is well illustrated with 60 photographs, micrographs, diagrams and others figures. Here is a small sampling of the captions of these figures. o Particle-size distribution for virgin LDPE powder made with PT-25 pulverizer o Optical photograph of virgin LDPE powder made with PT-25 pulverizer o Layout for a three-stage rubber pulverizer o Flow chart for powder coating production by conventional process and with new S3P technology o SEM image of pulverized virgin PP at 40X (first in series of SEM images of polymer powders) o Optical micrograph of melt-crystallized thin films of unpulverized virgin PP under polarized light o Log of viscosity vs. log shear rate for virgin HDPE after S3P processing o Gel permeation chromatograms (GPC) of polystyrene subjected to S3P processing Color-photo section One of the several functions of Solid-State Shear Pulverization technology is recycling mixed plastic waste. This section of twenty full-color photographs and micrographs illustrates different processed materials, as well as the machinery and mixed waste used. Here is a small sampling of the photo and micrograph captions. o Resultant flake feedstock from granulation o S3P-made uniform powder from feedstock o Flake feedstock of post-consumer HDPE/PP blend (90/10 ratio) o Injection-molded test bar (with translucence) made from S3P powder without pelletization o Injection-molded test bar made from S3P powder without pelletization showing uniform color o Several test bars subjected to tensile testing showing exceptionally high elongation at break Useful reference data in tables More than 60 tables provide useful data in convenient form. Here is a small sampling of table captions. o Physical properties of virgin PP 8020 GU injection-molded from S3P-made powder (first in series of tables on physical properties of various plastics processed from S3P-made powder) o Sieve analysis of powder resulting from S3P of virgin LDPE 509.48 (one of series of tables on sieve analysis of polymer powders) o Melt-flow rate before and after S3P processing for virgin PS and two PP samples o Key physical properties of injection-molded post-consumer polyolefin blends pulverized by S3P process The Authors Klementina Khait, M.S. Ch.E., Ph.D., is Research Associate Professor and Director of the Polymer Technology Center in the Department of Chemical Engineering, Northwestern University. Her industrial experience in polymer science and engineering includes work with Borg-Warner Chemicals and Quantum Chemical Corporation. She received her two advanced degrees, in chemical engineering and polymer chemistry, from the Technological Institute, St. Petersburg, Russia. Dr. Khait holds several patents and has published more than 50 papers in scientific and technical journals. Stephen Carr, Ph.D., is Professor of Materials Science and Engineering and Chemical Engineering at Northwestern University. His industrial work includes work in polymer science and engineering with General Motors Corp. He received a doctorate in polymer science from Case Western Reserve University. He has been on the Northwestern University faculty since 1969. Martin H. Mack is Vice President for R&D with the Berstorff Division of Krauss-Maffei Corporation. He holds an engineering degree from the University of Stuttgart. He has served for more than ten years on the Board of Directors of the Society of Plastics Engineers (SPE).
Written by the department head of materials science and engineering at MIT, this concise and stringent introduction takes readers from the fundamental theory to in-depth knowledge.
It sets out with a theoretical scheme for the design of desirable periodic structures, then presents the experimental techniques that allow for fabrication of the periodic structure and exemplary experimental data. Subsequently, theory and numerical data are used to demonstrate how these periodic structures control the photonic, acoustic, and mechanical properties of materials, concluding with examples from these three important fields of applications.
The result is must-have knowledge for both beginners and veterans in the field.
Provides a systematic and coherent picture of the solution-based methods for the preparation of noble metal-based composite nanomaterials, their characterization, and potential applications in electrocatalysis Within the last decade, the development of wet-chemistry methods has led to the blossom of research in composite nanomaterials. However, the design and synthesis of composite nanomaterials with controlled properties remains a significant challenge. This book summarizes the solution-based methods for the preparation of noble metal-based composite nanomaterials. It examines their characterization, as well as their use in electrocatalysis. It also discusses the intrinsic relationship between the catalytic properties and the physical /chemical effects in the composite materials, and offers some perspectives for the future development of metal-based composite nanomaterials. In addition, the book not only provides a systematic and coherent picture of this field, but also inspires rethinking of the current processing technologies. Noble Metal-Based Nanocomposites: Preparation and Applications offers in-depth chapter coverage of ethanol-mediated phase transfer of metal ions and nanoparticles. It presents the full range of nanocomposites consisting of chalcogenide semiconductors and gold, silver sulfide, or other noble metals. It also examines core-shell structured cadmium selenide-platinum nanocomposites; Pt-containing Ag2S-noble metal nanocomposites for direct methanol fuel cells operated at high fuel concentrations; and nanocomposites consisting of metal oxides and noble metals. In addition, the book looks at scientific issues derived from noble metal-based nanocomposites. -Covers all of the preparations of noble metal-based nanocomposites and their numerous applications -Highlights some of the recent breakthroughs in the design, engineering, and applications of noble metal-based nanocomposites -Appeals to a wide range audience, especially researchers in the areas of catalysis, chemistry, chemical engineering, materials synthesis and characterization, and fuel cell Noble Metal-Based Nanocomposites: Preparation and Applications is an excellent book for inorganic chemists, materials scientists, catalytic chemists, chemical engineers, and those interested in the subject.
This pedagogical textbook covers the entire evolutionary spectrum of biomass, from its genetic modification and harvesting, to conversion technologies, life cycle analysis, and its value to the current global economy. Combining the underpinning science with technology applications and sustainability considerations, this interdisciplinary textbook provides advanced students with the broad focus required for understanding this new discipline. Each chapter includes a glossary of terms, 2-3 problem sets, and feature boxes to highlight novel discoveries and instruments. At the end of the chapters there are questions for further consideration and suggestions for further reading. This textbook has been developed from a successful USDA funded course run by a partnership of three US universities, the internationally recognized BioSUCCEED education and research platform (BioProducts Sustainability, a University Cooperative Center for Excellence in Education.)
This book provides detailed methods to reduce or eliminate damage caused by corrosion; explains the human and environmental costs of corrosion; explains causes of and various types of corrosion; summarizes the costs of corrosion in different industries, including bridges, mining, petroleum refining, chemical, petrochemical, and pharmaceutical, pulp and paper, agricultural, food processing, electronics, home appliances; and discusses the technical aspects of the various methods available to detect, prevent, and control corrosion.
By the author of the best-selling, prize-winning Stuff Matters 'A truly delightful read' Jim Al-Khalili, author of Paradox 'Exciting, anarchic and surprising' Katy Guest, The Guardian This fascinating new book by the bestselling scientist and engineer Mark Miodownik is an expert tour of the world of the droplets, heartbeats and ocean waves that we come across every day. Structured around a plane journey which sees encounters with substances from water and glue to coffee and wine, he shows how these liquids can bring death and destruction as well as wonder and fascination. From Laszlo Biro's revolutionary pen and Abraham Gesner's kerosene to cutting-edge research on self-repairing roads and liquid computers, Miodownik uses his winning formula of scientific storytelling to bring the everyday to life. He reveals why liquids can flow up a tree but down a hill, why oil is sticky, how waves can travel so far, and how to make the perfect cup of tea. Here are the secret lives of substances that we rely on but rarely understand. 'An exhilarating, eye-opening ride' Philip Ball, science writer and author of H2O 'A thrilling read, from start to finish' Tim Radford, author of The Consolations of Physics
The choice of a material for a certain application is made taking
into account its properties. If, for example one would like to
produce a table, a hard material is needed to guarantee the
stability of the product, but the material should not be too hard
so that manufacturing is still as easy as possible - in this simple
example wood might be the material of choice. When coming to more
advanced applications the required properties are becoming more
complex and the manufacturers desire is to tailor the properties of
the material to fit the needs. To let this dream come true,
insights into the microstructure of materials is crucial to finally
control the properties of the materials because the microstructure
determines its properties.
The Concise Encyclopedia of Biomedical Polymers and Polymeric Biomaterials presents new and selected content from the 11-volume Biomedical Polymers and Polymeric Biomaterials Encyclopedia. The carefully culled content includes groundbreaking work from the earlier published work as well as exclusive online material added since its publication in print. A diverse and global team of renowned scientists provide cutting edge information concerning polymers and polymeric biomaterials. Acknowledging the evolving nature of the field, the encyclopedia also features newly added content in areas such as tissue engineering, tissue repair and reconstruction, and biomimetic materials.
This book examines and systematises knowledge concerning porous glass materials. Different volumes of pores and the methods of directly synthesising the glass with predefined sizes are discussed as well. Likewise, the primary approaches on determining parameters of porous structures are a topic of interest within this text. A separate chapter is devoted to properties of porous glass; these include optical, electrical, sensor and transport of it and its materials. Authors provide practical recommendations based on their experience with synthesis as well as handling and applying this specific glass.
2012 marked the centenary of one of the most significant discoveries of the early twentieth century, the discovery of X-ray diffraction (March 1912, by Laue, Friedrich, and Knipping) and of Bragg's law (November 1912). The discovery of X-ray diffraction confirmed the wave nature of X-rays and the space-lattice hypothesis. It had two major consequences: the analysis of the structure of atoms, and the determination of the atomic structure of materials. The momentous impact of the discovery in the fields of chemistry, physics, mineralogy, material science, biochemistry and biotechnology has been recognized by the General Assembly of the United Nations by establishing 2014 as the International Year of Crystallography. This book relates the discovery itself, the early days of X-ray crystallography, and the way the news of the discovery spread round the world. It explains how the first crystal structures were determined, and recounts which were the early applications of X-ray crystallography. It also tells how the concept of space lattice has developed since ancient times, and how our understanding of the nature of light has changed over time. The contributions of the main actors of the story, prior to the discovery, at the time of the discovery and immediately afterwards, are described through their writings and are put into the context of the time, accompanied by brief biographical details.
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