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Elastomer-Based Composite Materials: Mechanical, Dynamic, and Microwave Properties and Engineering Applications is focused on elastomer-based composite materials comprising different types of reinforcing fillers. The book provides an informative examination of the possibilities for broadening the engineering applications of elastomer composites through using various types of hybrid fillers, ferrites, and ceramics, and also examines their synthesis and characterization. It discusses new hybrid fillers that have been synthesized by different techniques, e.g. impregnation of different substrates (carbon black, conductive carbon black, activated carbons, etc.) with silica or magnetite. These new fillers have been thoroughly characterized by standard techniques and by up-to-date methods, such as energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy in scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM-EDX), atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS), and inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES). The effect of those fillers upon the curing properties, mechanical and dynamic parameters, electrical conductivity, and dielectric and microwave characteristics of elastomer-based composites is discussed in detail in this volume. The book also covers the influence of various types of ceramics (SiC, B4C, and TiB2) and barium and strontium hexaferrites upon the aforementioned properties of rubber composites in conjunction with a view toward solutions for environmental problems caused by waste tires. The book shows that pyrolysis-cum-water vapor is a suitable and environmentally friendly method for the conversion of the waste green tires into useful carbon-silica hybrid fillers. The properties of elastomer-based composites comprising different types of nanostructures (fullerenes, carbon nanotubes, graphene nanoplatelets), modified activated carbons, and calcined kaolin are also discussed. Special attention is paid to composites with lower levels of zinc oxide. The volume provides an abundance of knowledge on the detailed characterization of these fillers and on the curing, mechanical, dynamic mechanical, and dielectric and microwave properties of the elastomeric composites. The book surveys the most recent research activities of the authors, which will make it a vital reference source for scientists in both the academic and industrial sectors, as well as for individuals who are interested in rubber materials. It will be very useful for students, especially PhD students, scientists, lecturers, and engineers working or doing research in the field of polymer materials science, elastomer-based composites and nanocomposites and their engineering applications in the production of microwave absorbers and electromagnetic waves shielding materials, materials for electronics devices and telecommunications.
This book is a thorough and comprehensive update of the 2002 edition, that incorporates detailed references to the Canadian, American, and British (European) standards, contextualized by the author based on over 30 years of construction experience. In addition to updates to the core text, many new topics are presented in the second edition, including a chapter discussing the methods for achieving quality control and ensuring quality assurance in concrete construction. The book consists of two parts. The first part provides basic information about normal concrete, its grades used on sites and various kinds of modified concretes such as fiber- reinforced concrete, sulphur concrete, roller compacted concrete, high performance concrete, ultra- high performance concrete, and flowing concrete. . It further addresses physical properties of concrete and various types of Portland cement, blended cements, admixtures, additives including properties of aggregates and their influence. The second part of the book highlights the principal causes of concrete deterioration along with protective measures, resulting from incorrect selection of constituent materials, poor construction methods, external factors, chemical attack, corrosion problems, hot and cold weather effects, and the various errors in designing and detailing. Featuring an extensive bibliography of the highly adopted standards as well as manuals and journals critical to the construction industry at the end of each chapter, the volume offers readers an advanced understanding of the theory and practical application of concrete technology and international standards in North America and Britain. Addresses concrete technology as well as concrete construction practices, meeting national and international standards; Maximizes readers' understanding of the principal causes of concrete deterioration along with protective measures; Facilitates readers' grasp of different nomenclature used for the same materials in different parts of the world; Features suitable tables, charts, and diagrams that illustrate and organize useful information; Explains sustainable concrete doctrine and how to achieve it meeting green concrete / building requirements; Provides a glossary, conversion factors, and examples of concrete mix design. *
An Essential Guide to Electronic Material Surfaces and Interfaces is a streamlined yet comprehensive introduction that covers the basic physical properties of electronic materials, the experimental techniques used to measure them, and the theoretical methods used to understand, predict, and design them. Starting with the fundamental electronic properties of semiconductors and electrical measurements of semiconductor interfaces, this text introduces students to the importance of characterizing and controlling macroscopic electrical properties by atomic-scale techniques. The chapters that follow present the full range of surface and interface techniques now being used to characterize electronic, optical, chemical, and structural properties of electronic materials, including semiconductors, insulators, nanostructures, and organics. The essential physics and chemistry underlying each technique is described in sufficient depth for students to master the fundamental principles, with numerous examples to illustrate the strengths and limitations for specific applications. As well as references to the most authoritative sources for broader discussions, the text includes internet links to additional examples, mathematical derivations, tables, and literature references for the advanced student, as well as professionals in these fields. This textbook fills a gap in the existing literature for an entry-level course that provides the physical properties, experimental techniques, and theoretical methods essential for students and professionals to understand and participate in solid-state electronics, physics, and materials science research. An Essential Guide to Electronic Material Surfaces and Interfaces is an introductory-to-intermediate level textbook suitable for students of physics, electrical engineering, materials science, and other disciplines. It is essential reading for any student or professional engaged in surface and interface research, semiconductor processing, or electronic device design.
This book is designed to provide wide understanding of lignin carbon fiber processes, chemistry, mechanisms, and techniques that will help in further development of lignin carbon fiber for automobile, aerospace, marine, and sports equipment applications. Each step in the processing of lignin carbon fibers is presented as a separate chapter so that issues concerning the processes are exhaustively discussed. Basic scientific principles governing each stage of lignin carbon fiber processing, current state of research and mechanisms behind the processes are illustrated for better understanding. This is the first book to address the entire scope of lignin carbon fiber processing including; extraction, quantification, purification, melt processing, stabilization, carbonization, optimization of processes, and characterization. Presents detailed information on the chemistry, processing, principles and properties of bio-sourced lignin for carbon fiber production; Highlights techniques of recovery and properties of lignin from agricultural waste sources; Addresses applications in automobile, aircraft, marine, and sport industries; Provides insight into the lignin complex macromolecular system, the role of lignin chemistry as it relates to carbon fiber production and the evolution of lignin carbon fiber structure during processing.
This book provides the fundamental aspects of the diverse ranges of nanostructured materials (0D, 1D, 2D and 3D) for energy and environmental applications in a comprehensive manner written by specialists who are at the forefront of research in the field of energy and environmental science. Experimental studies of nanomaterials for aforementioned applications are discussed along with their design, fabrication and their applications, with a specific focus on catalysis, energy storage and conversion systems. This work also emphasizes the challenges of past developments and directions for further research. It also looks at details pertaining to the current ground - breaking of nanotechnology and future perspectives with a multidisciplinary approach to energy and environmental science and informs readers about an efficient utilization of nanomaterials to deliver solutions for the public.
The development of sensors at macroscopic or nanometric scales in solid, liquid, or gas phases, contact or noncontact configurations, has driven the research of sensor & detection materials and technology into high gear. The emphasis on detection techniques requires the use of spin crossover organic, inorganic and composite materials and methods that could be unique for sensors fabrication. The influence of length, composition and conformation structure of materials on their properties and the possibilities to adjust sensing properties by doping or adding the side-groups are the starting point of multifarious sensing. The role of inter-molecular interactions, polymer and ordered phases formation, as well as the behavior under pressure, magnetic and electric fields are also important facts for processing of ultra-sensing materials. Advanced Sensor and Detection Materials highlights the key features that aid the design of new sensor and detection materials for a multitude of sensor and detection devices. The senior contributors write on the follow topics: Construction of nanostructuresThe role of the shape in the design of new nanoparticlesAdvances in sensors' nanotechnologyMolecularly imprinted polymer for enantioselective sensing devicesFerrites for high frequency applicationsMesoporous Silica: Making Sense of SensorsPorous TiO2-Au/Ag materialsFerroelectronic glass-ceramicsNASICON: Synthesis, structure and electrical characterisationHeavy clay products qualityIonic liquidsDendrimers and hyperbranched polymersTheoretical investigation of superconducting state parametersMicroscopic polarization and thermal conductivity of binary Wurtzite nitridesExperiments techniques and theoretical background to study materialsThe book is written for readers from diverse backgrounds across chemistry, physics, materials science and engineering, medical science, pharmacy, biotechnology, and biomedical engineering. It offers a comprehensive view of cutting-edge research on advanced materials for sensor and detection technology and applications.
The book series "Polymer Nano-, Micro- and Macrocomposites"
provides complete and comprehensive information on all
Cutting edge high temperature materials include high temperature superconductors, solid oxide fuel cells, thermoelectric materials and ultrahigh temperature construction materials (including metals, cermets and ceramics) and have applications in key areas such as energy, transportation and space technologies.
This book introduces the concepts which underpin research into these critical materials including thermodynamics, kinetics and various physical, chemical and modelling techniques with a focus on practical "how to" methods and covers: Introduction to High Temperature ResearchBasic Design of High Temperature FurnacesTemperature MeasurementRadiation PyrometryRefractory Materials in the LaboratoryVacuum in Theory and Practice The Design of Vacuum Furnaces and Thermobalances
With highly detailed instrument illustrations and an emphasis on the control and measurement of the fundamental properties of temperature, pressure and mass, "High Temperature Experiments in Chemistry and Materials Science "provides a practical reference on high temperature measurements, for researchers, advanced students and those working in academic or industrial laboratories.Introduction to High Temperature ResearchBasic Design of High Temperature FurnacesTemperature MeasurementRadiation PyrometryRefractory Materials in the LaboratoryVacuum in Theory and Practice The Design of Vacuum Furnaces and Thermobalances
Increasingly useful in materials research and development, molecular modeling is a method that combines computational chemistry techniques with graphics visualization for simulating and predicting the structure, chemical processes, and properties of materials.
Molecular Modeling Techniques in Materials Science explores the impact of using molecular modeling for various simulations in industrial settings. It provides an overview of commonly used methods in atomistic simulation of a broad range of materials, including oxides, superconductors, semiconductors, zeolites, glass, and nanomaterials. The book presents information on how to handle different materials and how to choose an appropriate modeling method or combination of techniques to better predict material behavior and pinpoint effective solutions. Discussing the advantages and disadvantages of various approaches, the authors develop a framework for identifying objectives, defining design parameters, measuring accuracy/accounting for error, validating and assessing various data collected, supporting software needs, and other requirements for planning a modeling project. The book integrates the remarkable developments in computation, such as advanced graphics and faster, cheaper workstations and PCs with new advances in theoretical techniques and numerical algorithms.
Molecular Modeling Techniques in Materials Science presents the background and tools for chemists and physicists to perform "in-silico" experiments to understand relationships between the properties of materials and the underlying atomic structure. These insights result in more accurate data for designing application-specific materials that withstand real processconditions, including hot temperatures and high pressures.
Step-by-step instructions cover everything from safety precautions to materials selection to the final lamination process. Practice exercises offer hands-on experience for with glass cloth, mat, core materials, and resins. Information is provided on molding, structural concepts, and the caring for cured fiberglass. There is even a list of suppliers, repair techniques for materials other than fiberglass, and a complete section on covering wood with fiberglass..
. Reviewers praise the first edition: .
.,,"."provides an excellent introduction to working with fiberglass for new construction and for repairs."" -- Finescale Modeler.
. ""A good general reference for persons starting to work with fiberglass reinforced plastics...worth having."" -- Road And Track.
. "Readers learn how to mend everything from bathtubs to swimming pools, to rustproof and customize cars, and much more."" -- Antique Motor News.
.,,"."an indispensable book..."" -- Ohio Fisherman.
.,,"."excellent text for anyone contemplating fiberglass work of any magnatude."" -- Book Reviews.
.,,"."describes the strength, durability and lightness of fiberglass, while exploring a great many of its astonishing number of applications."" -- Wright Publishing Co..
This thorough reference work discusses various causes of failure with integrated coverage of process metallurgy of steels by forging, casting, welding, and various heat treatment processes. The breadth of coverage and the numerous examples provide an invaluable resource for the designer, engineer, metallurgist, mechanical and materials engineers, quality control technicians, and heat treaters.Potential failures of heat treated steel are detailed to help identify cause in preventing future occurrence and improving reliability of heat treating process and part performance. With a detailed focus on steel failures, this work can help identify root causes of failure, even if a thermal process is not specifically being considered as cause.Potential failures are covered with respect to design, material composition, component production, and thermal processing. Beginning with design aspects of component failure, chapters are devoted to several aspects of steel manufacturing including casting, forging or powder metallurgy in addition to heat treating operations.Topics include production problems such as porosity, flaws, and surface defect that may influence failures occurring during subsequent heat treatment or during use. Many examples of heat treatment failures are provided with special focus on the demands of tool steels and aerospace materials.
Microstructures, electronics, nanotechnology - these vast fields of
research are growing together as the size gap narrows and many
different materials are combined. Current research, engineering
sucesses and newly commercialized products hint at the immense
innovative potentials and future applications that open up once
mankind controls shape and function from the atomic level right up
to the visible world without any gaps.
Energy is a key world issue in the context of climate change and increasing population, 'calling for alternative fuels, better energy storage, and energy-saving devices. This books reviews the principles and applications of metals and metal oxides for energy, with focus on batteries, electrodes, nanomaterials, electronics, supercapacitors, biofuels and sensors.
Mechanochemistry has been recently ackwnoledged by IUPAC as one of the top ten emerging technologies in chemistry, answering to the increased demand for clean processes and sustainable reaction conditions. This book will focus on the rediscovery of mechanochemistry for inorganic, organic and organo-metallic materials. Focus on experimental techniques and equipment will show how to implement mechanochemistry as an innovative way to sustainability in academic laboratories. The contents are ideal for researchers starting off in industry and academia, as well as advanced students.
This second edition provides a comprehensive discussion of contemporary materials used in biomedical research and development. The pedagogical writing style and structure provides students with an understanding of the fundamental concepts necessary to pursue research and industrial work in this growing area of biomedical science, including characteristics of biomaterials, biological processes, biocompatibility, and applications of materials in implants and medical instruments. Written by leading researchers in the field, this volume highlights important topics associated with biomedical engineering, medicine and surgery. The revised text contains updates that reflect recent technological advances in biomedical materials. It contains information on new characterization methods and applications for biomedical materials and incorporates suggestions that were offered by readers and educators using the first edition over the years. This textbook takes the reader to the forefront of biomedical materials development, providing graduate students with a taste of how the field is changing, while also serving as a useful reference to physicians and engineers.
This book covers the basic principle and challenges of structural health monitoring system for natural fibre and the hybrid composites structural materials in industrial applications, such as building, automotive, aerospace and wind turbine. Structural health monitoring (SHM) has become crucial in evaluating the performance of structural application in recent trends, especially since it is in line with the high-tech strategy of Industry 4.0. It is a system that is operated in real time or in an online situation. Hence, it also has advantages for damage detection, damage localisation, damage assessment and life prediction compared to the non-destructive test (NDT) which is conducted offline. The book covers the monitoring of the composite materials in terms of structural properties and damage evaluation through modelling and prediction of failure in composite. It includes recent examples and real-world engineering application to illustrate the understanding of the current technology application. The book benefits lecturers, students, researchers, engineers and industrialist who are working in the civil, aerospace and wind turbine industries.
This book will be about various aspects related to applications and use of knowledge of nanotechnology in promoting defense activities. The area in which scientists are focusing includes (i) nano-devices such as sensors, GPS & computers, chemical & biological weapons, nano-fabrics, bulletproof materials, nano-stealth coating, use of nanotechnology in various areas of aerospace. It is intended to cover available methodologies and understanding of technologies for these applications. Not only for destructive but also to improve medical and casualty, safety care for soldiers, and to produce lightweight, strong and multi-functional materials for use in body armour, both for protection and to provide enhanced connectivity will be covered.
Metamaterials is a young subject born in the 21st century. It is concerned with artificial materials which can have electrical and magnetic properties difficult or impossible to find in nature. The building blocks in most cases are resonant elements much smaller than the wavelength of the electromagnetic wave. The book offers a comprehensive treatment of all aspects of research in this field at a level that should appeal to final year undergraduates in physics or in electrical and electronic engineering. The mathematics is kept at a minimum; the aim is to explain the physics in simple terms and enumerate the major advances. It can be profitably read by graduate and post-graduate students in order to find out what has been done in the field outside their speciality, and by experts who may gain new insight about the inter-relationship of the physical phenomena involved.
Process metallurgy provides academics with the fundamentals of the manufacturing of metallic materials, from raw materials into finished parts or products.
Coverage is divided into three volumes, entitled "Process Fundamentals," encompassing process fundamentals, extractive and refining processes, and metallurgical process phenomena; "Processing Phenomena," encompassing ferrous processing; non-ferrous processing; and refractory, reactive and aqueous processing of metals; and "Industrial Processes, "encompassing process modeling and computational tools, energy optimization, environmental aspects and industrial design.
The work distils 400+ years combined academic experience from the principal editor and multidisciplinary 14-member editorial advisory board, providing the 2,608-page work with a seal of quality.
The volumes will function as the process counterpart to Robert
Cahn and Peter Haasen s famous reference family, "Physical
Metallurgy" (1996)--which excluded process metallurgy from
consideration and which is currently undergoing a major revision
under the editorship of David Laughlin and Kazuhiro Hono
(publishing 2014). Nevertheless, process and extractive metallurgy
are fields within their own right, and this work will be of
interest to libraries supporting courses in the process area.
This volume provides in-depth knowledge and recent research on polymers and nanostructured materials from synthesis to advanced applications. Leading researchers from industry, academia, government, and private research institutions across the globe have contributed to this volume, covering new research on nanocomposites, polymer technology, and electrochemistry.
The book introduces flexible and stretchable wearable electronic systems and covers in detail the technologies and materials required for healthcare and medical applications. A team of excellent authors gives an overview of currently available flexible devices and thoroughly describes their physical mechanisms that enable sensing human conditions. In dedicated chapters, crucial components needed to realize flexible and wearable devices are discussed which include transistors and sensors and deal with memory, data handling and display. Additionally, suitable power sources based on photovoltaics, thermoelectric energy and supercapacitors are reviewed. A special chapter treats implantable flexible sensors for neural recording. The book editor concludes with a perspective on this rapidly developing field which is expected to have a great impact on healthcare in the 21st century.
The unique properties of elastomeric materials offer numerous advantages in many engineering applications. Elastomeric units are used as couplings or mountings between rigid components, for example in shock absorbers, vibration insulators, flexible joints, seals and suspensions, etc. However, the complicated nature of the behaviour of such material makes it difficult to accurately predict the performance of these units using finite element modelling, for example. It is imperative that constitutive models accurately capture relevant aspects of mechanical behaviour. The latest developments concerning constitutive modelling of rubber is collected in these Proceedings. Topics included in this volume are, Hyperelastic models, Strength, fracture & fatigue, Dynamic properties & the Fletcher-Gent effect, Micro-mechanical & statistical approaches, Stress softening, iscoelasticity, Filler reinforcement, and Tyres, fibre & cord reinforced rubber.
With its content taken from only the very latest results, this is an extensive summary of the various polymeric materials used for biomedical applications. Following an introduction listing various functional polymers, including conductive, biocompatible and conjugated polymers, the book goes on to discuss different synthetic polymers that can be used, for example, as hydrogels, biochemical sensors, functional surfaces, and natural degradable materials. Throughout, the focus is on applications, with worked examples for training purposes as well as case studies included. The whole is rounded off with a look at future trends.
The MRS Symposium Proceeding series is an internationally recognised reference suitable for researchers and practitioners.
This is the second volume of the four volume set. Functional nanomaterials appear in our daily lives. These materials mainly include nanocomposites, nanopowders, nanoparticles and nanocoatings. Nanotechnology enables the creation of structures which do not exist in nature, those which cannot be produced by conventional chemistry. Some advantages of this technology are the synthesis of stronger, more adjustable materials as well as lower costs. Nanotechnology is scientific and research development at the atomic, molecular or macromolecular levels in a dimension range of 1 to 100 nm; the fabrication and application of the structures, equipment, and systems which involve unique characteristics and new applications because of their small or medium dimensions; and the potential for (materials and processes) the control and management of atomic scales. Therefore, nanotechnology involves industrial research and development at atomic, molecular, and macromolecular levels. This research aims to create and exploit the structures and systems which involve unique applications due to their small dimensions. The main difference between nanotechnology and other technologies is found within the dimensions and properties of the materials and structures applied in this technology. As a matter of fact, the main difference between these two types of technologies is the presence of base elements, which are indeed the same nanoscale elements with different properties in their nanoscale and larger states. Due to the developed properties of the very fine powders including surface chemistry, compressive properties, optical characteristics, and synthetic reactions as well as an increasing demand for fine powders in industries, very fine fragmentation is applied in many materials such as: minerals, ceramics, dyes, chemicals, micro-organisms, pharmaceuticals and paper manufacturing. This volume mainly discusses the characterisation and reliability of functional nanomaterials.
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