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Symposium BB, 'Solution Synthesis of Inorganic Films and Nanostructured Materials', was held during the 2012 MRS Spring Meeting in San Francisco, California, on April 9-13, 2012. It focused on solution synthesis approaches for the growth of a wide-range of advanced functional inorganic thin film and nanostructured materials. Recent results were presented on the growth of: (i) highly crystalline, nanopatterned and composite functional oxide films, (ii) nanoparticles and nanocrystals, and (iii) self-assembled nanostructures by various chemical solution methods. A strong increased interest in low-cost and high throughput synthesis of functional and multifunctional inorganic materials indicates the worldwide importance of such synthetic methods. The symposium promoted information exchange between worldwide researchers from universities and national labs and engineers from industry. The papers in this proceedings volume provide a glimpse of the recent developments in the chemical solution growth of nanoparticles, nanocrystals, films, and nanostructured materials for various applications.
This new volume focuses on different aspects of composite systems that are associated with research and development, helping to bridge the gap between classical analysis and modern real-life applications. The chapters look at the experimental and theoretical aspects of composite materials, regarding preparation, processing, design, properties, and practical implications. It also presents recent advancements, research, and development prospects of advanced composite materials that provide new solutions for advanced technologies.
Leading graphene research theorist Mikhail I. Katsnelson systematically presents the basic concepts of graphene physics in this fully revised second edition. The author illustrates and explains basic concepts such as Berry phase, scaling, Zitterbewegung, Kubo, Landauer and Mori formalisms in quantum kinetics, chirality, plasmons, commensurate-incommensurate transitions and many others. Open issues and unsolved problems introduce the reader to the latest developments in the field. New achievements and topics presented include the basic concepts of Van der Waals heterostructures, many-body physics of graphene, electronic optics of Dirac electrons, hydrodynamics of electron liquid and the mechanical properties of one atom-thick membranes. Building on an undergraduate-level knowledge of quantum and statistical physics and solid-state theory, this is an important graduate textbook for students in nanoscience, nanotechnology and condensed matter. For physicists and material scientists working in related areas, this is an excellent introduction to the fast-growing field of graphene science.
Taking place at the David L. Lawrence Convention Center, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, this CT Volume contains 17 papers from the following 2014 Materials Science and Technology (MS&T'14) symposia: * Next Generation Biomaterials * Surface Properties of Biomaterials
Data analytics has become an integral part of materials science. This book provides the practical tools and fundamentals needed for researchers in materials science to understand how to analyze large datasets using statistical methods, especially inverse methods applied to microstructure characterization. It contains valuable guidance on essential topics such as denoising and data modeling. Additionally, the analysis and applications section addresses compressed sensing methods, stochastic models, extreme estimation, and approaches to pattern detection.
This first book on this important and emerging topic presents an overview of the very latest results obtained in single-chain polymer nanoparticles obtained by folding synthetic single polymer chains, painting a complete picture from synthesis via characterization to everyday applications. The initial chapters describe the synthetics methods as well as the molecular simulation of these nanoparticles, while subsequent chapters discuss the analytical techniques that are applied to characterize them, including size and structural characterization as well as scattering techniques. The final chapters are then devoted to the practical applications in nanomedicine, sensing, catalysis and several other uses, concluding with a look at the future for such nanoparticles. Essential reading for polymer and materials scientists, materials engineers, biochemists as well as environmental chemists.
The field of nanoscience continues to grow at an impressive rate, with over 10,000 new articles a year contributing to more than half a million citations. Such a vast landscape of material requires careful examination to uncover the most important discoveries. Nanoscience, edited by Professor Paul O'Brien (University of Manchester) and Dr John Thomas (Bangor University), presents a critical and comprehensive assessment of the last twelve months of research and discussion. With contributions from around the globe, this series ensures readers will be well-versed in the latest research and methodologies. Chapters cover a range of topics, including 'Mesocrystals', 'Quantum dot synthesis', 'Nano and energy storage' and 'Beyond graphene'. Anyone practicing in a nano-allied field, or wishing to enter the nano-world, will benefit from the publication of this comprehensive resource annually.
Superconductors is neither about basic aspects of superconductivity nor about its applications, but its mainstay is superconducting materials. Unusual and unconventional features of a large variety of novel superconductors are presented and their technological potential as practical superconductors assessed. The book begins with an introduction to basic aspects of superconductivity. The presentation is readily accessible to readers from a diverse range of scientific and technical disciplines, such as metallurgy, materials science, materials engineering, electronic and device engineering, and chemistry. The derivation of mathematical formulas and equations has been kept to a minimum and, wherever necessary, short appendices with essential mathematics have been added at the end of the text. The book is not meant to serve as an encyclopaedia, describing each and every superconductor that exists, but focuses on important milestones in their exciting development.
Adopting a holistic approach to materials simulation, this monograph covers four very important structural materials: aluminum, carbon steels, superalloys, and plastics. Following an introduction to the concept of integral modeling, the book goes on to cover a wide range of production steps and usage, including melt flow and solidification behavior, coating, shaping, thermal treatment, deep drawing, hardness and ductility, damage initiation, and deformation behavior.
Growing demand for energy and the need to reduce our society's carbon footprint call for transformative measures to increase efficiency in energy consumption and sustainable methods of energy production and storage. Novel materials will be key to these transformative technologies by acting as catalysts and facilitating desired chemical transformations. Symposium U of the 2012 MRS Spring Meeting, 'Materials for Catalysis in Energy', was held April 10-13. The objective of the organisers was to bring together researchers from materials science, chemical synthesis, heterogeneous catalysis, electrocatalysis and photocatalysis to highlight recent progress and discuss challenges and opportunities in the materials aspect of catalysis research and development for energy applications. Close to 200 abstracts were received and about 150 papers were presented, demonstrating the significant interest from the broader catalysis community. This volume contains a cross-section of papers presented and highlights the interdisciplinary nature of this research area.
Advances in Materials Science Research. Volume 35 opens with an examination of the effect of bismaleimides based on the Diels-Alder reaction mechanism on high performance aerospace carbon fibre reinforced plastics. More precisely, the interlaminar fracture toughness of unidirectional bismaleimide modified composites and their healing capabilities were measured under mode I and mode II fracture loading conditions. Following this, polyacrylonitrile nanofibers are first obtained from polyacrylonitrile in dimethylformamide by electrospinning. Then, the carbon nanofibers are obtained by calcination of polyacrylonitrile nanofibers. Additionally, the capacity of these materials to promote oxygen reduction reaction is evaluated. As new sorbents are developed for purifying gases or liquids via physisorption and/or chemisorption processes, the objective is typically to increase the specific surface area to maximize the available binding sites for capturing various species of interest. One drawback to making a sorbent more porous is that it often leads to a product that is fragile or friable and can be damaged, thus imposing process limitations. Thus, the authors propose an alternative approach for improving the mechanical integrity of the sorbent by binding it within a porous matrix that passively holds the sorbent in place. Next, evidence that the nanopillared graphene surface can induce strong dewettability is been reported by molecular dynamics simulations. The retracting and detaching behaviors of the liquid film can be effectively controlled by tuning the geometric parameters of the liquid film or nanopillar as well as the temperature. This compilation also includes a study which aims to present the advantages of using a thermodynamic analysis for the production of high purity hydrogen by the ethanol steam reforming combined with CO2 absorption (ESR-CO2-ABS). For this purpose, a thermodynamic analysis is used to find optimal reaction conditions for the ESR-CO2-ABS system. Thermodynamic analysis of the ESR-CO2-ABS system was performed using CaO, CaOMgO, Na2ZrO3, Li2ZrO3 and Li4SiO4 as CO2 absorbents to determine optimal operating conditions to generate high production and concentration of hydrogen in the product gas. In conclusion, the authors discuss how recently, research emphasis has been directed towards integrating multiple functions into polymer materials. Among these new advancements in materials science are functional polymers with structural designs for versatile applications. Piperazine is an interesting heterocyclic diamine which possess excellent medicinal and chelating property. Polymers and surfactants based on piperazine and surfactants have shown good hydrophilic, chelating anti-bacterial and anti-helminthic properties.
DNA Nanoscience: From Prebiotic Origins to Emerging Nanotechnology melds two tales of DNA. One is a look at the first 35 years of DNA nanotechnology to better appreciate what lies ahead in this emerging field. The other story looks back 4 billion years to the possible origins of DNA which are shrouded in mystery. The book is divided into three parts comprised of 15 chapters and two Brief Interludes. Part I includes subjects underpinning the book such as a primer on DNA, the broader discipline of nanoscience, and experimental tools used by the principals in the narrative. Part II examines the field of structural DNA nanotechnology, founded by biochemist/crystallographer Nadrian Seeman, that uses DNA as a construction material for nanoscale structures and devices, rather than as a genetic material. Part III looks at the work of physicists Noel Clark and Tommaso Bellini who found that short DNA (nanoDNA) forms liquid crystals that act as a structural gatekeeper, orchestrating a series of self-assembly processes using nanoDNA. This led to an explanation of the polymeric structure of DNA and of how life may have emerged from the prebiotic clutter.
Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have novel properties that make them
potentially useful in many applications in nanotechnology,
electronics, optics and other fields of materials science. These
characteristics include extraordinary strength, unique electrical
properties, and the fact that they are efficient heat conductors.
Field emission is the emission of electrons from the surface of a
condensed phase into another phase due to the presence of high
electric fields. CNT field emitters are expected to make a
breakthrough in the development of field emission display
technology and enable miniature X-ray sources that will find a wide
variety of applications in electronic devices, industry, and
medical and security examinations.
Publisher's Note: Products purchased from Third Party sellers are not guaranteed by the publisher for quality, authenticity, or access to any online entitlements included with the product. Cutting-edge coverage of carbon nanoscale science This definitive volume offers an in-depth look at the unique properties and potential applications of carbon nanomaterials (CNM). Beginning with a description of various CNM types, Carbon Nanoforms and Applications addresses the need to develop a new classification of carbon. After discussing the fundamental physics, the book covers techniques for CNM synthesis and characterization. This authoritative resource then provides comprehensive information on the physico-chemical and biosystems applications of CNMs. Carbon Nanoforms and Applications covers: Theoretical aspects of CNM Synthesis and characterization of CNM Electron field emission Fuel cells Electric double-layer capacitors Hydrogen storage Lithium-ion batteries Carbon solar cells Microwave absorption Carbon nanosensors Biosystems Cancer treatment Nano-enabled drug delivery Antimicrobial properties Tissue fabrication Neurogenesis Food and cosmetics
Master simple to advanced biomaterials and structures with this essential text. Featuring topics ranging from bionanoengineered materials to bio-inspired structures for spacecraft and bio-inspired robots, and covering issues such as motility, sensing, control and morphology, this highly illustrated text walks the reader through key scientific and practical engineering principles, discussing properties, applications and design. Presenting case studies for the design of materials and structures at the nano, micro, meso and macro-scales, and written by some of the leading experts on the subject, this is the ideal introduction to this emerging field for students in engineering and science as well as researchers.
A shape memory alloy (SMA, also known as a smart metal, memory alloy, or muscle wire) is an alloy that "remembers" its shape, and can be returned to that shape after being deformed, by applying heat to the alloy. When the shape memory effect is correctly harnessed, this material becomes a lightweight, solid-state alternative to conventional actuators such as hydraulic, pneumatic, and motor-based systems. Shape memory alloys have numerous applications in the medical and aerospace industries. This book presents the latest research in the field from around the globe.
Sixth volume of a 40 volume series on nanoscience and nanotechnology, edited by the renowned scientist Challa S.S.R. Kumar. This handbook gives a comprehensive overview about Magnetic Characterization Techniques for Nanomaterials. Modern applications and state-of-the-art techniques are covered and make this volume an essential reading for research scientists in academia and industry.
This up-to-date overview provides the latest information on the performance, sensitivity, strength and processability aspects of propellants and explosive formulations, with the nature of polymer binder/plasticizer as the variable factor. Apart from applications, this monograph explores the principles behind energetic polymers, while discussing the synthetic routes and energetic characteristics of an individual family of energetic polymers. Furthermore, a number of case studies illustrate the role of energetic polymers in enhancing the performance of formulations as compared to their inert counterparts. The emphasis is on safety throughout, with practical guidance on how to safely handle and formulate as well as synthesize using energetic polymers. With the advent of a new generation of energetic polymers, this book is relevant to academic research and industrial R&D, as well as for industry and defense organizations.
Real insight from leading experts in the field into the causes of the unique photovoltaic performance of perovskite solar cells, describing the fundamentals of perovskite materials and device architectures. The authors cover materials research and development, device fabrication and engineering methodologies, as well as current knowledge extending beyond perovskite photovoltaics, such as the novel spin physics and multiferroic properties of this family of materials. Aimed at a better and clearer understanding of the latest developments in the hybrid perovskite field, this is a must-have for material scientists, chemists, physicists and engineers entering or already working in this booming field.
MATERIALS SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING PROPERTIES is primarily aimed at mechanical and aerospace engineering students, building on actual science fundamentals before building them into engineering applications. Even though the book focuses on mechanical properties of materials, it also includes a chapter on materials selection, making it extremely useful to civil engineers as well. The purpose of this textbook is to provide students with a materials science and engineering text that offers a sufficient scientific basis that engineering properties of materials can be understood by students. In addition to the introductory chapters on materials science, there are chapters on mechanical properties, how to make strong solids, mechanical properties of engineering materials, the effects of temperature and time on mechanical properties, electrochemical effects on materials including corrosion, electroprocessing, batteries, and fuel cells, fracture and fatigue, composite materials, material selection, and experimental methods in material science. In addition, there are appendices on the web site that contain the derivations of equations and advanced subjects related to the written textbook, and chapters on electrical, magnetic, and photonic properties of materials.
This book presents the proceedings of the 4th International Symposium on Materials and Sustainable Development ISMSD2019 (CIMDD2019), will include a 3-day Conference (12 - 14 November). Organized by the Research Unit: Materials, Processes and Environment and M'hamed Bougara University of Boumerdes (Algeria) in partnership with University of Reims - Champagne-Ardenne (France), this symposium follows the success of CIMDD 2013-2015-2017 and continues the traditions of the highly successful series of International Conferences on the materials, processes and Environment. The Symposium will provide a unique topical forum to share the latest results of the materials and sustainable development research in Algeria and worldwide.
The book provides process engineers, an insight into refractories focusing on its importance and requirements in chemical process industries such as refinery and petrochemicals, syngas manufacturing, coal gasification, limestone calcinations, carbon black, glass, and cement production. Additionally the book discusses the refractory requirements for the CFBC boiler, and waste heat utilization process to generate steam. The book describes characterization of refractory material and selection process of the refractory for lining different equipments pertaining to the chemical process industry. The book covers refractory installation techniques, and the precautions to be taken during installation are discussed in detail along with the theoretical background. It explains the physical and chemical factors that influence the performances of refractory, mechanism of its degradation in service and emphasizes on the thermo-chemical and thermo-mechanical aspects and their role in that process . The content lays out different methods of monitoring Refractory lining conditions while the furnace is in operation and also elucidates few methods to repair the worn out lining without taking a shutdown. The scheme of investigation of a refractory failure is an added feature.
Written by a pioneer in the field, this text provides a complete introduction to X-ray microscopy, providing all of the technical background required to use, understand and even develop X-ray microscopes. Starting from the basics of X-ray physics and focusing optics, it goes on to cover imaging theory, tomography, chemical and elemental analysis, lensless imaging, computational methods, instrumentation, radiation damage, and cryomicroscopy, and includes a survey of recent scientific applications. Designed as a 'one-stop' text, it provides a unified notation, and shows how computational methods in different areas are linked with one another. Including numerous derivations, and illustrated with dozens of examples throughout, this is an essential text for academics and practitioners across engineering, the physical sciences and the life sciences who use X-ray microscopy to analyze their specimens, as well as those taking courses in X-ray microscopy.
As the application of nanotechnology in the myriad disciplines of science and engineering--from agriculture, pharmaceuticals, material science, and biotechnology to sensors, electronics, and mechanical and electrical engineering--brings benefits it also can produce serious threats to human health and the environment that must be evaluated. The unique properties of nanomaterials make them different from their bulk counterparts. In addition to such unique properties, the nanometric size of nanomaterials can invite some detrimental effects on the health and well-being of living organisms and the environment. Thus, it is important to distinguish nanomaterials with such ill effects from nanomaterials with no or minimum toxicity. Nanotoxicology: Toxicity Evaluation, Risk Assessment and Management covers issues such as the basic principles of nanotoxicity, methods used for nanotoxicity evaluation, risk assessment and its management for nanomaterial toxicity with a focus on current trends, limitations, challenges, and future directions of nanotoxicity evaluation. Various experts from different countries discuss these issues in detail in this book. This will be helpful to researchers, educators, and students who are interested in research opportunities for avoiding the environmental and health hazards of nanomaterials. This book will also be useful for industrial practitioners, policy makers, and other professionals in the fields of toxicology, medicine, pharmacology, food, drugs, and other regulatory sciences.
The authors of this book discuss the latest advances in materials science research. The chapters include a discussion on a mathematical model used to study the behavior of piezoelectric materials and its applications in energy harvesting; the highly reactive etchant gas, chlorine trifluoride, and its applications relating to the silicon carbide (SiC) device process; the rheological properties and structure of poly(vinyl chloride)(PVC)/plasticizer systems; a comprehensive review of ultrafine grained TiNi-based SMAs presented in terms of processing techniques, microstructure evolution, thermo-mechanical properties, biocompatibility and applications; and a chapter on the properties of silk/lyocell blended fabrics and the applications of selected functional finishes.
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