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Using the quantum approach to the subject of atomic physics, this text keeps the mathematics to the minimum needed for a clear and comprehensive understanding of the material. Beginning with an introduction and treatment of atomic structure, the book goes on to deal with quantum mechanics, atomic spectra and the theory of interaction between atoms and radiation. Continuing to more complex atoms and atomic structure in general, the book concludes with a treatment of quantum optics. Appendices deal with Rutherford scattering, calculation of spin-orbit energy, derivation of the Einstein B coefficient, the Pauli Exclusion Principle and the derivation of eigenstates in helium. The book should be of interest to undergraduate physics students at intermediate and advanced level and also to those on materials science and chemistry courses.
The first book on the topic, with each chapter written by pioneers in the field, this essential resource details the fundamental theory, applications, and future developments of liquid cell electron microscopy. This book describes the techniques that have been developed to image liquids in both transmission and scanning electron microscopes, including general strategies for examining liquids, closed and open cell electron microscopy, experimental design, resolution, and electron beam effects. A wealth of practical guidance is provided, and applications are described in areas such as electrochemistry, corrosion and batteries, nanocrystal growth, biomineralization, biomaterials and biological processes, beam-induced processing, and fluid physics. The book also looks ahead to the future development of the technique, discussing technical advances that will enable higher resolution, analytical microscopy, and even holography of liquid samples. This is essential reading for researchers and practitioners alike.
This book offers an insight into the primary and secondary manufacturing of different class of polymer matrix composites (PMCs). The major focus is on the fabrication of a variety of PMCs with substantial coverage of various processing techniques and related advantages and limitations. The book also describes secondary manufacturing processes such as machining and joining of PMCs and provides the know-how related to developing these techniques. It discusses recently commercialized tools and techniques and highlights the opportunities provided by the design and development of newer cutting tools and machining methods. The book covers material selection guidelines, product manufacturability, product development process, and cost-estimating techniques that help readers to understand where a process fits within the overall scheme and which is appropriate for a particular component. This book provides professionals with valuable information related to composites product manufacturing as well as state-of-the-art knowledge in this field.
Presenting the latest coverage of the fundamentals and applications of nanofibrous materials and their structures for graduate students and researchers, this book bridges the communication gap between fiber technologists and materials scientists and engineers. Featuring intensive coverage of electroactive, bioactive and structural nanofibers, it provides a comprehensive collection of processing conditions for electrospinning and includes recent advances in nanoparticle-/nanotube-based nanofibers. The book also covers mechanical properties of fibers and fibrous assemblies, as well as characterisation methods.
Symposium E, 'Materials and Physics of Emerging Nonvolatile Memories', was held 9-13 April at the 2012 MRS Spring Meeting in San Francisco, California, which was a follow up of previous symposia on nonvolatile memories. In this year's symposium, 127 papers were presented in 11 sessions, including 17 invited talks, 53 oral and 57 poster contributions. Such a large number of paper submissions and high attendance in the symposium indicate continuous strong interest and world wide research efforts in the field of nonvolatile memories. Main research areas featured in Symposium E were advanced flash and nanofloating gate memories, ferroelectric and magnetoresistive memories, organic and molecular memories, memristors and resistive switching memories, and phase-change memories. In particular, a large number of contributions were presented on resistive switching memories. The selected papers in the proceedings volume have been categorised in these areas.
Symposium G, 'Reliability and Materials Issues of III-V and II-VI Semiconductor Optical and Electron Devices and Materials II', was held April 9-13 at the 2012 MRS Spring Meeting in San Francisco, California. Achieving high reliability is a key issue for semiconductor optical and electrical devices and is as important as device performance for commercial application. Degradation of both optical and electrical devices is strongly related to the materials issues. A variety of material defects can occur during the device fabrication processes, i.e., crystal growth, impurity diffusion, ion-implantation, wet/dry etching, metallisation, bonding, packaging, etc. This symposium presented state-of-the-art results on reliability and degradation of various semiconductor optical and electrical devices as well as their materials issues in thin-film growth, wafer processing and device fabrication processes.
This work provides comprehensive coverage of the basic theories and hands-on techniques of polymer toughening, demonstrating the similarities in methods of measurement and toughness enhancement found in various classes of polymeric materials, including foams, films, adhesives and moulding grade polymers. It provides a detailed overview, from historical and current points of view, of polymer toughening as practiced in industry, and lays the theoretical groundwork for the analysis and prediction of different modes of toughening.
Rapid progress has occurred in the field of responsive polymers that can provide, receive, and respond to signals from their environment including interactions with synthetic molecules, biological species, and physical stimuli. Research in functional materials has been driven by the increasing demand for intelligent materials. Furthermore, driven by the motivation that system complexity could be reduced by the integration of multiple functions in one material, multifunctional materials are being developed. Symposium V Multifunctional Polymer-Based Materials held in Boston, Massachusetts, November 28 December 2, 2011 at the 2011 MRS Fall Meeting gave a highly interdisciplinary scientific community the opportunity to gather and discuss topics such as, multifunctional surfaces and interfaces, stimuli-sensitive and shape-memory polymers, cell-biomaterials interactions, multifunctional biomaterials, liquid crystalline polymers, multifunctional polymer-based materials, micro-/ nanostructured systems, multimaterial systems, encapsulation and drug release, stimuli-responsive hydrogels, photosensitive materials, and dielectric and eectronic systems.
Theoretical and practical interests in additive manufacturing (3D printing) are growing rapidly. Engineers and engineering companies now use 3D printing to make prototypes of products before going for full production. In an educational setting faculty, researchers, and students leverage 3D printing to enhance project-related products. Additive Manufacturing Handbook focuses on product design for the defense industry, which affects virtually every other industry. Thus, the handbook provides a wide range of benefits to all segments of business, industry, and government. Manufacturing has undergone a major advancement and technology shift in recent years.
Symposium U, "Nuclear Radiation Detection Materials," held April 26 28 at the 2011 MRS Spring Meeting in San Francisco, California was a continuation of the 2009 symposium and provided the latest research in nuclear radiation detection materials. Types of detector materials include semiconductors and scintillators, which are represented by a variety of new scintillator materials; novel semiconductors; and traditional detection materials. There is a strong need for new materials and methods for a variety of radiation detection applications in this rapidly growing field. The symposium gave an overview of the crystal growth of radiation detector materials and the characterization and technology issues and moved on to discuss several important improvements for the development of future radiation detectors.
The properties of woven and knitted fabrics differ largely due to the path yarn follows in the fabric structure. This path determines the fabric's physical properties, mechanical properties, and appearance. A slight variation to the design may result in entirely different properties for the fabric. Structural Textile Design provides detailed insight on different types of designs used for the production of woven and knitted fabrics, highlighting the effect design has on a fabric's properties and applications. With focus on the techniques used to draw designs and produce them on weaving and knitting machines, this book will be of great interest to textile engineers, professionals and graduate students in textile technology and manufacturing.
Physical Properties of Materials for Engineers, Second Edition introduces and explains modern theories of the properties of materials and devices for practical use by engineers. Introductory chapters discuss both classical mechanics and quantum mechanics to demonstrate the need for the quantum approach. Topics are presented in an uncomplicated manner; extensive cross-references are provided to emphasize the inter-relationships among the physical phenomena. Illustrations and problems based on commercially-available materials are included where appropriate. Physical Properties of Materials for Engineers, Second Edition is an excellent introduction to solid state physics and practical techniques for students and workers in aerospace industry, chemical engineering, civil engineering, electrical engineering, industrial engineering, materials science, and mechanical and metallurgical engineering.
Photovoltaics have received increasing attention in the last decade from the research community as well as industry. The PV market has grown at compound annual rates of 20-40%, and new technologies such as thin films based on CdTe and Cu(In,Ge)Se2 have taken a hold in the market. Tremendous research and development innovation in photovoltaics is occurring around the world. Symposium C, 'Advanced Materials Processing for Scalable Solar-Cell Manufacturing', at the 2011 MRS Spring Meeting held April 25-29 in San Francisco, California, provided a forum for exploring advanced materials processing for manufacturing of solar photovoltaics, with new research highlighted by academia and industry (start-ups and large companies) alike.
Symposium V, 'Rare-Earth Doping of Advanced Materials for Photonic Applications', Spring Meeting, Materials Research Society, San Francisco, April 25-29, 2011. It brought together researchers from a number of fields that traditionally do not interact closely with each other and provided the semiconductor, phosphors and device communities with a unique opportunity to discuss fundamental topics of common interest that underlie the emission in rare-earth-doped materials. Such a mix of different research topics, silicon photonics, phosphors, oxides and wide band gap materials including III-nitride semiconductors, to name a few, greatly promotes a healthy and vigorous exchange of ideas. The goal of this symposium was to highlight the status of light emission at infrared and visible wavelengths from rare-earth-doped phosphors as well as semiconductors. Issues of rare-earth-materials applications for green technologies, sustainability and opportunities for development of multifunctional devices utilizing magnetic, electric and pressure stimuli were also addressed.
Symposium NN, 'Electronic Organic and Inorganic Hybrid Nanomaterials-Synthesis, Device Physics and their Applications', was held April 25-29 at the 2011 MRS Spring Meeting in San Francisco, California. The possibility of combining properties of organic and inorganic components in a unique hybrid composite material creates many potential applications. The combination at the nanosize level of inorganic and organic, or even bioactive components, in a single material has made accessible an immense new area of materials science that has extraordinary implications in the development of multifunctional materials. The promising applications are expected in many fields, including display, thin film transistors, electronic memory and switching devices, photonics, sensors and biological applications. This volume is a collection of 26 excellent papers from the proceedings.
This book contains technical papers, presented at the Sixth Japan-U.S. Conference on Composite Materials held in Orlando in 1982, on various topics, including stress analysis, interfaces and material systems, micromechanics, structural analysis, design and optimization, and strength analysis.
Expanding Monomers: Synthesis, Characterization, and Applications provides a thorough discussion of expanding polymer systems and their potential applications. The scope of the book includes background information on conventional monomers, their polymeric systems, and associated shrinkage problems. Monomers that expand during polymerization are covered in detail, including their synthesis and characterization. Polymerization (homopolymerization and copolymerization) of expanding monomers is discussed, in addition to mechanisms and kinetics of several polymerization processes, such as cationic initiation and free radical ring-opening polymerization. The book also explores various applications in which expanding polymer systems have potential. These applications include coatings, casting and potting materials, composite adhesives, and electrical insulations. Expanding Monomers: Synthesis, Characterization, and Applications will be valuable as a reference for manufacturers, researchers, teachers, and students in polymer and materials science, in addition to industry and university libraries.
Mesoporous materials are a class of molecules with a large and
uniform pore size, highly regular nanopores, and a large surface
area. This book is devoted to all aspects and types of these
materials and describes, in an in-depth and systematic manner, the
step-by-step synthesis and its mechanism, as well as the
characterization, morphology control, hybridization, and
applications, of mesoporous molecular sieves. In so doing, it
covers silicates, metal-doped silicates, nonsilicates, and
Symposium Y, 'Nanomaterials Integration for Electronics, Energy and Sensing', was held November 29-December 3 at the 2010 MRS Fall Meeting in Boston, Massachusetts. The symposium provided a forum for scientists and engineers to showcase their latest research results focused on the challenges of integration in combining diverse nanomaterials together across length scales and into nanosystems to achieve novel properties and performance. The final program of this symposium consisted of over 240 papers (15 invited) presented over 14 sessions (10 oral and 4 poster). The symposium also included two joint sessions with: 1) Symposium B, 'Carbon-Based Electronic Devices - Processing, Performance, and Reliability'; 2) Symposium Z, 'Hierarchical Materials and Composites - Combining Length Scales from Nano to Macro'. The overarching theme of the symposium resonated with the idea that advances in nanotechnology will ultimately be enabled by the invention, development and refinement of methods for the integration of nanomaterials into useful architectures and systems.
This unique resource explains the fundamental physics of semiconductor nanolasers, and provides detailed insights into their design, fabrication, characterization, and applications. Topics covered range from the theoretical treatment of the underlying physics of nanoscale phenomena, such as temperature dependent quantum effects and active medium selection, to practical design aspects, including the multi-physics cavity design that extends beyond pure electromagnetic consideration, thermal management and performance optimization, and nanoscale device fabrication and characterization techniques. The authors also discuss technological applications of semiconductor nanolasers in areas such as photonic integrated circuits and sensing. Providing a comprehensive overview of the field, detailed design and analysis procedures, a thorough investigation of important applications, and insights into future trends, this is essential reading for graduate students, researchers, and professionals in optoelectronics, applied photonics, physics, nanotechnology, and materials science.
Translating Biomaterials for Bone Graft: Bench-top to Clinical Applications brings together the current translational research in bone tissue engineering, from design to application - from materials, drugs and biologic delivery used for bone graft applications to pre-clinical and clinical considerations. The book also discusses the regulatory approval pathways, which involves consideration of the class of devices; whether they are similar to existing solutions, minimal manipulation of donor tissue or completely novel materials, drugs and biologics. These considerations drive the ability to successfully transition the latest generations of bone graft materials into the clinics. Chapters come from materials scientists, clinicians, researchers, and consultants and provide a holistic understanding of the field. As such, the book is a state-of-the-art reference to bone therapies and should appeal to clinicians, scientists, as well as students interested in the current research and/or practices in the field of bone regeneration and restoration.
Polymers have emerged as one of the most innovative classes of materials in modern materials science, leading to new applications in medicine and pharmacy. This book offers a convincing and understandable approach to polymer biomaterial devices being used in various areas related to biomedical and pharmaceutical fields. The polymer materials finding application as biomaterials are discussed and described in detail pertaining to the areas of artificial implants, orthopedics, ocular devices, dental implants, drug delivery systems, burns and wounds.
Nanotechnology and high-end characterization techniques have highlighted the importance of the material choice for the success of tissue engineering. A paradigm shift has been seen from conventional passive materials as scaffolds to smart multi-functional materials that can mimic the complex intracellular milieu more effectively. This book presents a detailed overview of the rationale involved in the choice of materials for regeneration of different tissues and the future directions in this fascinating area of materials science with specific chapters on regulatory challenges & ethics; tissue engineered medical products.
An integrated, modern approach to transport phenomena for graduate students, featuring traditional and contemporary examples to demonstrate the diverse practical applications of the theory. Written in an easy to follow style, the basic principles of transport phenomena, and model building are recapped in Chapters 1 and 2 before progressing logically through more advanced topics including physicochemical principles behind transport models. Treatments of numerical, analytical, and computational solutions are presented side by side, often with sample code in MATLAB, to aid students' understanding and develop their confidence in using computational skills to solve real-world problems. Learning objectives and mathematical prerequisites at the beginning of chapters orient students to what is required in the chapter, and summaries and over 400 end-of-chapter problems help them retain the key points and check their understanding. Online supplementary material including solutions to problems for instructors, supplementary reading material, sample computer codes, and case studies complete the package.
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