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The question of how alloys behave under mechanical or energetic loading is very important for their use as structural materials in a whole spectrum of applications, from engines or turbine blades, right up to such biomaterials as hip replacements.
This comprehensive book covers the current research in ally physics together with the basic principles necessary. It offers readers a sound understanding of the structural changes in metals and alloys, ranging from plastic deformation, deformation dynamics and ordering kinetics up to atom jump processes, first principle calculation and simulation techniques. Alongside fundamental topics, including crystal defects, phase transformations and statistical thermodynamics, the team of international authors treats such hot topics as nana-size effects, thin films and interfaces as well as self-organization, technical applications of modern alloys, and the opportunities presented by materials design.
Braiding is a very old textile manufacturing technology that traditionally has been used to produce items like ropes, shoe laces, and cables. Recently, braiding has gained attention in the medical, aerospace, transportation, and civil engineering communities, among others, due to its ability to produce structures that can fulfill the explicit demands imposed by these technical sectors. Braided Structures and Composites: Production, Properties, Mechanics, and Technical Applications provides a single source of cutting-edge information on braiding and its applications. Featuring chapters authored by leading experts in their respective fields, this first-of-its-kind book: Explains the basic principles of braiding technology for industrial textiles, composites, and products Identifies the key parameters that influence the braiding process and its produced structures Shows how to control these parameters to achieve the desired material characteristics Discusses braided structure modeling and analysis techniques and software tools Describes various application requirements and their design solutions Braided Structures and Composites: Production, Properties, Mechanics, and Technical Applications supplies a critical understanding of braiding from concept to product design and application. This book is vital to the development of multifunctional products with highly specific features using braiding technology.
Updated throughout to reflect advances over the last decade, the Fifth Edition continues the handbook's tradition of authoritative coverage of fundamentals, production methods, properties, and applications of plastics and polymer-based materials. It covers tooling for plastics fabrication processes, thermoplastics, thermosetting plastics, foamed plastics, reinforced plastics, plastisols, and new developments in mold design. It also discusses rubber compounding and processing technologies. More recent developments in polymer fabrication and processing, including electrospinning, electrografted coating, polymer-metal hybrid joining, flex printing, and rapid prototyping/ 3D printing, are also presented. The handbook highlights advanced materials including natural and synthetic gfnanosize polymers, their unusual properties, and innovative applications, as well as polymer-carbon nanocomposites, graphene-based polymer nanocomposites, smart healable polymer composites, smart polymer coatings, electroactive polymers, polymer nanomaterials, and novel nano-/microfibrillar polymer composites. It offers updates on polymer solar battery development, plastics recycling and disposal methods, new concepts of "upcycling" and single-polymer composites, renewable synthetic polymers, biodegradable plastics and composites, and toxicity of plastics. The book also provides an overview of new developments in polymer applications in various fields including packaging, building and construction, corrosion prevention and control, automotive, aerospace applications, electrical and electronic applications, agriculture and horticulture, domestic appliances and business machines, medical and biomedical applications, marine and offshore applications, and sports.
Multi-scale Quantum Models for Biocatalysis explores various molecular modelling techniques and their applications in providing an understanding of the detailed mechanisms at play during biocatalysis in enzyme and ribozyme systems. These areas are reviewed by an international team of experts in theoretical, computational chemistry, and biophysics.
This book presents detailed reviews concerning the development of various techniques, including ab initio molecular dynamics, density functional theory, combined QM/MM methods, solvation models, force field methods, and free-energy estimation techniques, as well as successful applications of multi-scale methods in the biocatalysis systems including several protein enzymes and ribozymes.
This book is an excellent source of information for research professionals involved in computational chemistry and physics, material science, nanotechnology, rational drug design and molecular biology and for students exposed to these research areas."
The book systematically presents fundamental principles, properties, implementation methodologies, technologies and applications of polymer synthesis. Ring opening metathesis polymerization, click chemistry, macromolecular self-assembly, carbon nanomaterials and their modification with polymers are discussed in detail. With abundant illustrations, it is an essential reference for polymer chemists, material scientists, and graduate students.
A multidisciplinary approach that explores the diverse properties, functions, and applications of nanomaterials
Drawing together the many scientific and engineering disciplines underlying the development of nanomaterials, Nanoscale Multifunctional Materials provides a multidisciplinary review of the diverse properties, functions, and applications of nanomaterials. The book examines both nanoparticles, which have larger-scale equivalents, and uniquely assembled nanomaterials, which do not have larger-scale equivalents. Readers will gain a tremendous appreciation of the versatility of nanomaterials as well as an understanding of how the same nanomaterial can have several distinct applications across a broad range of fields and industries.
Nanoscale Multifunctional Materials is divided into three sections:
?Section I, Overview, describes the scientific phenomena underlying the special properties of nanomaterials, making them desirable as novel materials and different from conventional solids. Next, readers will learn about the effect of nanomaterials on contemporary society as well as future trends in nanomaterials production and use.
?Section II, Processing and Analysis, explores several experimental approaches in nanomaterial fabrication and characterization as well as in theoretical approaches in modeling and simulation.
?Section III, Applications, offers detailed examples of nanomaterial applications in alternative energy, thermal management, environmental cleanup, water treatment, and biomedicine.
Each chapter has been written by one or more leading experts in the science, engineering, and application of nanomaterials. Within each chapter, readers will find a thorough review of the current literature, with references to facilitate further investigation of individual topics.
Underscoring the multidisciplinary and multifunctional characteristics of nanomaterials, this book is recommended for students and professionals in science and engineering who need a broad perspective on both the nature and application of nanomaterials. The text also sets the stage for the development of new nanomaterials and new applications.
This book analyzes and evaluates the growing field of light-emitting nanoprobes as contrast agents for in vivo imaging and sensing. It is a comprehensive resource that critically analyzes the state of the art in an interdisciplinary manner, with a special focus on the shift of emission wavelengths into the near-infrared (NIR) spectral region (ranging from 0.7 to 2 microns), which has greatly contributed to the latest advances in biomedical imaging and sensing. This book discusses merits of different contrast agents at nanoscale, and how their unique chemical and structural properties lead to the emission and interaction of light within the NIR window. Both the NIR-emitting materials and various surface modification strategies governing their interactions with the biological system at the "nano" level are discussed. Furthermore, different experimental techniques and protocols for NIR-light-based in vivo imaging and sensing are addressed to shed light on further understanding of the advantages and limitations of each category of these nanoprobes. Assembles the state of the art heretofore appearing in scientific literature into a comprehensive, multi-perspective guidebook on near infrared-emitting nanomaterials in an assortment of biomedical applications; Explains the physical, chemical, and biological phenomena underlying near infrared-emitting nanomaterials for biomedical applications; Presents conceptual and experimental approaches surrounding a unique spectral range of light emission from nanosized contrast agents, while offering a clear explanation of basic and general phenomena regarding the interaction between light and biological tissues, such as absorption, scattering and autofluorescence.
An overview of the recent developments and prospects in this highly
topical area, covering the synthesis, characterization, properties
and applications of hierarchical nanostructured materials. The book
concentrates on those materials relevant for research and
development in the fields of energy, biomedicine and environmental
protection, with a strong focus on 3D materials based on
nanocarbons, mesoporous silicates, hydroxides, core-shell particles
and helical nanostructures.
For the promotion of global trading and the reduction of potential risks, the role of international standardization of nanotechnologies has become more and more important. This book gives an overview of the current status of nanotechnology including the importance of metrology and characterization at the nanoscale, international standardization of nanotechnology, and industrial innovation of nano-enabled products. First the field of nanometrology, nanomaterial standardization and nanomaterial innovation is introduced. Second, major concepts in analytical measurements are given in order to provide a basis for the reliable and reproducible characterization of nanomaterials. The role of standards organizations are presented and finally, an overview of risk management and the commercial impact of metrology and standardization for industrial innovations.
The book series "Polymer Nano-, Micro- and Macrocomposites" provides complete and comprehensive information on all important aspects of polymer composite research and development, including, but not limited to synthesis, filler modification, modeling, characterization as well as application and commercialization issues. Each book focuses on a particular topic and gives a balanced in-depth overview of the respective subfield of polymer composite science and its relation to industrial applications. With the books the readers obtain dedicated resources with information relevant to their research, thereby helping to save time and money. Thermoset polymers are a class of materials with many superior properties than thermoplastic materials. Nanocomposites with a large variety of thermoset polymers have been explored and vast knowledge on the synthesis methodologies as well as properties has been generated. The goal of the book is to assimilate these research findings on the many thermoset polymer based nanocomposites systems comprehensively so as to generate better insights into the design, performance and optimization of thermoset nanocomposites.
Semiconductor Materials presents physico-chemical, electronic,
electrical, elastic, mechanical, magnetic, optical, and other
properties of a vast group of elemental, binary, and ternary
inorganic semiconductors and their solid solutions. It also
discusses the properties of organic semiconductors. Descriptions
are given of the most commonly used semiconductor
devices-charge-coupled devices, field-effect transistors,
unijunction transistors, thyristors, Zener and avalanche diodes,
and photodiodes and lasers. The current trend of transitioning from
silicon technology to gallium arsenide technology in
field-effect-based electronic devices is a special feature that is
Steel-reinforced concrete is used ubiquitously as a building
material due to its unique combination of the high compressive
strength of concrete and the high tensile strength of steel.
Therefore, reinforced concrete is an ideal composite material that
is used for a wide range of applications in structural engineering
such as buildings, bridges, tunnels, harbor quays, foundations,
tanks and pipes. To ensure durability of these structures, however,
measures must be taken to prevent, diagnose and, if necessary,
repair damage to the material especially due to corrosion of the
Advanced ceramic composites are the focus of intense research and
development today because these materials offer a unique mix of
properties that make them useful and economical for major
engineering applications. As part of this R&D effort, new tools
for characterization, evaluation and testing have been developed
and are in current use.
What will we be made of and what will the world be made of? Science and technology are extending into design fields, modifying materials and everything that surrounds us, even our bodies, redefining on a perceptive level the boundary between things and us. To identify the actual evolution of the relationship between sciences, knowledge and design, in 2014 the Madec (Material Design Culture Research Centre) of Politecnico di Milano, initiated a wide debate with a series of contributions on innovation trajectories by well-known scholars across many disciplines, researchers, professionals and companies. This public debate, entitled 'Ideas and the Matter' has opened up new initiatives for design today, new ideas, and the definition of design approaches, contributing to the development of a new methodology of creativity-driven material innovation that, in a world full of opportunities but also problems to be solved, helps design to play a role in 'giving new meanings', through designing materials and objects with a critical approach. This is a mission from which designers cannot abdicate, following the success of "Design Thinking", which was an opening up to social innovation challenges and achieving creative solutions beyond the reach of conventional structure and method. At the same time, "Open Innovation" is a go-to process stimulating ways of creating positive change in production. This book is the compendium of Madec's one-year research. The contributors to the book come from many and diverse disciplines (medicine, biotechnology, engineering, art, anthropology, architecture and design), by which design thoughts are fed.
This work fills the gap for a comprehensive reference conveying the developments in global optimization of atomic structures using genetic algorithms. Over the last few decades, such algorithms based on mimicking the processes of natural evolution have made their way from computer science disciplines to solid states physics and chemistry, where they have demonstrated their versatility and predictive power for many materials. Following an introduction and historical perspective, the text moves on to provide an in-depth description of the algorithm before describing its applications to crystal structure prediction, atomic clusters, surface and interface reconstructions, and quasi one-dimensional nanostructures. The final chapters provide a brief account of other methods for atomic structure optimization and perspectives on the future of the field.
This textbook imparts a firm understanding of the behavior of prestressed concrete and how it relates to design based on the 2014 ACI Building Code. It presents the fundamental behavior of prestressed concrete and then adapts this to the design of structures. The book focuses on prestressed concrete members including slabs, beams, and axially loaded members and provides computational examples to support current design practice along with practical information related to details and construction with prestressed concrete. It illustrates concepts and calculations with Mathcad and EXCEL worksheets. Written with both lucid instructional presentation as well as comprehensive, rigorous detail, the book is ideal for both students in graduate-level courses as well as practicing engineers.
This unique collection of knowledge represents a comprehensive
treatment of the fundamental and practical consequences of size
reduction in silicon crystals.
The European Young Chemist Award has now been awarded four times (2006, 2008, 2010 and 2012). The authors of the previous books based on the competition have become some of the leading scientists in Europe. These books truly provide a glimpse into the future research landscape of European chemistry. Fifteen top contributions have been selected for this single volume covering areas of chemistry and materials science. The broad range of themes is presented in an approachable and readable manner equally appropriate for non-specialists on the topic. The overview of intriguing topics includes chemical synthesis and advanced methodologies as well as materials, nanoscience and nanotechnologies.
This broad-based, introductory reference provides excellent discussions regarding the hydration of Portland cement, durability problems in concrete, mechanisms of concrete deterioration, and interaction of polymers in concrete. It also covers properties of concrete with added polymers and practical applications of polymers in concrete. The historic background of polymers in building materials is examined, and a comprehensive comparison of natural vs. synthetic polymers is provided and conveniently summarized in a tabular format.
"A pedagogical gem...Professor Readey replaces 'black-box' explanations with detailed, insightful derivations. A wealth of practical application examples and exercise problems complement the exhaustive coverage of kinetics for all material classes." -Prof. Rainer Hebert, University of Connecticut "Prof. Readey gives a grand tour of the kinetics of materials suitable for experimentalists and modellers...In an easy-to-read and entertaining style, this book leads the reader to fundamental, model-based understanding of kinetic processes critical to development, fabrication and application of commercially-important soft (polymers, biomaterials), hard (ceramics, metals) and composite materials. It is a must-have for anyone who really wants to understand how to make materials and how they will behave in service." --Prof. Bill Lee, Imperial College London, Fellow of the Royal Academy of Engineering "A much needed text filing the gap between an introductory course in materials science and advanced materials-specific kinetics courses. Ideal for the undergraduate interested in an in-depth study of kinetics in materials." -Prof. Mark E. Eberhart, Colorado School of Mines This book provides an in-depth introduction to the most important kinetic concepts in materials science, engineering, and processing. All types of materials are addressed, including metals, ceramics, polymers, electronic materials, biomaterials, and composites. The expert author with decades of teaching and practical experience gives a lively and accessible overview, explaining the principles that determine how long it takes to change material properties and make new and better materials. The chapters cover a broad range of topics extending from the heat treatment of steels, the processing of silicon integrated microchips, and the production of cement, to the movement of drugs through the human body. The author explicitly avoids "black box" equations, providing derivations with clear explanations.
Elastomer Technology Handbook is a major new reference on the
science and technology of engineered elastomers. This contributed
volume features some of the latest work by international experts in
polymer science and rubber technology. Topics covered include
theoretical and practical information on characterizing rubbers,
designing engineering elastomers for consumer and engineering
applications, properties testing, chemical and physical property
characterization, polymerization chemistry, rubber processing and
fabrication methods, and rheological characterization. The book
also highlights both conventional and emerging market applications
for synthetic rubber products and emphasizes the latest technology
This book is an integrated approach to kinematic and dynamic analysis. The matrix techniques presented are general and fully applicable to two- or three-dimensional systems. They lend themselves to programming and digital computation and can act as the basis of a usable tool for designers. Techniques have broad applicability to the design analysis of all multibody mechanical systems. The more powerful and more flexible the approach, and the less specialisation and reprogramming required for each application, the better. The matrix methods presented have been developed using these ideas as primary goals. Matrix methods can be applied by hand to such problems as the slider-crank mechanism, but this is not the intent of this text, and often the rigor required for such an attempt becomes quite burdensome in comparison with other techniques. The matrix methods have been extensively tested, both in the classroom and in the world of engineering industry.
This book summarizes recent advances in the fabrication methods, properties, and applications of various ceramic-filled polymer matrix composites. Surface-modification methods and chemical functionalization of the ceramic fillers are explored in detail, and the outstanding thermal and mechanical properties of polymer-ceramic composites, the modeling of some of their thermal and mechanical parameters, and their major potential applications are discussed along with detailed examples. Aimed at researchers, industry professionals, and advanced students working in materials science and engineering, this work offering a review of a vast number of references in the polymer-ceramic field, this work helps readers easily advance their research and understanding of the field.
This book is divided into four main sections thoroughly analyzing the use of nanomaterials for water, air and soil solutions, and emphasizing environmental risks. Providing background on nanomaterials' two-decade study, it discusses the characterization and application of unconventional disinfectants, called antimicrobial nanomaterials, which fall into three categories and, while seemingly harmless, have potential hazards if applied improperly. Special attention is given to the process of remediation, synthetics techniques, and properties of nanomaterials, with examples to which new and trained readers in the field can relate and understand. * an interdisciplinary approach, aimed at scientists in physical chemistry, nanotechnology, and environmental sciences * includes applications of non-conventional techniques in environmental protection * furthers the development of applied nanoscience and nanotechnology * suggests new industrial projects and university courses addressing nanotechnology in and for the environment * includes applications for water, air and soil protection
The use of new engineering materials in the aerospace and space industry is usually governed by the need for enhancing the bearing capacity of structural elements and systems, improving the performance of specific applications, reducing structural weight and improving its cost-effectiveness. Crystalline composites and nanomaterials are used to design lightweight structural elements because such materials provide stiffness, strength and low density/weight. This book reviews the effect of high temperature creep on structural system response, and provides new phenomenological creep models (deterministic and probabilistic approach) of composites and nanomaterials. Certain criteria have been used in selecting the creep functions in order to describe a wide range of different behavior of materials. The experimental testing and evaluation of time variant creep in composite and nanomaterials is quite complex, expensive and, at times, time consuming. Therefore, the analytical analysis of creep properties and behavior of structural elements made of composite and nanocomposite materials subjected to severe thermal loadings conditions is of great practical importance. Composite elements and heterogeneous materials, from which they are made, make essential changes to the classical scheme for constructing the phenomenological creep model of composite elements, because it reflects the specificity of the composite material and manifests itself in the choice of two basic functions of the creep constitutive equation, namely memory and instantaneous modulus of elasticity functions. As such, the concepts and analytical techniques presented here are important. But the principal objective of this book is to demonstrate how nonlinear viscoelastic engineering creep theory can be incorporated into the general theory of mechanics of materials so that composite components can be designed and analyzed. The results are supported by step-by-step practical structural design examples and will be useful for structural engineers, code developers as well as material science researchers and university faculty. The phenomenological creep models presented in this book provide a usable engineering approximation for many applications in composite engineering.
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