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Material properties emerge from phenomena on scales ranging from Angstroms to millimeters, and only a multiscale treatment can provide a complete understanding. Materials researchers must therefore understand fundamental concepts and techniques from different fields, and these are presented in a comprehensive and integrated fashion for the first time in this book. Incorporating continuum mechanics, quantum mechanics, statistical mechanics, atomistic simulations and multiscale techniques, the book explains many of the key theoretical ideas behind multiscale modeling. Classical topics are blended with new techniques to demonstrate the connections between different fields and highlight current research trends. Example applications drawn from modern research on the thermo-mechanical properties of crystalline solids are used as a unifying focus throughout the text. Together with its companion book, Continuum Mechanics and Thermodynamics (Cambridge University Press, 2011), this work presents the complete fundamentals of materials modeling for graduate students and researchers in physics, materials science, chemistry and engineering.
How will we meet rising energy demands? What are our options? Are there viable long-term solutions for the future? Learn the fundamental physical, chemical and materials science at the heart of: Renewable/non-renewable energy sources Future transportation systems Energy efficiency Energy storage Whether you are a student taking an energy course or a newcomer to the field, this textbook will help you understand critical relationships between the environment, energy and sustainability. Leading experts provide comprehensive coverage of each topic, bringing together diverse subject matter by integrating theory with engaging insights. Each chapter includes helpful features to aid understanding, including a historical overview to provide context, suggested further reading and questions for discussion. Every subject is beautifully illustrated and brought to life with full color images and color-coded sections for easy browsing, making this a complete educational package. Fundamentals of Materials for Energy and Environmental Sustainability will help enable today's scientists and educate future generations."
The first book offering a global overview of fundamental microfluidics and the wide range of possible applications, for example, in chemistry, biology, and biomedical science. As such, it summarizes recent progress in microfluidics, including its origin and development, the theoretical fundamentals, and fabrication techniques for microfluidic devices. The book also comprehensively covers the fluid mechanics, physics and chemistry as well as applications in such different fields as detection and synthesis of inorganic and organic materials. A useful reference for non-specialists and a basic guideline for research scientists and technicians already active in this field or intending to work in microfluidics.
Comprehensively covering inorganic flexible optoelectronics and their applications This highly application-oriented book provides an overview of the vibrant research field of inorganic flexible optoelectronics ? from materials to applications ? covering bulk materials as well as nanowires, thin films, nanomembranes for application in light emitting diodes, photodetectors, phototransistors, and solar cells. Edited and written by world-leading experts in the field, Inorganic Flexible Optoelectronics: Materials and Applications begins by covering flexible inorganic light emitting diodes enabled by new materials and designs, and provides examples of their use in neuroscience research. It then looks at flexible light-emitting diodes based on inorganic semiconductor nanostructures ? from thin films to nanowires. Next, the book examines flexible photodetectors with nanomembranes and nanowires; 2-D material based photodetectors on flexible substrates; and IV group materials based solar cells and their flexible photovoltaic technologies. Following that, it presents readers with a section on thin-film III-V single junction and multijunction solar cells and demonstrates their integration onto heterogeneous substrates. Finally, the book finishes with in-depth coverage of novel materials based flexible solar cells. -A must-have book that provides an unprecedented overview of the state of the art in flexible optoelectronics -Supplies in-depth information for new and already active researchers in the field of optoelectronics -Lays down the undiluted knowledge on inorganic flexible optoelectronics ? from materials to devices -Focuses on materials and devices for high-performance applications such as light-emitting diodes, solar cells, and photodetectors Inorganic Flexible Optoelectronics: Materials and Applications appeals to materials scientists, electronics engineers, electrical engineers, inorganic chemists, and solid state physicists.
Forewords by Claes-Goran Granqvist, Uppsala University, Sweden," " and Neal F. Lane, Rice University, Texas
Nanomaterials inevitably have bright prospects, but even now they play an important role in many areas of industry. Some of these new materials are commercially available and are used in off the shelf products, others are important model systems for physicochemical and materials science research. However, research findings and application data are not compiled in a single work. The Springer Handbook of Nanomaterials collects description and data of materials which have dimensions on the nanoscale. The description of nanomaterials follows the interplay of structure, properties, processing and applications mainly in their solid phase. The chapters were arranged according to the classical materials-science classifications: carbon materials, metals, ceramics, composites, and biomaterials. For each part, materials structures represent different dimensionality; zero-dimensional clusters, nanoparticles and quantum dots, one-dimensional nanowires and nanotubes, and two-dimensional thin films and surfaces. Combinations cover for instance nanostructured and hybrid materials.
Almost 100 leading scientists from academia and the industry were selected to write the 32 chapters and collect the physical, chemical and mechanical data. The handbook was written and compiled for professionals and practitioners, materials scientists, physicists and chemists at universities, as well as in the fields of industrial research and production.
The Handbook is organized in seven parts. Part A: NanoCarbons. Part B: NanoMetals. Part C: NanoCeramics. Part D: NanoComposits. Part E: Nanoporous Materials. Part F: Organic and Biomaterilas. Part G: Applications and Impact.
This complete, yet concise, guide introduces you to the rapidly developing field of high throughput screening of biomaterials: materiomics. Bringing together the key concepts and methodologies used to determine biomaterial properties, you will understand the adaptation and application of materomics in areas such as rapid prototyping, lithography and combinatorial chemistry. Each chapter is written by internationally renowned experts, and includes tutorial paragraphs on topics such as biomaterial-banking, imaging, assay development, translational aspects, and informatics. Case studies of state-of-the-art experiments provide illustrative examples, whilst lists of key publications allow you to easily read up on the most relevant background material. Whether you are a professional scientist in industry, a student, or a researcher, this book is not to be missed if you are interested in the latest developments in biomaterials research.
Dynamic compression is an experimental technique with interdisciplinary uses, ranging from enabling the creation of ultracondensed matter under previously impossible conditions to understanding the likely cause of unusual planetary magnetic fields. Readers can now gain an intuitive understanding of dynamic compression; clear and authoritative chapters examine its history and experimental method, as well as key topics including dynamic compression of liquid hydrogen, rare gas fluids and shock-induced opacity. Through an up-to-date history of dynamic compression research, Nellis also clearly shows how dynamic compression addresses and will continue to address major unanswered questions across the scientific disciplines. The past and future role of dynamic compression in studying and making materials at extreme conditions of pressure, density and temperature is made clear, and the means of doing so are explained in practical language perfectly suited for researchers and graduate students alike.
A unique book that summarizes the properties, toxicology, and biomedical applications of TiO2-based nanoparticles Nanotechnology is becoming increasingly important for products used in our daily lives. Nanometer-sized titanium dioxide (TiO2) are widely used in industry for different purposes, such as painting, sunscreen, printing, cosmetics, biomedicine, and so on. This book summarizes the advances of TiO2 based nanobiotechnology and nanomedicine, covering materials properties, toxicological research, and biomedical application, such as antibacter, biosensing, and cancer theranostics. It uniquely integrates the TiO2 applications from physical properties, toxicology to various biomedical applications, and includes black TiO2 based cancer theranostics. Beginning with a comprehensive introduction to the properties and applications of nanoparticles, TiO2 Nanoparticles: Applications in Nanobiotechnology, Theranostics and Nanomedicine offers chapters on: Toxicity of TiO2 Nanoparticles; Antibacterial Applications of TiO2 Nanoparticles; Surface Enhanced Raman Spectrum of TiO2 Nanoparticle for Biosensing (TiO2 Nanoparticle Served as SERS Sensing Substrate); TiO2 as Inorganic Photosensitizer for Photodynamic Therapy; Cancer Theranostics of Black TiO2 Nanoparticles; and Neurodegenerative Disease Diagnostics and Therapy of TiO2-Based Nanoparticles. This title: -Blends the physical properties, toxicology of TiO2 nanoparticles to the many biomedical applications -Includes black TiO2 based cancer theranostics in its coverage -Appeals to a broad audience of researchers in academia and industry working on nanomaterials-based biosensing, drug delivery, nanomedicine TiO2 Nanoparticles: Applications in Nanobiotechnology, Theranostics and Nanomedicine is an ideal book for medicinal chemists, analytical chemists, biochemists, materials scientists, toxicologists, and those in the pharmaceutical industry.
Applications of microscale and nanoscale thermal and fluid transport phenomena involved in traditional industries and highly specialised fields such as bioengineering, micro-fabricated fluidic systems, microelectronics, aerospace technology, micro heat pipes, chips cooling etc. have been becoming especially important since the late 20th century. However, microscale and nanoscale thermal and fluid transport phenomena are quite different from those of conventional scale or macroscale. Quite a few studies have been conducted to understand the very complex phenomena involved at microscale and nanoscale. New methods have been applied to measure the basic physical parameters at microscale and are continuously under development. New prediction methods have also been developed to cover both macroscale and microscale channels and are being continuously under investigation. New theories and mechanisms are also urgently needed for the fluid flow and heat transfer phenomena at microscale and nanoscale. There are many issues to be clarified from both theoretical and applied aspects in the microscale and nanoscale thermal and fluid transport phenomena. Furthermore, Interdisciplinary research areas are also rapidly under development. For example, as a new research frontier of nanotechnology, the research of nanofluid two-phase flow and thermal physics is rapidly growing, however, it has also posed new challenges as there are quite contradictory results in the available research.
This book explores the physics, technology and applications of particle accelerators. It illustrates the interconnections between applications and basic physical principles, enabling readers to better understand current and upcoming technologies and see beyond the paradigmatic borders of the individual fields. The reader will discover why accelerators are no longer just toys for scientists, but have also become modern and efficient nuclear workhorses. The book starts with an introduction to the relevant technologies and radiation safety aspects of accelerating electrons and ions from several keV to roughly 250 MeV. It subsequently describes the physics behind the interactions of these particle beams with matter. Mathematical descriptions and state-of-the-art computer models of energy-loss and nuclear interactions between the particle beams and targets round out the physics coverage. On this basis, the book then presents the most important accelerator applications in science, medicine, and industry, explaining and comparing more than 20 major application fields, encompassing semiconductors, cancer treatment, and space exploration. Despite the disparate fields involved, this book demonstrates how the same essential technology and physics connects all of these applications.
Written by well-known experts in the field, this first systematic overview of multiferroic heterostructures summarizes the latest developments, first presenting the fundamental mechanisms, including multiferroic materials synthesis, structures and mechanisms, before going on to look at device applications. The resulting text offers insight and understanding for scientists and students new to this area.
Known as the bible of biomedical engineering, The Biomedical Engineering Handbook, Fourth Edition, sets the standard against which all other references of this nature are measured. As such, it has served as a major resource for both skilled professionals and novices to biomedical engineering. Biomedical Engineering Fundamentals, the first volume of the handbook, presents material from respected scientists with diverse backgrounds in physiological systems, biomechanics, biomaterials, bioelectric phenomena, and neuroengineering. More than three dozen specific topics are examined, including cardiac biomechanics, the mechanics of blood vessels, cochlear mechanics, biodegradable biomaterials, soft tissue replacements, cellular biomechanics, neural engineering, electrical stimulation for paraplegia, and visual prostheses. The material is presented in a systematic manner and has been updated to reflect the latest applications and research findings.
An overview of the latest computational materials science methods on an atomic scale. The authors present the physical and mathematical background in sufficient detail for this highly current and important topic, but without unnecessary complications. They focus on approaches with industrial relevance, covering real-life applications taken from concrete projects that range from tribology modeling to performance optimization of integrated circuits. Following an introduction to the fundamentals, the book describes the most relevant approaches, covering such classical simulation methods as simple and reactive force field methods, as well as highly accurate quantum-mechanical methods ranging from density-functional theory to Hartree-Fock and beyond. A review of the increasingly important multiscale approaches rounds off this section. The last section demonstrates and illustrates the capabilities of the methods previously described using recent real-life examples of industrial applications. As a result, readers gain a heightened user awareness, since the authors clearly state the conditions of applicability for the respective modeling methods so as to avoid fatal mistakes.
This book provides a study in Bonding, Structure and Solid State Chemistry. It is based on lecture courses given over several years, but is not directed at any particular degree course. Thus, it will find a place in all years of first-degree courses in both chemistry and those subjects for which chemistry forms a significant part. It will also prepare readers for more intensive study in the title topics. Pre-knowledge is assumed in mathematics and physical sciences at about A-level. Additional mathematical and other topics are presented where necessary as appendices, so as not to disturb the flow of the main text. The book is copiously illustrated, including many stereoscopic diagrams (with practical advice on correct viewing) and colour illustrations. A suite of computer programs, some of which are interactive, has been devised for the book and is available on-line from the publisher's website [insert URL here]. They are available for both 32- and 64-bit operating systems, and are easily executed on a PC or laptop; notes on their applications are provided. Problems have been devised for each chapter and fully worked 'tutorial'; solutions are included. After an introductory chapter, the book presents a study based on the main interactive forces responsible for cohesion in the solid state of matter. No classification is without some ambiguity, but that chosen allows for a structured discussion over a wide range of compounds. Each chapter includes worked examples on the study topics which, together with the problems provided, should ensure a thorough understanding of the textual material.
The use of biological sources such as microbes and plants can help in synthesizing nanoparticles in a reliable and eco-friendly way. The synthesis of nanoparticles by these natural sources is characterized by processes that take place near to ambient temperature and pressures and also near neutral pH. This edited volume authored by subject specialists, provides all the latest research and builds a database of bioreduction agents to various metal nanoparticles using different precursor systems. The book also highlights the different strategies such as simplicity, cost-effectiveness, environment-friendly and easily scalable, and includes parameters for controlling the size and shape of the materials developed from the various greener methods. In order to exploit the utmost potential metal nanoparticles synthesis from the different sources such as agricultural waste, flora and fauna, food waste, microbes and biopolymer systems, it is also crucial to recognize the biochemical and molecular mechanisms of production of nanoparticles and their characterization.
Get to grips with the fundamental optical and optoelectronic properties of nanostructures. This comprehensive guide makes a wide variety of modern topics accessible, and includes up-to-date material on the optical properties of monolayer crystals, plasmonics, nanophotonics, UV quantum well lasers, and wide bandgap materials and heterostructures. The unified, multidisciplinary approach makes it ideal for those in disciplines spanning nanoscience, physics, materials science, and optical, electrical and mechanical engineering. Building on work first presented in Quantum Heterostructures (Cambridge, 1999), this volume draws on years of research and teaching experience. Rigorous coverage of basic principles makes it an excellent resource for senior undergraduates, and detailed mathematical derivations illuminate concepts for graduate students, researchers and professional engineers. The examples with solutions included in the text and end-of-chapter problems allows the students to use this text to enhance their understanding.
The goal of this book is to familiarize professionals, researchers, and students with the basics of the Diamond Turn Machining Technology and the various issues involved. The book provides a comprehensive knowledge about various aspects of the technology including the background, components of the machine, mechanism of material removal, application areas, relevant metrology, and advances taking place in this domain. Solved and unsolved examples are provided in each of the areas which will help the readers to practice and get familiarized with that particular area of the Diamond Turn Machining process.
Engineering 3D Tissue Test Systems provides an introduction to, and unique coverage of, a rapidly evolving area in biomaterials engineering. It reveals the current and future research responses, the current and future diagnostic applications, and provides a comprehensive overview to foster innovation. It offers insight into the importance of 3D systems and their use as benchtop models, spanning applications from basic scientific research to clinical diagnostics. Methods and limitations of building 3D tissue structures are evaluated, with attention given to the cellular, polymeric, and fabrication instrumentation components. The book covers the important aspects of polymeric tissue test systems, highlighting the needs and constraints of the industry, and includes a chapter on regulatory and pricing issues.
The year 2012 marked the centenary of one of the most significant discoveries of the early twentieth century, the discovery of X-ray diffraction (March 1912, by Laue, Friedrich and Knipping) and of Bragg's law (November 1912). The discovery of X-ray diffraction confirmed the wave nature of X-rays and the space-lattice hypothesis. It had two major consequences: the analysis of the structure of atoms, and the determination of the atomic structure of materials. This had a momentous impact in chemistry, physics, mineralogy, material science, biology and X-ray spectroscopy. The book relates the discovery itself, the early days of X-ray crystallography, and the way the news of the discovery spread round the world. It explains how the first crystal structures were determined by William Bragg and his son Lawrence, and recounts which were the early applications of X-ray crystallography in chemistry, mineralogy, materials science, physics, biological sciences and X-ray spectroscopy. It also tells how the concept of space lattice developed since ancient times up to the nineteenth century, and how our conception of the nature of light has changed over time. The contributions of the main actors of the story, prior to the discovery, at the time of the discovery and immediately afterwards, are described through their writings and are put into the context of the time, accompanied by brief biographical details. This thoroughly researched account on the multiple faces of a scientific specialty, X-ray crystallography, is aimed both at the scientists, who rarely subject the historical material of past discoveries in their field to particular scrutiny with regard to the historical details and at the historians of science who often lack the required expert knowledge to scrutinize the involved technical content in sufficient depth (M. Eckert - Metascience).
Fracture mechanics studies the development and spreading of cracks in materials. The study uses two techniques including analytical and experimental solid mechanics. The former is used to determine the driving force on a crack and the latter is used to measure material's resistance to fracture. The text begins with a detailed discussion of fundamental concepts including linear elastic fracture mechanics (LEFM), yielding fracture mechanics, mixed mode fracture and computational aspects of linear elastic fracture mechanics. It explains important topics including Griffith theory of brittle crack propagation and its Irwin and Orowan modification, calculation of theoretical cohesive strength of materials through an atomic model and analytical determination of crack tip stress field. This book covers MATLAB programs for calculating fatigue life under variable amplitude cyclic loading. The experimental measurements of fracture toughness parameters KIC, JIC and crack opening displacement (COD) are provided in the last chapter.
Texturing surfaces at micro- and/or nano-scales modifies the interactions of liquids and solids. This book is a summary of the state of the art concerning the development and use of micro/nano-technologies for the design of synthetic liquid repellent surfaces with a particular focus on super-omniphobic materials. It proposes a comprehensive understanding of the physical mechanisms involved in the wetting of these surfaces and reviews emerging applications in various fields such as energy harvesting and biology, as well as highlighting the current limitations and challenges which are yet to be overcome.
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