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Presents state-of-the-art processing techniques and readily applicable knowledge on processing of polymer composites The book presents the advancement in the field of reinforced polymer composites with emphasis on manufacturing techniques, including processing of different reinforced polymer composites, secondary processing of green composites, and post life cycle processing. It discusses the advantages and limitations of each processing method and the effect of processing parameters on the overall performance of the composites. Characterization and applications of reinforced polymer composites are also introduced. Reinforced Polymer Composites: Processing, Characterization and Post Life Cycle Assessment starts off by providing readers with a comprehensive overview of the field. It then introduces them to the fabrication of both short fiber/filler reinforced polymer composites and laminated reinforced polymer composites. Next, it takes them through the processing of polymer-based nanocomposites; the many advances in curing methods of reinforced polymer composites; and post life cycle processing, re-processing, and disposal mechanisms of reinforced polymer composites. Numerous other chapters cover: synthetic versus natural fiber reinforced plastics; characterization techniques of reinforced plastics; friction and wear analysis of reinforced plastics; secondary processing of reinforced plastics; and applications of reinforced plastics. -Presents the latest development in materials, processing, and characterization techniques, as well as applications of reinforced polymer composites -Guides users in choosing the best processing methods to produce polymer composites and successfully manufacture high quality products -Assists academics in sorting out basic research questions and helps those in industry manufacture products, such as marine, automotive, aerospace, and sport goods Reinforced Polymer Composites: Processing, Characterization and Post Life Cycle Assessment is an important book for materials scientists, polymer chemists, chemical engineers, process engineers, and anyone involved in the chemical or plastics technology industry.
Introducing a unique, modular approach to modeling polymerization reactions, this useful book will enable practitioners - chemists and engineers alike - to set up and structure their own models for simulation software like Predici, C++, MatLab or others. The generic modules are exemplified for concrete situations for various reactor types and reaction mechanisms and allow readers to quickly find their own point of interest - a highly useful information source for polymer engineers and researchers in industry and academia.
Semiconductor nanocrystals and metal nanoparticles are the building blocks of the next generation of electronic, optoelectronic, and photonic devices. Covering this rapidly developing and interdisciplinary field, the book examines in detail the physical properties and device applications of semiconductor nanocrystals and metal nanoparticles. It begins with a review of the synthesis and characterization of various semiconductor nanocrystals and metal nanoparticles and goes on to discuss in detail their optical, light emission, and electrical properties. It then illustrates some exciting applications of nanoelectronic devices (memristors and single-electron devices) and optoelectronic devices (UV detectors, quantum dot lasers, and solar cells), as well as other applications (gas sensors and metallic nanopastes for power electronics packaging). Focuses on a new class of materials that exhibit fascinating physical properties and have many exciting device applications. Presents an overview of synthesis strategies and characterization techniques for various semiconductor nanocrystal and metal nanoparticles. Examines in detail the optical/optoelectronic properties, light emission properties, and electrical properties of semiconductor nanocrystals and metal nanoparticles. Reviews applications in nanoelectronic devices, optoelectronic devices, and photonic devices.
Corrosion resistance is the property of a material to resist corrosion attack in a particular aggressive environment. Although titanium, tantalum and zirconium are not noble metals, they are the best choice whenever high corrosion resistance is required. The exceptionally good corrosion resistance of these high-performance metals and their alloys results from the formation of a very stable, dense, highly adherent, and self-healing protective oxide film on the metal surface. This naturally occurring oxide layer prevents chemical attack of the underlying metal surface. This behavior also means, however, that high corrosion resistance can be expected only under neutral or oxidizing conditions. Under reducing conditions, a lower resistance must be reckoned with. Only very few inorganic and organic substances are able to attack titanium, tantalum or zirconium at ambient temperature. As the extraordinary corrosion resistance is coupled with an excellent formability and weldability these materials are very valuable for a large number of applications, such as heat exchangers, reaction vessels, funace construction, radiation shielding, implants for medical technology, and capacitor components in electronics.
Derived from the renowned" DECHEMA Corrosion Handbook," this text provides a comprehensive overview of corrosion protection and prevention on the high-performance materials Titanium, Tantalum and Zirconium.
Through detailed case studies of the most important advanced material creations of the latter 20th and early 21st century, the author explores the role of the field of advanced materials in the technological and economic activity today, with implications to the innovation process in general. * A comprehensive study that encompasses the three major categories of advanced material technologies, i.e., Structural Materials (metals and polymers), Functional Materials (transistor, microchip and semiconductor laser) and Hybrid and New Forms of Matter (liquid crystals and nanomaterials). * Extensive use of primary sources, including unpublished interviews with the scientists, engineers, and entrepreneurs on the front lines of advanced materials creation * Original approach to case study narrative, emphasizing interaction between the advanced material process, perceived risk and directing and accelerating breakthrough technology
This must-have reference for all chemical engineers, material scientists and chemists working with steel or acidic media explains how to strengthen the corrosion resistance of steels as reaction, transport and storage devices against lyes (hydroxides) and organic acids. The handbook contains comprehensive information, including tabulated data and references, on the corrosion properties of the following materials: Unalloyed steels and cast steel Unalloyed cast iron High-alloy cast iron High-silicon cast iron Structural steels with up to 12% chromium Ferritic chromium steels with more than 12% chromium Ferritic-austenitic steels with more than 12% chromium High-alloy multiphase steels Ferritic/perlitic-martensitic steels Ferritic-austenitic steels/duplex steels Austenitic chromium-nickel steels Austenitic chromium-nickel-molybdenum steels Austenitic chromium-nickel steels with special alloying additions Special iron-based alloys The following corrosive media are considered: Acetic Acid Alkanecarboxylic Acids Carbonic Acid Formic Acid Sulfonic Acids Alkaline Earth Hydroxides Ammonia and Ammonium Hydroxide Lithium Hydroxide Potassium Hydroxide Sodium Hydroxide
Derived from the online reference "Corrosion Handbook", this handbook brings together all the relevant information on corrosion protection and prevention for nickel-based materials, all in a convenient and easy-to-use format. As such, it provides scientists and engineers manufacturing and utilizing these materials with comprehensive information, including tabulated data and references, on their corrosion behavior when in contact with acids and hydroxides.
Newly revised, DeGarmo's Materials and Processes in Manufacturing continues to be a market-leading text on manufacturing and manufacturing processes courses for over fifty years. Authors J T. Black and Ron Kohser have continued this book's long and distinguished tradition of exceedingly clear presentation and highly practical approach to materials and processes, presenting mathematical models and analytical equations only when they enhance the basic understanding of the material. Updated to reflect all current practices, standards, and materials, the twelfth edition has new coverage of additive manufacturing, lean engineering, and processes related to ceramics, polymers, and plastics.
Granular systems arise in a variety of geological and industrial settings, from landslides, avalanches, and erosion to agricultural grains and pharmaceutical powders. Understanding the underlying physics that governs their behavior is the key to developing effective handling and transport mechanisms as well as appropriate environmental policies. Handbook of Granular Materials presents foundational techniques used to investigate granular systems, examples of their use in contemporary research, and extensions to granular-like systems that greatly expand the realm of study. The book provides guidance on how to conduct research in granular materials and explores promising directions for new research. The first several chapters cover various methods used by contemporary researchers to investigate granular materials. Subsequent chapters delve into broader themes of investigation, focusing on results rather than methodology. The final chapters describe three extended systems of granular media: suspensions, emulsions and foams, and colloids.
This book summarizes the results of the research on how to make small electronic devices with high properties by using simple liquid processes such as coating, self-assembling and printing, especially focusing on devices composed of silicon and oxide materials. It describes syntheses and analyses of solution materials, formations of solid thin films from solutions, newly developed patterning methods to make devices, and characterization of the developed devices. In the first part of the book, the research on liquid silicon (Si) materials is described. Because the use of a liquid material is a quite new idea for Si devices, this book is the first one to describe liquid Si materials for electronic devices. Si devices as typified by MOS-FET have been produced by using solid and gas materials. This volume precisely describes a series of processes from material synthesis to device fabrication for those who are interested and are/will be engaged in liquid Si-related work. In the latter part of the book, a general method of how to make good oxide films from solutions and a new imprinting method to make nanosized patterns are introduced. For making oxide films with high quality, the designing of the solution is crucial. If a solution is designed properly, a gel material called "cluster gel" can be formed which is able to be imprinted to form nanosized patterns. The anticipated readers of this book are researchers, engineers, and students who are interested in solution and printing processes for making devices. More generally, this book will also provide guidelines for corporate managers and executives who are responsible for making strategies for future manufacturing processes.
This volume discusses the vaccine development process and the role delivery concepts contribute to a global goal of effective health outcomes. The chapters in this book cover a wide range of topics such as antigen discovery methods; genetic and protein antigen preparation; preparation of viral vaccines as VLPs; viral and non-viral gene delivery; needle-less or non-invasive delivery technology; vaccine storage; and vaccine administration and assessment. Written in the highly successful Methods in Molecular Biology series format, chapters include introductions to their respective topics; lists of the necessary materials and reagents; step-by-step, readily reproducible laboratory protocols; and tips on troubleshooting and avoiding known pitfalls. Cutting-edge and practical, Vaccine Delivery Technology: Methods and Protocols is a valuable resource for both novice and expert researchers, in and outside the field, who would like to gain insight into the impactful field of vaccines. Chapter 7 is available open access under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License via link.springer.com.
Well-structured and adopting a pedagogical approach, this self-contained monograph covers the fundamentals of scanning probe microscopy, showing how to use the techniques for investigating physical and chemical properties on the nanoscale and how they can be used for a wide range of soft materials. It concludes with a section on the latest techniques in nanomanipulation and patterning. This first book to focus on the applications is a must-have for both newcomers and established researchers using scanning probe microscopy in soft matter research. From the contents: * Atomic Force Microscopy and Other Advanced Imaging Modes * Probing of Mechanical, Thermal Chemical and Electrical Properties * Amorphous, Poorly Ordered and Organized Polymeric Materials * Langmuir-Blodgett and Layer-by-Layer Structures * Multi-Component Polymer Systems and Fibers * Colloids and Microcapsules * Biomaterials and Biological Structures * Nanolithography with Intrusive AFM Tipand Dip-Pen Nanolithography * Microcantilever-Based Sensors
Materials selection is a crucial factor in determining the cost, quality, and corrosion protection for every engineering project. The variety of increasingly durable materials and their combinations, coupled with the rise of new and more critical service requirements and the demand for lower costs, have expanded upon trial-and-error criteria into methodical, multi-dimensional approaches to materials selection. An invaluable resource that analyzes materials from a microscopic perspective as well as a macroscopic standpoint, New Materials, Processes, and Methods Technology is a practical guide to matching and applying the material or materials with the right combination of properties in order to meet your design and service conditions. The book presents an update of existing materials and processes as well as newly developed materials that have been invented or changed by innovative techniques within the past decade. It details recent research, various analytical methods, key material and design considerations, fabrication methods, and developmental processes. Each section covers a material or material-family and the techniques required for practical applications. Anticipating future trends and prospects, the book also examines the foundations to several innovative technologies, including the potential of tailor-made materials, various types of fuel cells, and the properties of FGMs in current and future metallic and non-metallic systems and models. In its final chapter, the book highlights processes that are poised for production as well as prospects still in experimentation and testing phases. New Materials, Processes, and Methods Technology provides today's scientists, technicians, andengineering departments devoted to resolving application requirements with performance properties using a well-executed material selection process.
This highly illustrated reference work covers the three principal types of surface technologies that best protect engineering devices and products: diffusion technologies, deposition technologies, and other less commonly acknowledged surface engineering (SE) techniques. Various applications are noted throughout the text and additionally whole chapters are devoted to specific SE applications across the automotive, gas turbine engine (GTE), metal machining, and biomedical implant sectors. Along with the benefits of SE, this volume also critically examines SE's limitations. Materials degradation pathways - those which can and those which cannot be mitigated by SE - are rigorously explained. Written from a scientific, materials engineering perspective, this concise text is supported by high-quality images and photo-micrographs which show how surfaces can be engineered to overcome the limits of conventionally produced materials, even in complex or hostile operating environments. This book is a useful resource for undergraduate and postgraduate students as well as professional engineers.
A century ago, discoveries in physics came together with engineering to produce an array of astonishing new technologies: radios, telephones, televisions, aircraft, radar, nuclear power, computers, the Internet and a host of still- evolving digital tools. These technologies so radically reshaped our world that we can no longer conceive of life without them. Today we are on the cusp of a new convergence, with discoveries in biology coming together with engineering to produce another array of almost inconceivable technologies. These next-generation products have the potential to be every bit as revolutionary as the twentieth century's digital wonders: Virusbuilt batteries. Protein-based water filters. Cancer- detecting nanoparticles. Mind- reading bionic limbs. Computer-engineered crops. These few examples illustrate the promise of the technology story of the twenty-first century to overcome some of the greatest humanitarian, medical and environmental challenges of our time.
Richly illustrated throughout with actual tissue images, this innovative book shows that the soft-hard tissue junction is best understood in a biomechanical context. The authors describe their pioneering experimental methods, providing an essential structure-function framework for computational modelling, and thereby encouraging the development of more realistic, predictive models of this important tissue junction. Covering the three main musculoskeletal junctions of cartilage-bone, disc-vertebra, and ligament/tendon-bone, the relevant soft tissues are examined with respect to both their own inherent structure and their mode of integration with the hard tissue. The soft-hard tissue interface is explored with a focus on structural damage resulting from overloading, and its associated pathologies. Adopting a multiscale approach, ranging in structural resolution from the macro to fibril levels, this is a must-have guide to the field and an ideal resource for researchers seeking new and creative approaches for studying the joint and spine tissues.
Steel is one of the most widely used construction materials with more than 1.3 billion tons produced each year. Buildings, industrial plants, machines, tools, pipelines, vessels and tanks are only a few of its applications in our daily life. Steel is an alloy made of iron and additional elements like carbon, chromium, manganese, vanadium and tungsten, and its quality, ductility, hardness and strength vary with the amount of the alloying element.As steels corrode in various atmospheres, in water and in soil its corrosion resistance against the four most common chemicals and inorganic acids- hydrochloric, nitric, sulfuric and phosphoric acid- is essential and a crucial financial factor for many industries. These acids are present in nearly every industrial production process such as metal manufacturing but also explosives, food, dyes, leather, paper and fertilizers, to name only a few.Understanding how to strengthen the corrosion resistance of steels as reaction, transport and storage devices against these omnipresent and aggressive acids is key for all industries involved. This book is therefore a must-have for all mechanical, civil and chemical engineers, material scientists and chemists working with steel or acidic media.
The book discusses in a detailed manner various nanomaterials used for biomedical applications, including clinical applications, diagnosis and tissue engineering. After the presentation of an overview of biomedical nanomaterials, including their classification and applications, the first part of the book is devoted to biomedical nanomaterials for therapy applications. For example, polymer micelles, dendrimers, polymer-drug conjugates as well as antibody-drug conjugates are discussed with respect to their cancer drug delivery properties. The next parts discuss biomedical nanomaterials that are used for imaging, diagnosis and sensors, as well as for tissue engineering. In the final section, the safety of biomedical nanomaterials is elaborated.
This reference provides thorough and in-depth coverage of the latest production and processing technologies encountered in the aluminum alloy industry, discussing current analytical methods for aluminum alloy characterization as well as extractive metallurgy, smelting, master alloy formation, and recycling. The Handbook of Aluminum: Volume 2 examines environmental pollution and toxicity in each stage of aluminum alloy production and metal processing, illustrates microstructure evolution modeling, and describes work hardening, recovery, recrystallization, and grain growth. The authors cover potential applications of various aluminum intermetallics, recent surface modification techniques, and types and causes of aluminum alloy corrosion.
This book presents a comprehensive introduction to the design of compact and broadband fiber and waveguide devices using active-ion-doped photonic glasses. Combining cutting-edge theory with new applications, it shows how the complementarity of emission spectra of different active ions can be used in broadband fiber amplifiers and optical fiber communication, and describes how the quantum cutting of active ions can improve the match between the solar spectrum and the responsiveness of silicon cells. Mathematical modeling is used to predict the performance of photonic fiber and waveguide devices, and experimental data from glass doped with rare-earth ions is included. Offering unique insights into the state-of-the-art of the field, this is an ideal reference for researchers and practitioners, and invaluable reading for students in optoelectronics, electrical engineering, and materials science.
Focusing on Lifshitz-Van der Waals, Lewis acid-base, and electrical double layer interactions, Colloid and Surface Properties of Clays and Related Minerals discusses measuring the surface properties of flat or particulate solids with contact angles of drops of high-energy liquids deposited on solid surfaces or via the thin-layer wicking technique. Topics include: applications of clays and clay minerals, other mineral colloids, surface thermodynamic properties, theory and interactions between colloids, surface thermodynamic properties of minerals, and biological interactions with mineral particles.
This text examines organic, physical and materials photochemistry. It reports the first example of a TiO2 sensitization with a fullerene-based donor-acceptor dyad, and covers halophenols, diflusinal photochemistry, hydroxystyrenes, acetylenes, and other related compounds. The volume also investigates whether c, d-alkenes influence the efficiency and course of light-induced reactions, and more
The Magnesium Technology Symposium, which takes place every year at the TMS Annual Meeting & Exhibition, is one of the largest yearly gatherings of magnesium specialists in the world. Papers are presented in all aspects of the field, ranging from primary production to applications to recycling. Moreover, papers explore everything from basic research findings to industrialization. Magnesium Technology 2011 covers a broad spectrum of current topics, including alloys and their properties; cast products and processing; wrought products and processing; forming, joining, and machining; corrosion and surface finishing; ecology; and structural applications. In addition, you'll find coverage of new and emerging applications in such areas as biomedicine and hydrogen storage.
This textbook lays out the state of the art for modeling of asphalt concrete as the major structural component of flexible pavements. The text adopts a pedagogy in which a scientific approach, based on materials science and continuum mechanics, predicts the performance of any configuration of flexible roadways subjected to cyclic loadings. The authors incorporate state-of the-art computational mechanics to predict the evolution of material properties, stresses and strains, and roadway deterioration. Designed specifically for both students and practitioners, the book presents fundamentally complex concepts in a clear and concise way that aids the roadway design community to assimilate the tools for designing sustainable roadways using both traditional and innovative technologies.
According to Moore's Law, not only does the number of transistors in an integrated circuit double every two years, but transistor size also decreases at a predictable rate. At the rate we are going, the downsizing of CMOS transistors will reach the deca-nanometer scale by 2020. Accordingly, the gate dielectric thickness will be shrunk to less than half-nanometer oxide equivalent thickness (EOT) to maintain proper operation of the transistors, leaving high-k materials as the only viable solution for such small-scale EOT. This comprehensive, up-to-date text covering the physics, materials, devices, and fabrication processes for high-k gate dielectric materials, Nano-CMOS Gate Dielectric Engineering systematically describes how the fundamental electronic structures and other material properties of the transition metals and rare earth metals affect the electrical properties of the dielectric films, the dielectric/silicon and the dielectric/metal gate interfaces, and the resulting device properties. Specific topics include the problems and solutions encountered with high-k material thermal stability, defect density, and poor initial interface with silicon substrate. The text also addresses the essence of thin film deposition, etching, and process integration of high-k materials in an actual CMOS process. Fascinating in both content and approach, Nano-CMOS Gate Dielectric Engineering explains all of the necessary physics in a highly readable manner and supplements this with numerous intuitive illustrations and tables. Covering almost every aspect of high-k gate dielectric engineering for nano-CMOS technology, this is a perfect reference book for graduate students needing a better understanding of developing technology as well as researchers and engineers needing to get ahead in microelectronic engineering and materials science.
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