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This fully revised, updated and reorganised third edition provides a thorough introduction to the characterisation techniques used in surface science and nanoscience today. Each chapter brings together and compares the different techniques used to address a particular research question, including how to determine the surface composition, surface structure, surface electronic structure, surface microstructure at different length scales (down to sub-molecular), and the molecular character of adsorbates and their adsorption or reaction properties. Readers will easily understand the relative strengths and limitations of the techniques available to them and, ultimately, will be able to select the most suitable techniques for their own particular research purposes. This is an essential resource for researchers and practitioners performing materials analysis, and for senior undergraduate students looking to gain a clear understanding of the underlying principles and applications of the different characterisation techniques used in the field today.
This book contains recent research on phenolic resin and its composite materials. The book covers all types of wood composites, natural fibres and synthetic fibres reinforced composites. It discusses various properties of phenolic composites and presents comparative study with other polymer composites for prospective applications. The chapters in the book present an up-to-date information on the subject area of polymer and composite-based information by prominent researchers in academia and industry as well as government/private research laboratories across the world. The book serves as a holistic reference source for university and college faculties, professionals, postdoctoral research fellows, undergraduate/graduate students, and research and science officers working in the area of polymer science, non-forest products utilization, natural fibres and biomass materials.
Structure- and Adatom-Enriched Essential Properties of Graphene Nanoribbons offers a systematic review of the feature-rich essential properties in emergent graphene nanoribbons, covering mainstream theoretical and experimental research. It includes a wide range of 1D systems; namely, armchair and zigzag graphene nanoribbons with and without hydrogen terminations, curved and zipped graphene nanoribbons, folded graphene nanoribbons, carbon nanoscrolls, bilayer graphene nanoribbons, edge-decorated graphene nanoribbons, and alkali-, halogen-, Al-, Ti, and Bi-absorbed graphene nanoribbons. Both multiorbital chemical bondings and spin arrangements, which are responsible for the diverse phenomena, are explored in detail. First-principles calculations are developed to thoroughly describe the physical, chemical, and material phenomena and concise images explain the fundamental properties. This book examines in detail the application and theory of graphene nanoribbons, offering a new perspective on up-to-date mainstream theoretical and experimental research.
The most current information on growing field of copper catalysis Copper Catalysis in Organic Synthesis contains an up-to-date overview of the most important reactions in the presence of copper catalysts. The contributors--noted experts on the topic--provide an introduction to the field of copper catalysis, reviewing its development, scope, and limitations, as well as providing descriptions of various homo- and cross-coupling reactions. In addition, information is presented on copper-catalyzed C-H activation, amination, carbonylation, trifluoromethylation, cyanation, and click reactions. Comprehensive in scope, the book also describes microwave-assisted and multi-component transformations as well as copper-catalyzed reactions in green solvents and continuous flow reactors. The authors highlight the application of copper catalysis in asymmetric synthesis and total synthesis of natural products and heterocycles as well as nanocatalysis. This important book: Examines copper and its use in organic synthesis as a more cost-effective and sustainable for researchers in academia and industry Offers the first up-to-date book to explore copper as a first line catalyst for many organic reactions Presents the most significant developments in the area, including cross-coupling reactions, C-H activation, asymmetric synthesis, and total synthesis of natural products and heterocycles Contains over 20 contributions from leaders in the field Written for catalytic chemists, organic chemists, natural products chemists, pharmaceutical chemists, and chemists in industry, Copper Catalysis in Organic Synthesis offers a book on the growing field of copper catalysis, covering cross-coupling reactions, C-H activation, and applications in the total synthesis of natural products.
In this primer to the many-body theory of condensed-matter systems, the authors introduce the subject to the non-specialist in a broad, concise, and up-to-date manner. A wide range of topics are covered including the second quantization of operators, coherent states, quantum-mechanical Green's functions, linear response theory, and Feynman diagrammatic perturbation theory. Material is also incorporated from quantum optics, low-dimensional systems such as graphene, and localized excitations in systems with boundaries as in nanoscale materials. Over 100 problems are included at the end of chapters, which are used both to consolidate concepts and to introduce new material. This book is suitable as a teaching tool for graduate courses and is ideal for non-specialist students and researchers working in physics, materials science, chemistry, or applied mathematics who want to use the tools of many-body theory.
A comprehensive text in the field of biomaterials science and tissue engineering, covering fundamental principles and methods related to processing-microstructure-property linkages as applied to biomaterials science. Essential concepts and techniques of the cell biology are discussed in detail, with a focus quantitatively and qualitatively evaluating cell-material interaction. It gives detailed discussion on the processing, structure and properties of metals, ceramics and polymers, together with techniques and guidelines. Comprehensive coverage of in vitro and in vivo biocompatibility property evaluation of materials for bone, neural as well as cardiovascular tissue engineering applications, together with representative protocols. Supported by several multiple-choice questions, fill in the blanks, review questions, numerical problems and solutions to selected problems, this is an ideal text for undergraduate and graduate students in understanding fundamental concepts and the latest developments in the field of biomaterials science.
For courses in architecture and civil engineering. Reinforced Concrete: Mechanics and Design uses the theory of reinforced concrete design to teach students the basic scientific and artistic principles of civil engineering. The text takes a topic often introduced at the advanced level and makes it accessible to all audiences by building a foundation with core engineering concepts. The Seventh Edition is up-to-date with the latest Building Code for Structural Concrete, giving students access to accurate information that can be applied outside of the classroom. Students are able to apply complicated engineering concepts to real world scenarios with in-text examples and practice problems in each chapter. With explanatory features throughout, the Seventh Edition makes the reinforced concrete design a theory all engineers can learn from.
The favorite study guide of engineering students around the world, Schaums have an easy-to-follow format, a solved-problem approach to learning, and clear explanations of both theory and application. This popular introduction to statics and strengths of materials gives you 435 problems solved step by step, plus hundreds more problems to try on your own (you can check your answers at the back of the book.) With thorough introductions to basic principles; nonconcurrent and concurrent coplanar force systems; stress, torsion, shear, deflection, and deformation; connections; and all other important topics taught in this course, this guide can help you spend less time studying and still make better grades!
Many creatures use adhesive polymers and structures to attach to inert substrates, to each other, or to other organisms. This is the first major review that brings together research on many of the well-known biological adhesives dealing with bacteria, fungi, algae, and marine and terrestrial animals. As we learn more about their molecular and mechanical properties we begin to understand why they adhere so well and with this comes broad applications in areas such as medicine, dentistry, and biotechnology.
The use of composite structures in construction is increasing. The optimized combination of the two materials concrete and steel produces particularly cost-efficient structures. This book presents a large number of numerical examples with detailed explanations of the provisions of Eurocode 4. It deals with the most common structural components in building construction: beams, columns and slabs. Furthermore, comprehensive chapters provide insight into the topics of creep and shrinkage, as well as fatigue. This book enables the reader to efficiently perform analyses of composite structures. It is a valuable reference book for professionals as well as an outstanding means for students to become familiar with the Eurocode 4.
For courses in Statics, Strength of Materials, and Structural Principles in Architecture, Construction, and Engineering Technology. Statics and Strength of Materials for Architecture and Building Construction, Fourth Edition, offers students an accessible, visually oriented introduction to structural theory that doesn't rely on calculus. Instead, illustrations and examples of building frameworks and components enable students to better visualize the connection between theoretical concepts and the experiential nature of real buildings and materials. This new edition includes fully worked examples in each chapter, a companion website with extra practice problems, and expanded treatment of load tracing.
This book portrays the commonality of tissue micro-structure that dictates physiological function in various organs (microstructure-function relation). Tissue and organ models are used to illustrate physiological functions based on microstructure. Fiber scale properties such as orientation and crimp are described in detail. Structurally-based constitutive models are given throughout the book, not only to avoid ambiguities in material characterization, but also to offer insights into the function, structure, and mechanics of tissue components. A statement of future directions of the field is also given, including how advancements, such as state-of-the-art computational modeling and optical measurements of tissue/cells structures, are taking structure-based modeling to the next level. This book also: Provides a comprehensive view of tissue modeling across multiple systems Broadens readers' understanding of state-of-the-art computational modeling and optical measurements of tissue/cells structures Describes in detail fiber scale properties such as orientation and crimp
This fully expanded and updated edition provides both scientists and engineers with all the information they need to understand composite materials, covering their underlying science and technological usage. It includes four completely new chapters on surface coatings, highly porous materials, bio-composites and nano-composites, as well as thoroughly revised chapters on fibres and matrices, the design, fabrication and production of composites, mechanical and thermal properties, and industry applications. Extensively expanded referencing engages readers with the latest research and industrial developments in the field, and increased coverage of essential background science makes this a valuable self-contained text. A comprehensive set of homework questions, with model answers available online, explains how calculations associated with the properties of composite materials should be tackled, and educational software accompanying the book is available online. An invaluable text for final-year undergraduates in materials science and engineering, and graduate students and researchers in academia and industry.
This collection presents papers from a symposium on extraction of rare metals as well as rare extraction processing techniques used in metal production. Rare metals include strategic metals that are in increasing demand and subject to supply risks. Metals represented include neodymium, dysprosium, scandium and others; platinum group metals including platinum, palladium, iridium, and others; battery related metals including lithium, cobalt, nickel, and aluminum; electronics-related materials including copper and gold; and refectory metals including titanium, niobium, zirconium, and hafnium. Other critical materials such as gallium, germanium, indium and silicon are also included. Papers cover various processing techniques, including but not limited to hydrometallurgy (solvent extraction, ion exchange, precipitation, and crystallization), electrometallurgy (electrorefining and electrowinning), pyrometallurgy, and aeriometallurgy (supercritical fluid extraction). Contributions are focused on primary production as well as secondary production through urban mining and recycling to enable a circular economy. A useful resource for all involved in commodity metal production, irrespective of the major metal Provides knowledge of cross-application among industries Extraction and processing of rare metals that are the main building block of many emerging critical technologies have been receiving significant attention in recent years. The technologies that rely on critical metals are prominent worldwide, and finding a way to extract and supply them effectively is highly desirable and beneficial.
Within manufacturing, welding is by far the most widely used fabrication method used for production, leading to a rise in research and development activities pertaining to the welding and joining of different, similar, and dissimilar combinations of the metals. This book addresses recent advances in various welding processes across the domain, including arc welding and solid-state welding process, as well as experimental processes. The content is structured to update readers about the working principle, predicaments in existing process, innovations to overcome these problems, and direct industrial and practical applications. Key Features: Describes recent developments in welding technology, engineering, and science Discusses advanced computational techniques for procedure development Reviews recent trends of implementing DOE and meta-heuristics optimization techniques for setting accurate parameters Addresses related theoretical, practical, and industrial aspects Includes all the aspects of welding, such as arc welding, solid state welding, and weld overlay
Learn about the most recent advances in 2D materials with this comprehensive and accessible text. Providing all the necessary materials science and physics background, leading experts discuss the fundamental properties of a wide range of 2D materials, and their potential applications in electronic, optoelectronic and photonic devices. Several important classes of materials are covered, from more established ones such as graphene, hexagonal boron nitride, and transition metal dichalcogenides, to new and emerging materials such as black phosphorus, silicene, and germanene. Readers will gain an in-depth understanding of the electronic structure and optical, thermal, mechanical, vibrational, spin and plasmonic properties of each material, as well as the different techniques that can be used for their synthesis. Presenting a unified perspective on 2D materials, this is an excellent resource for graduate students, researchers and practitioners working in nanotechnology, nanoelectronics, nanophotonics, condensed matter physics, and chemistry.
Designed for both one- and two-semester courses, this textbook provides a succinct and easy-to-read introduction to crystal structures and structure-property relations. By linking together the fundamentals of bond strength and the arrangement of atoms in space with the mechanical, optical, magnetic and electrical properties that they control, students will gain an intuitive understanding of how different materials are suited to particular applications. The systematics of crystal structures are described for both organic and inorganic materials, with coverage including small molecular crystals, polymers, metals, ceramics and semiconductors. Hundreds of figures and practice problems help students gain an advanced, 3D understanding of how structure governs behavior, and a wealth of examples throughout show how the underlying theory is translated into practical devices. With solutions, video lectures and overheads available online for instructors, this is an excellent resource for graduates and senior undergraduates studying materials science and engineering.
The nanotechnology revolution that will transform human health and longevity Nano Comes to Life opens a window onto the nanoscale-the infinitesimal realm of proteins and DNA where physics and cellular and molecular biology meet-and introduces readers to the rapidly evolving nanotechnologies that are allowing us to manipulate the very building blocks of life. Sonia Contera gives an insider's perspective on this new frontier, revealing how nanotechnology enables a new kind of multidisciplinary science that is poised to give us control over our own biology, our health, and our lives. Drawing on her perspective as one of today's leading researchers in the field, Contera describes the exciting ways in which nanotechnology makes it possible to understand, interact with, and manipulate biology-such as by designing and building artificial structures and even machines at the nanoscale using DNA, proteins, and other biological molecules as materials. In turn, nanotechnology is revolutionizing medicine in ways that will have profound effects on our health and longevity, from nanoscale machines that can target individual cancer cells and deliver drugs more effectively, to nanoantibiotics that can fight resistant bacteria, to the engineering of tissues and organs for research, drug discovery, and transplantation. The future will bring about the continued fusion of nanotechnology with biology, physics, medicine, and cutting-edge fields like robotics and artificial intelligence, ushering us into a new "transmaterial era." As we contemplate the power, advantages, and risks of accessing and manipulating our own biology, Contera offers insight and hope that we may all share in the benefits of this revolutionary research.
Food Packaging: Advanced Materials, Technologies, and Innovations is a one-stop reference for packaging materials researchers working across various industries. With chapters written by leading international researchers from industry, academia, government, and private research institutions, this book offers a broad view of important developments in food packaging. Presents an extensive survey of food packaging materials and modern technologies Demonstrates the potential of various materials for use in demanding applications Discusses the use of polymers, composites, nanotechnology, hybrid materials, coatings, wood-based, and other materials in packaging Describes biodegradable packaging, antimicrobial studies, and environmental issues related to packaging materials Offers current status, trends, opportunities, and future directions Aimed at advanced students, research scholars, and professionals in food packaging development, this application-oriented book will help expand the reader's knowledge of advanced materials and their use of innovation in food packaging.
This handy reference compiles the latest data on the corrosion
behavior of materials coming into contact with CO2 -- with 95% of
the contents previously unpublished.
Authored by a rising star in the field and one of its pioneers,
this textbook is ideal for interdisciplinary courses -- bridging
chemistry, materials science, physics and biology. Adopting a
completely new and visionary approach, this is a unique learning
tool, focusing on just six concepts crucial for understanding
nanochemistry: surface, size, shape, self-assembly, defects and the
interface of biology and nanochemistry. These concepts are
elucidated through the analysis of six materials representing the
real life application of the nanochemistry concepts. The teaching
questions included provide real "food for thought," thus training
students to think as a researcher does and so develop
Polymer matrix composites are finding increasing number of applications due to their high weight-saving potential as well as unique characteristics, such as high strength-to-density ratio, fatigue resistance, high damping factor, and freedom from corrosion. While many textbooks are available on the mechanics of polymer matrix composites, few cover their processing. Processing of Polymer Matrix Composites fills this gap. The book focuses on the major manufacturing processes used for polymer matrix composites and describes process details, process parameters and their effects on properties and process-induced defects, and analytical and experimental methods used for understanding process conditions. The book describes fibers, thermosetting and thermoplastic polymers, and interface characteristics that are important from the standpoint of both design and processing. It also emphasizes the applications of process fundamentals for both continuous fiber and short fiber polymer matrix composites. In addition the book considers quality inspection methods, tooling, and manufacturing costs and environmental and safety issues.
This new updated edition provides an unrivaled overview of fibrous materials, their processing, microstructure, properties, and applications. The entire range of fibrous materials is discussed in depth, from natural polymeric fibers such as silk and vegetable fibers, and synthetic polymeric fibers such as aramid and polyethylene, to metallic fibers including steel, tungsten, Nb-Ti, and Nb3Sn, ceramic fibers such as alumina and silicon carbide, and carbon and glass fibers. Fundamental concepts are explained clearly and concisely along with detail on applications in areas including medicine, aerospace, optical communications, and recycling. Significant recent advances are also covered, with new information on the electrospinning of fibers, carbon nanotubes, and photonic bandgap fibers, and detail on advances made in the production and control of microstructure in high stiffness and high strength fibers. Accessibly written and unrivaled in scope, this is an ideal resource for students and researchers in materials science, physics, chemistry, and engineering.
This title features 11 new chapters unique to this edition, including chapters on grain boundaries in graphene, 2D metal carbides and carbonitrides, mechanics of carbon nanotubes and nanomaterials, biomedical applications, oxidation and purification of carbon nanostructures, sintering of nanoceramics, hydrothermal processing, nanofibers, and nanomaterials safety. It offers a comprehensive approach with a focus on inorganic and carbon-based nanomaterials, including fundamentals, applications, synthesis, and characterization. This book also provides a unique angle from the nanomaterial point of view on application, synthesis, and characterization not found in any other nanomaterials book on the market.
This book is dedicated to the field of conductive polymers, focusing on electrical interactions with biological systems. It addresses the use of conductive polymers as the conducting interface for electrical communications with the biological system, both in vitro and in vivo. It provides an overview on the chemistry and physics of conductive polymers, their useful characteristics as well as limitations, and technologies that apply conductive polymers for medical purposes. This groundbreaking resource addresses cytotoxicity and tissue compatibility of conductive polymers, the basics on electromagnetic fields, and commonly used experimental methods. Readers will also learn how cells are cultured in vitro with conductive polymers, and how conductive polymers and living tissues interact electrically. Throughout the contents, chapter authors emphasize the importance of conductive polymers in biomedical engineering and their potential applications in medicine.
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