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This MRS Proceedings volume pulls together several symposia on related topics in the area of biomaterials, all of which were held between April 1-April 5 at the 2013 MRS spring meeting in San Francisco, California.
This thesis presents a series of mechanical test methods and comprehensively investigates the deformation and damage behavior of Cu/Pb-free solder joints under different loading conditions. The fracture behavior of Pb-free joint interfaces induced by stress, deformation of solder and substrate are shown, the shear fracture strength of the Cu6Sn5 IMC is measured experimentally for the first time, and the dynamic damage process and microstructure evolution behavior of Pb-free solder joints are revealed intuitively. The thesis puts forward the argument that the local cumulative damage is the major cause of failure in solder joints. The research results provide the experimental and theoretical basis for improving the reliability of solder joints.
Energy is a key world issue in the context of climate change and increasing population, 'calling for alternative fuels, better energy storage, and energy-saving devices. This books reviews the principles and applications of metals and metal oxides for energy, with focus on batteries, electrodes, nanomaterials, electronics, supercapacitors, biofuels and sensors.
This book presents important developments in green chemistry, with a particular focus on composite materials chemistry. In recent years, natural polymers have generated much interest due to their unique morphology and physical properties. The book gives an introductory overview of green composites, and discusses their emerging interdisciplinary applications in various contemporary fields. The chapters, written by leading experts from industry and academia, cover different aspects of biodegradable green composites and natural polymers including their processing, manufacturing, properties, and applications. This book will be a valuable reference for beginners, researchers as well as industry professionals interested in biodegradable composites.
In recent years, the utilization of terpyridines both in macromolecular structure assembly and device chemistry has exploded, enabling, for example, supramolecular polymer architectures with switchable chemical and physical properties as well as novel functional materials for optoelectronic applications such as light-emitting diodes and solar cells. Further applications include the usage of terpyridines and their metal complexes as catalysts for asymmetric organic reactions and, in a biological context, as anti-tumor agents or biolabels.
This book covers terpyridine-based materials topics ranging from syntheses, chemistry, and multinuclear metal complexes, right up to functionalized polymers, 3D-architectures, and surfaces.
The book is of interest for materials scientists, (in)organic chemists, polymer chemists, complex chemists, physical chemists, biochemists, and libraries.
Molecular Machines presents a dynamic new approach to the physics of enzymes and DNA from the perspective of materials science. Unified around the concept of molecular deformability-how proteins and DNA stretch, fold, and change shape-this book describes the complex molecules of life from the innovative perspective of materials properties and dynamics, in contrast to structural or purely chemical approaches. It covers a wealth of topics, including nonlinear deformability of enzymes and DNA; the chemo-dynamic cycle of enzymes; supra-molecular constructions with internal stress; nano-rheology and viscoelasticity; and chemical kinetics, Brownian motion, and barrier crossing. Essential reading for researchers in materials science, engineering, and nanotechnology, the book also describes the landmark experiments that have established the materials properties and energy landscape of large biological molecules. Molecular Machines is also ideal for the classroom. It gives graduate students a working knowledge of model building in statistical mechanics, making it an essential resource for tomorrow's experimentalists in this cutting-edge field. In addition, mathematical methods are introduced in the bio-molecular context-for example, DNA conformational transitions are used to illustrate the transfer matrix formalism. The result is a generalized approach to mathematical problem solving that enables students to apply their findings more broadly. Molecular Machines represents the next leap forward in nanoscience, as researchers strive to harness proteins, enzymes, and DNA as veritable machines in medicine, technology, and beyond.
This book details the analysis and design of high rise buildings for gravity and seismic analysis. It provides the knowledge structural engineers need to retrofit existing structures in order to meet safety requirements and better prevent potential damage from such disasters as earthquakes and fires. Coverage includes actual case studies of existing buildings, reviews of current knowledge for damages and their mitigation, protective design technologies, and analytical and computational techniques. This monograph also provides an experimental investigation on the properties of fiber reinforced concrete that consists of natural fibres like coconut coir and also steel fibres that are used for comparison in both Normal Strength Concrete (NSC) and High Strength Concrete (HSC). In addition, the authors examine the use of various repair techniques for damaged high rise buildings. The book will help upcoming structural design engineers learn the computer aided analysis and design of real existing high rise buildings by using ACI code for application of the gravity loads, UBC- 97 for seismic analysis and retrofitting analysis by computer models. It will be of immense use to the student community, academicians, consultants and practicing professional engineers and scientists involved in the planning, design, execution, inspection and supervision for the proper retrofitting of buildings.
This thesis presents systematic experimental research on chiral-lattice crystals referred to as B20-type germanium compounds, especially focusing on skyrmion spin textures and Dirac electrons. An emergent electromagnetic field observed in MnGe demonstrates a formation of three-dimensional skyrmion crystals. Detection of skyrmions in nanoscale Hall bar devices made of FeGe is realized by measuring the topological Hall effect, a transport property reflecting emergent fields produced by skyrmions. By measuring the electron-filling dependence of thermopower in CoGe, a pronounced thermoelectric property in this compound is revealed to stem from the asymmetric density of states appearing at certain levels of Fermi energy in the Dirac electron state. The three main results named above will contribute to enriching a variety of novel electromagnetic responses of emergent gauge fields in solids, to realizing high-performance skyrmion-based magnetic memory, and to designing high-efficiency thermoelectric materials, respectively.
Phase morphology in multicomponent polymer-based systems represents the main physical characteristic that allows for control of the material design and implicitly the development of new plastics. Emphasizing properties of these promising new materials in both solution and solid phase, this book describes the preparation, processing, properties, and practical implications of advanced multiphase systems from macro to nanoscales. It covers a wide range of systems including copolymers, polymer blends, polymer composites, gels, interpenetrating polymers, and layered polymer/metal structures, describing aspects of polymer science, engineering, and technology. The book analyzes experimental and theoretical aspects regarding the thermal and electrical transport phenomena and magnetic properties of crucial importance in advanced technologies. It reviews the most recent advances concerning morphological, rheological, interfacial, physical, fire-resistant, thermophysical, and biomedical properties of multiphase polymer systems. Concomitantly the book deals with basic investigation techniques that are sensitive in elucidating the features of each phase. It also discusses the latest research trends that offer new solutions for advanced bio- and nanotechnologies. Introduces an overview of recent studies in the area of multiphase polymer systems, their micro- and nanostructural evolutions in advanced technologies, and provides future outlooks, new challenges and opportunities. Discusses multicomponent structures that offer enhanced physical, mechanical, thermal, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties adapted to current requirements of modern technologies. Covers a wide range of materials, such as composites, blends, alloys, gels and interpenetrating polymer networks. Presents new strategies for controlling the micro- and nanomorphology and the mechanical properties of multiphase polymeric materials. Describes different applications of multiphase polymeric materials in various fields, including automotive, aeronautics and space industry, displays, and medicine.
This work provides an overview of a posteriori error assessment techniques for Finite Element (FE) based numerical models. These tools aim at estimating and controlling the discretization error in scientific computational models, being the basis for the numerical verification of the FE solutions. The text discusses the capabilities and limitations of classical methods to build error estimates which can be used to control the quality of numerical simulations and drive adaptive algorithms, with a focus on Computational Mechanics engineering applications. Fundamentals principles of residual methods, smoothing (recovery) methods, and constitutive relation error (duality based) methods are thus addressed along the manuscript. Attention is paid to recent advances and forthcoming research challenges on related topics. The book constitutes a useful guide for students, researchers, or engineers wishing to acquire insights into state-of-the-art techniques for numerical verification.
Designed for advanced undergraduate students and as a useful reference book for materials researchers, Physical Properties of Materials, Third Edition establishes the principles that control the optical, thermal, electronic, magnetic, and mechanical properties of materials. Using an atomic and molecular approach, this introduction to materials science offers readers a wide-ranging survey of the field and a basis to understand future materials. The author incorporates comments on applications of materials science, extensive references to the contemporary and classic literature, and 350 end-of-chapter problems. In addition, unique tutorials allow students to apply the principles to understand applications, such as photocopying, magnetic devices, fiber optics, and more. This fully revised and updated Third Edition includes new materials and processes, such as topological insulators, 3-D printing, and more information on nanomaterials. The new edition also now adds Learning Goals at the end of each chapter and a Glossary with more than 500 entries for quick reference.
This book introducing all researchers and students who are interested in pursuing their research in the field of application of carbon dots in health care especially as a theranostic agent. It focuses on the fundamental understanding along with the applications of this unique fluorescent nanobiomachine, the Carbon Dot. The book begins with the explanation that carbon dots fall between the usual daily macro or bulk physics and the quantum mechanics and covers their unique properties like quantum mechanics and quantum confinement. It then encompasses the domain of various physical, chemical and biological methods that efficiently synthesizes the carbon dots and their desired properties. The basic characterization techniques used for carbon dots is also covered in this book. Conjugation of carbon dots with different moieties is another aspect that enhances its applications, hence this is highlighted too. The final attributes of this book is that how to maneuver the carbon dots for their use in targeted drug delivery with emphasis on cancer and neurodegenerative disease as well as cellular imaging and diagnostics. One of the unique features of this book is that it has looked into the use of carbon dots to act as a nanofertilizer, as a drug/antibiotic delivery vehicle to diseased plants through foliar application.
Recently, a new research stimulus has derived from the observation that soft structures, such as biological systems, but also rubber and gel, may work in a post critical regime, where elastic elements are subject to extreme deformations, though still exhibiting excellent mechanical performances. This is the realm of 'extreme mechanics', to which this book is addressed. The possibility of exploiting highly deformable structures opens new and unexpected technological possibilities. In particular, the challenge is the design of deformable and bi-stable mechanisms which can reach superior mechanical performances and can have a strong impact on several high-tech applications, including stretchable electronics, nanotube serpentines, deployable structures for aerospace engineering, cable deployment in the ocean, but also sensors and flexible actuators and vibration absorbers. Readers are introduced to a variety of interrelated topics involving the mechanics of extremely deformable structures, with emphasis on bifurcation, instability and nonlinear behavior, both in the quasi-static and dynamic regimes. Essential and up-to-date theoretical, numerical and experimental methodologies are covered, as a tool to progress towards a satisfactory modeling of the nonlinear behavior of structures.
Scrutinizing various fillers, such as fly ash, inorganic nanoparticles, Kevlar and wood flour, this book exemplifies how the choice of filler influences the micro- and macroscopic behavior of the resulting polymer composites, such as friction, wear and impact resistance. In so doing, the text brings together a number of composite systems using different polymer matrices, different filler systems as well as different processing conditions, thereby serving as a beneficial guide for readers so as to select a particular set of processing conditions or composite constituents for the enhancement of certain properties.
Research in the area of nanoindentation has gained significant momentum in recent years, but there are very few books currently available which can educate researchers on the application aspects of this technique in various areas of materials science. Applied Nanoindentation in Advanced Materials addresses this need and is a comprehensive, self-contained reference covering applied aspects of nanoindentation in advanced materials. With contributions from leading researchers in the field, this book is divided into three parts. Part one covers innovations and analysis, and parts two and three examine the application and evaluation of soft and ceramic-like materials respectively. Key features: * A one stop solution for scholars and researchers to learn applied aspects of nanoindentation * Contains contributions from leading researchers in the field * Includes the analysis of key properties that can be studied using the nanoindentation technique * Covers recent innovations * Includes worked examples Applied Nanoindentation in Advanced Materials is an ideal reference for researchers and practitioners working in the areas of nanotechnology and nanomechanics, and is also a useful source of information for graduate students in mechanical and materials engineering, and chemistry. This book also contains a wealth of information for scientists and engineers interested in mathematical modelling and simulations related to nanoindentation testing and analysis.
Non-Invasive Instrumentation and Measurement in Medical Diagnosis, Second Edition discusses NIMD as a rapidly growing, interdisciplinary field. The contents within this second edition text is derived from Professor Robert B. Northrop's experience teaching for over 35 years in the Biomedical Engineering Department at the University of Connecticut. The text focusses on the instruments and procedures which are used for non-invasive medical diagnosis and therapy, highlighting why NIMD is the preferred procedure, whenever possible, to avoid the risks and expenses associated with surgically opening the body surface. This second edition also covers a wide spectrum of NIMD topics including: x-ray bone densitometry by the DEXA method; tissue fluorescence spectroscopy; optical interferometric measurement of nanometer tissue displacements; laser Doppler velocimetry; pulse oximetry; and applications of Raman spectroscopy in detecting cancer, to name a few. This book is intended for use in an introductory classroom course on Non-Invasive Medical Instrumentation and Measurements taken by juniors, seniors, and graduate students in Biomedical Engineering. It will also serve as a reference book for medical students and other health professionals intrigued by the topic. Practicing physicians, nurses, physicists, and biophysicists interested in learning state of the art techniques in this critical field will also find this text valuable. Non-Invasive Instrumentation and Measurement in Medical Diagnosis, Second Edition concludes with an expansive index, bibliography, as well as a comprehensive glossary for future reference and reading.
This book provides detailed information on the methods and techniques that can be used to process coir, cocopeat and other coconut byproducts for developing various bioproducts. Coir is a unique raw material in that it is abundant, green, and sustainable. The most common industrial application of coir is to use it as a reinforcement of composites with other natural or synthetic fibers and resins. Coir-based composites are used in automotive, construction, and packaging, among other applications. Recently cocopeat, coconut shells and other byproducts have been used for energy, environmental remediation and agricultural applications. This is the first reference describing the properties, processability, and applications of all the coconut byproducts. Properties of the products developed are also covered with a major focus on industrial applications. Provides a single, comprehensive reference source on the biorenewable material coir and other coconut byproducts Addresses properties, processing and a broad range of industrial applications Enables researchers spanning the materials, polymer, agricultural, composites and environmental areas to identify unique and useful applications of coir and other coconut byproducts
Contains 32 papers from the following seven 2013 Materials Science and Technology (MS&T'13) symposia: Innovative Processing and Synthesis of Ceramics, Glasses and Composites Advances in Ceramic Matrix Composites Advanced Materials for Harsh Environments Advances in Dielectric Materials and Electronic Devices Controlled Synthesis, Processing, and Applications of Structure and Functional Nanomaterials Rustum Roy Memorial Symposium: Processing and Performance of Materials Using Microwaves, Electric and Magnetic Fields, Ultrasound, Lasers, and Mechanical Work Solution Based Processing for Ceramic Materials
Functional oxides are used both as insulators and metallic conductors in key applications across all industrial sectors. This makes them attractive candidates in modern technology ? they make solar cells cheaper, computers more efficient and medical instrumentation more sensitive. Based on recent research, experts in the field describe novel materials, their properties and applications for energy systems, semiconductors, electronics, catalysts and thin films. This monograph is divided into 6 parts which allows the reader to find their topic of interest quickly and efficiently. * Magnetic Oxides * Dopants, Defects and Ferromagnetism in Metal Oxides * Ferroelectrics * Multiferroics * Interfaces and Magnetism * Devices and Applications This book is a valuable asset to materials scientists, solid state chemists, solid state physicists, as well as engineers in the electric and automotive industries.
Meticulous, precise account of the theory of finite elasticity covers the application of the theory to the solution of boundary-value problems, and to the analysis of the mechanical properties of solid materials capable of large elastic deformations. Setting is purely isothermal. Widely regarded as a classic in the field. Problems. References. Appendixes. 544p.
Cluster Ion-Solid Interactions: Theory, Simulation, and Experiment provides an overview of various concepts in cluster physics and related topics in physics, including the fundamentals and tools underlying novel cluster ion beam technology. The material is based on the author's highly regarded courses at Kyoto University, Purdue University, the Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, and the Moscow Engineering Physics Institute as well as his research results on cluster ion beam applications at Kyoto University. The author introduces the basic principles of statistical physics and thermodynamics before covering applications, experimental justifications, and practical implementations. He describes classical nucleation theory and explains the drawbacks of this theory, showing how accurate modeling and simulations are necessary to justify theoretical approaches and simplifications.
This first systematic compilation of synthesis methods for
different classes of polymers describes well-tested and
reproducible procedures, thus saving time, money and
Covering most of the topics taught in university courses in quantum chemistry, this authoritative text provides modern concepts of atomic and molecular structure as well as chemical bond. Brief historical account of the origin of quantum theory, its applications to the problem of atomic spectra and atomic structure have been discussed. Electronic configuration of atoms based on the four-quantum-number system, symbols for atomic states, and classification of elements and their distribution in the periodic table have been given a comprehensive treatment. Postulates of quantum mechanics, quantum-mechanical operators, Hamiltonian operator, derivation of Schroedinger equation, its application to particle-in-a-box and to the hydrogen atom, quantization of energy levels, uncertainty principle, probability distribution functions, angular and radial wave functions, nodal properties, sectional and charge-cloud representation of atomic orbitals, etc., have been covered in detail. The valence bond and molecular orbital methods of bonding, hybridization, orbital structure of common hydrocarbons, bonding in coordination compounds based on valence bond and ligand field theories, the concept of valency, ionic and covalent bonding, bonding in metals, secondary bond forces, and so on have been discussed in a reasonable amount of detail. A unique feature of the book is the adoption of a problem solving approach. Thus, while the text has been frequently interspersed with numerous fully worked out illustrative examples to help the concepts and theories, a large number of fully solved problems have been appended at the end of each chapter (totalling nearly 300). With its lucid style and in-depth coverage, the book would be immensely useful to undergraduate and postgraduate students of general chemistry and quantum chemistry. Students of physics and materials science would also find the book an invaluable supplement.
This is the fourth volume of the handbook of functional nanomaterials (4 volume set). Functional nanomaterials appear in our daily lives. These materials mainly include nanocomposites, nanopowders, nanoparticles and nanocoatings. Nanotechnology enables the creation of structures that do not exist in nature, those which cannot be produced by conventional chemistry. This research aims to create and exploit the structures and systems which involve unique applications due to their small dimensions. The main difference between nanotechnology and other technologies is found within the dimensions and properties of the materials and structures applied to this technology. This volume mainly discusses the properties and commercialisation of functional nanomaterials. Some of the functional nanomaterials that were discussed in this volume are graphene-based nanocomposites, nanoporous materials, ionic liquids-carbon nanotube nanocomposites, carbon nanotube/nanofiber cement-based composites, titania nanostructured materials, nanostructured multi-layer films, ZnO nanostructures, biomolecular nanoconjugates, functionalised magnetic nanoparticles, nano latex materials, semiconductor quantum dots, mesoporous silica-based sensors and keratin nanomaterials. There are 21 chapters in this volume. Each one includes examples of these interesting materials, supported with appropriate figures for better clarification.
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