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How much does appearance matter in the formation of romantic relationships? Do nice guys always finish last? Does playing hard-to-get ever work? What really makes for a good chat-up line? When it comes to relationships, there's no shortage of advice from self-help 'experts', pick-up artists, and glossy magazines. But modern-day myths of attraction often have no basis in fact or - worse - are rooted in little more than misogyny. In Attraction Explained, psychologist Viren Swami debunks these myths and draws on cutting-edge research to provide a ground-breaking and evidence-based account of relationship formation. At the core of this book is a very simple idea: there are no 'laws of attraction', no foolproof methods or strategies for getting someone to date you. But this isn't to say that there's nothing to be gained from studying attraction. Based on science rather than self-help cliches, Attraction Explained looks at how factors such as geography, appearance, personality, and similarity affect who we fall for and why.
This informative survey chronicles the process of abstraction that
ultimately led to the axiomatic formulation of the abstract notion
of group. Hans Wussing, former Director of the Karl Sudhoff
Institute for the History of Medicine and Science at Leipzig
University, contradicts the conventional thinking that the roots of
the abstract notion of group lie strictly in the theory of
algebraic equations. Wussing declares their presence in the
geometry and number theory of the late eighteenth and early
The most effective way to study any branch of mathematics is to tackle its problems. This wide-ranging anthology offers a straightforward approach, with 431 challenging problems in all phases of group theory, from elementary to the most advanced. The problems are arranged in eleven chapters: subgroups, permutation groups, automorphisms and finitely generated Abelian groups, normal series, commutators and derived series, solvable and nilpotent groups, the group ring and monomial representations, Frattini subgroup, factorization, linear groups, and representations and characters. Each chapter features a preface of pertinent definitions and theorems, and full solutions appear in a separate section. Most of these problems are derived from research papers published since 1950 (a listing of 102 references is supplied). This compilation makes them readily accessible as a supplement to courses in group theory. The presentation places equal emphasis on techniques and results, encouraging the development of both skill and comprehension.
Excellent text approaches characters via rings (or algebras). In addition to techniques for applying characters to "pure" group theory, much of the book focuses on properties of the characters themselves and how these properties reflect and are reflected in the structure of the group. Problems follow each chapter. Prerequisite a first-year graduate algebra course. "A pleasure to read."-American Mathematical Society. 1976 edition.
Although group theory is a mathematical subject, it is indispensable to many areas of modern theoretical physics, from atomic physics to condensed matter physics, particle physics to string theory. In particular, it is essential for an understanding of the fundamental forces. Yet until now, what has been missing is a modern, accessible, and self-contained textbook on the subject written especially for physicists. Group Theory in a Nutshell for Physicists fills this gap, providing a user-friendly and classroom-tested text that focuses on those aspects of group theory physicists most need to know. From the basic intuitive notion of a group, A. Zee takes readers all the way up to how theories based on gauge groups could unify three of the four fundamental forces. He also includes a concise review of the linear algebra needed for group theory, making the book ideal for self-study. * Provides physicists with a modern and accessible introduction to group theory* Covers applications to various areas of physics, including field theory, particle physics, relativity, and much more* Topics include finite group and character tables; real, pseudoreal, and complex representations; Weyl, Dirac, and Majorana equations; the expanding universe and group theory; grand unification; and much more* The essential textbook for students and an invaluable resource for researchers* Features a brief, self-contained treatment of linear algebra* An online illustration package is available to professors* Solutions manual (available only to professors)
Every four years leading researchers gather to survey the latest developments in all aspects of group theory. Initially held in St Andrews, these meetings have become the premier forum for group theory across the whole of the UK. Since 1981, the proceedings of 'Groups St Andrews' have provided a regular snapshot of the state-of-the-art in group theory and helped to shape the direction of research in the field. This volume contains papers from the 2017 meeting held in Birmingham. It includes expository articles from the invited speakers, and further surveys contributed by the participants. Topics include: generation of finite simple groups, block theory, fusion systems, algebraic groups, one-relator groups, geometric group theory, and Beauville groups.
This handbook on group theory is geared toward chemists and
experimental physicists who use spectroscopy and require knowledge
of the electronic structures of the materials they investigate.
Accessible to undergraduate students, it takes an elementary
approach to many of the key concepts. Rather than the deductive
method common to books on mathematics and theoretical physics, the
present volume introduces fundamental concepts with simple
examples, relating them to specific chemical and physical
This book gathers research papers and surveys on the latest advances in Schubert Calculus, presented at the International Festival in Schubert Calculus, held in Guangzhou, China on November 6-10, 2017. With roots in enumerative geometry and Hilbert's 15th problem, modern Schubert Calculus studies classical and quantum intersection rings on spaces with symmetries, such as flag manifolds. The presence of symmetries leads to particularly rich structures, and it connects Schubert Calculus to many branches of mathematics, including algebraic geometry, combinatorics, representation theory, and theoretical physics. For instance, the study of the quantum cohomology ring of a Grassmann manifold combines all these areas in an organic way. The book is useful for researchers and graduate students interested in Schubert Calculus, and more generally in the study of flag manifolds in relation to algebraic geometry, combinatorics, representation theory and mathematical physics.
Complex Lie groups have often been used as auxiliaries in the study of real Lie groups in areas such as differential geometry and representation theory. To date, however, no book has fully explored and developed their structural aspects.
This book collects important results concerning the classification and properties of nilpotent orbits in a Lie algebra. It develops the Dynkin-Kostant and Bala-Carter classifications of complex nilpotent orbits and derives the Lusztig-Spaltenstein theory of induction of nilpotent orbits.
Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Trends in Semigroup Theory and Evolution Equations held Sept. 1989, Delft University of Technology, the Netherlands. Papers deal with recent developments in semigroup theory (e.g., positive, dual, integrated), and nonlinear evolution equations (e
Fascinating connections exist between group theory and automata theory, and a wide variety of them are discussed in this text. Automata can be used in group theory to encode complexity, to represent aspects of underlying geometry on a space on which a group acts, and to provide efficient algorithms for practical computation. There are also many applications in geometric group theory. The authors provide background material in each of these related areas, as well as exploring the connections along a number of strands that lead to the forefront of current research in geometric group theory. Examples studied in detail include hyperbolic groups, Euclidean groups, braid groups, Coxeter groups, Artin groups, and automata groups such as the Grigorchuk group. This book will be a convenient reference point for established mathematicians who need to understand background material for applications, and can serve as a textbook for research students in (geometric) group theory.
Fourier analysis aims to decompose functions into a superposition of simple trigonometric functions, whose special features can be exploited to isolate specific components into manageable clusters before reassembling the pieces. This two-volume text presents a largely self-contained treatment, comprising not just the major theoretical aspects (Part I) but also exploring links to other areas of mathematics and applications to science and technology (Part II). Following the historical and conceptual genesis, this book (Part I) provides overviews of basic measure theory and functional analysis, with added insight into complex analysis and the theory of distributions. The material is intended for both beginning and advanced graduate students with a thorough knowledge of advanced calculus and linear algebra. Historical notes are provided and topics are illustrated at every stage by examples and exercises, with separate hints and solutions, thus making the exposition useful both as a course textbook and for individual study.
The key idea in geometric group theory is to study infinite groups by endowing them with a metric and treating them as geometric spaces. This applies to many groups naturally appearing in topology, geometry, and algebra, such as fundamental groups of manifolds, groups of matrices with integer coefficients, etc. The primary focus of this book is to cover the foundations of geometric group theory, including coarse topology, ultralimits and asymptotic cones, hyperbolic groups, isoperimetric inequalities, growth of groups, amenability, Kazhdan's Property (T) and the Haagerup property, as well as their characterizations in terms of group actions on median spaces and spaces with walls. The book contains proofs of several fundamental results of geometric group theory, such as Gromov's theorem on groups of polynomial growth, Tits's alternative, Stallings's theorem on ends of groups, Dunwoody's accessibility theorem, the Mostow Rigidity Theorem, and quasiisometric rigidity theorems of Tukia and Schwartz. This is the first book in which geometric group theory is presented in a form accessible to advanced graduate students and young research mathematicians. It fills a big gap in the literature and will be used by researchers in geometric group theory and its applications.
This book provides a comprehensive introduction to Soergel bimodules. First introduced by Wolfgang Soergel in the early 1990s, they have since become a powerful tool in geometric representation theory. On the one hand, these bimodules are fairly elementary objects and explicit calculations are possible. On the other, they have deep connections to Lie theory and geometry. Taking these two aspects together, they offer a wonderful primer on geometric representation theory. In this book the reader is introduced to the theory through a series of lectures, which range from the basics, all the way to the latest frontiers of research. This book serves both as an introduction and as a reference guide to the theory of Soergel bimodules. Thus it is intended for anyone who wants to learn about this exciting field, from graduate students to experienced researchers.
This volume is to be regarded as the fifth in the series of Harish-Chandra's collected papers, continuing the four volumes already published by Springer-Verlag. Because of manifold illnesses in the last ten years of his life, a large part of Harish-Chandra's work remained unpublished. The present volume deals with those unpublished manuscripts involving real groups, and includes only those pertaining to the theorems which Harish-Chandra had announced without proofs. An attempt has been made by the volume editors to bring out this material in a more coherent form than in the handwritten manuscripts, although nothing essentially new has been added and editorial comments are kept to a minimum. The papers deal with several topics: characters on non-connected real groups, Fourier transforms of orbital integrals, Whittaker theory, and supertempered characters. The generality of Harish-Chandra's results in these papers far exceeds anything in print. The volume will be of great interest to all mathematicians interested in Lie groups, and all who have an interest in the opus of a twentieth century giant. Harish-Chandra was a great mathematician, perhaps one of the greatest of the second half of the twentieth century.
This work is the first systematic study of all possible conformally covariant differential operators transforming differential forms on a Riemannian manifold X into those on a submanifold Y with focus on the model space (X, Y) = (Sn, Sn-1). The authors give a complete classification of all such conformally covariant differential operators, and find their explicit formulae in the flat coordinates in terms of basic operators in differential geometry and classical hypergeometric polynomials. Resulting families of operators are natural generalizations of the Rankin-Cohen brackets for modular forms and Juhl's operators from conformal holography. The matrix-valued factorization identities among all possible combinations of conformally covariant differential operators are also established. The main machinery of the proof relies on the "F-method" recently introduced and developed by the authors. It is a general method to construct intertwining operators between C -induced representations or to find singular vectors of Verma modules in the context of branching rules, as solutions to differential equations on the Fourier transform side. The book gives a new extension of the F-method to the matrix-valued case in the general setting, which could be applied to other problems as well. This book offers a self-contained introduction to the analysis of symmetry breaking operators for infinite-dimensional representations of reductive Lie groups. This feature will be helpful for active scientists and accessible to graduate students and young researchers in differential geometry, representation theory, and theoretical physics.
This volume is based on the presentations and discussions of a national symposium on "Couples in Conflict" that focused on family issues. A common thread throughout is that constructive conflict and negotiation are beneficial for relationships. Together, the chapters provide a foundation for thinking about creative ways in which our society can work to prevent or minimize destructive couple conflict and to enhance couples' abilities to constructively handle their differences. Divided into four parts, this book: *addresses the societal and bioevolutionary underpinnings of couple conflict; *presents the interpersonal roots of couple conflict and the consequences for individuals and couples; *discusses what effects couple conflict have on children and how individual differences in children moderate these effects; and *outlines the issue of policies and programs that address couple conflict. This book concludes with an essay that pulls these four themes together and points to new directions for research and program efforts.
This volume presents the current state of knowledge in all aspects of two-dimensional homotopy theory. Building on the foundations laid a quarter of a century ago in the volume Two-dimensional Homotopy and Combinatorial Group Theory (LMS 197), the editors here bring together much remarkable progress that has been obtained in the intervening years. And while the fundamental open questions, such as the Andrews-Curtis Conjecture and the Whitehead asphericity problem remain to be (fully) solved, this book will provide both students and experts with an overview of the state of the art and work in progress. Ample references are included to the LMS 197 volume, as well as a comprehensive bibliography bringing matters entirely up to date.
In the 1800s mathematicians introduced a formal theory of symmetry: group theory. Now a branch of abstract algebra, this subject first arose in the theory of equations. Symmetry is an immensely important concept in mathematics and throughout the sciences, and its applications range across the entire subject. Symmetry governs the structure of crystals, innumerable types of pattern formation, how systems change their state as parameters vary; and fundamental physics is governed by symmetries in the laws of nature. It is highly visual, with applications that include animal markings, locomotion, evolutionary biology, elastic buckling, waves, the shape of the Earth, and the form of galaxies. In this Very Short Introduction, Ian Stewart demonstrates its deep implications, and shows how it plays a major role in the current search to unify relativity and quantum theory. ABOUT THE SERIES: The Very Short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost every subject area. These pocket-sized books are the perfect way to get ahead in a new subject quickly. Our expert authors combine facts, analysis, perspective, new ideas, and enthusiasm to make interesting and challenging topics highly readable.
Approximate groups have shot to prominence in recent years, driven both by rapid progress in the field itself and by a varied and expanding range of applications. This text collects, for the first time in book form, the main concepts and techniques into a single, self-contained introduction. The author presents a number of recent developments in the field, including an exposition of his recent result classifying nilpotent approximate groups. The book also features a considerable amount of previously unpublished material, as well as numerous exercises and motivating examples. It closes with a substantial chapter on applications, including an exposition of Breuillard, Green and Tao's celebrated approximate-group proof of Gromov's theorem on groups of polynomial growth. Written by an author who is at the forefront of both researching and teaching this topic, this text will be useful to advanced students and to researchers working in approximate groups and related areas.
The year 1897 was marked by two important mathematical events: the publication of the first paper on representations of finite groups by Ferdinand Georg Frobenius (1849-1917) and the appearance of the first treatise in English on the theory of finite groups by William Burnside (1852-1927). Burnside soon developed his own approach to representations of finite groups. In the next few years, working independently, Frobenius and Burnside explored the new subject and its applications to finite group theory. They were soon joined in this enterprise by Issai Schur (1875-1941) and some years later, by Richard Brauer (1901-1977). These mathematicians' pioneering research is the subject of this book.It presents an account of the early history of representation theory through an analysis of the published work of the principals and others with whom the principals' work was interwoven. Also included are biographical sketches and enough mathematics to enable readers to follow the development of the subject. An introductory chapter contains some of the results involving characters of finite abelian groups by Lagrange, Gauss, and Dirichlet, which were part of the mathematical tradition from which Frobenius drew his inspiration. This book presents the early history of an active branch of mathematics. It includes enough detail to enable readers to learn the mathematics along with the history. The volume would be a suitable text for a course on representations of finite groups, particularly one emphasizing an historical point of view.
This book provides an introduction to the role of diversity in complex adaptive systems. A complex system--such as an economy or a tropical ecosystem--consists of interacting adaptive entities that produce dynamic patterns and structures. Diversity plays a different role in a complex system than it does in an equilibrium system, where it often merely produces variation around the mean for performance measures. In complex adaptive systems, diversity makes fundamental contributions to system performance.
Scott Page gives a concise primer on how diversity happens, how it is maintained, and how it affects complex systems. He explains how diversity underpins system level robustness, allowing for multiple responses to external shocks and internal adaptations; how it provides the seeds for large events by creating outliers that fuel tipping points; and how it drives novelty and innovation. Page looks at the different kinds of diversity--variations within and across types, and distinct community compositions and interaction structures--and covers the evolution of diversity within complex systems and the factors that determine the amount of maintained diversity within a system.Provides a concise and accessible introduction Shows how diversity underpins robustness and fuels tipping points Covers all types of diversity The essential primer on diversity in complex adaptive systems
Geometric group theory is the study of the interplay between groups and the spaces they act on, and has its roots in the works of Henri Poincare, Felix Klein, J.H.C. Whitehead, and Max Dehn. Office Hours with a Geometric Group Theorist brings together leading experts who provide one-on-one instruction on key topics in this exciting and relatively new field of mathematics. It's like having office hours with your most trusted math professors. An essential primer for undergraduates making the leap to graduate work, the book begins with free groups--actions of free groups on trees, algorithmic questions about free groups, the ping-pong lemma, and automorphisms of free groups. It goes on to cover several large-scale geometric invariants of groups, including quasi-isometry groups, Dehn functions, Gromov hyperbolicity, and asymptotic dimension. It also delves into important examples of groups, such as Coxeter groups, Thompson's groups, right-angled Artin groups, lamplighter groups, mapping class groups, and braid groups. The tone is conversational throughout, and the instruction is driven by examples. Accessible to students who have taken a first course in abstract algebra, Office Hours with a Geometric Group Theorist also features numerous exercises and in-depth projects designed to engage readers and provide jumping-off points for research projects.
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