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Converging and diverging views on the mind, the self, consciousness, the unconscious, free will, perception, meditation, and other topics. Buddhism shares with science the task of examining the mind empirically; it has pursued, for two millennia, direct investigation of the mind through penetrating introspection. Neuroscience, on the other hand, relies on third-person knowledge in the form of scientific observation. In this book, Matthieu Ricard, a Buddhist monk trained as a molecular biologist, and Wolf Singer, a distinguished neuroscientist-close friends, continuing an ongoing dialogue-offer their perspectives on the mind, the self, consciousness, the unconscious, free will, epistemology, meditation, and neuroplasticity. Ricard and Singer's wide-ranging conversation stages an enlightening and engaging encounter between Buddhism's wealth of experiential findings and neuroscience's abundance of experimental results. They discuss, among many other things, the difference between rumination and meditation (rumination is the scourge of meditation, but psychotherapy depends on it); the distinction between pure awareness and its contents; the Buddhist idea (or lack of one) of the unconscious and neuroscience's precise criteria for conscious and unconscious processes; and the commonalities between cognitive behavioral therapy and meditation. Their views diverge (Ricard asserts that the third-person approach will never encounter consciousness as a primary experience) and converge (Singer points out that the neuroscientific understanding of perception as reconstruction is very like the Buddhist all-discriminating wisdom) but both keep their vision trained on understanding fundamental aspects of human life.
Thoroughly updated and incorporating the most important advances in the fast-growing field of cancer biology, The Biology of Cancer, Second Edition, maintains all of its hallmark features admired by students, instructors, researchers, and clinicians around the world. The Biology of Cancer is a textbook for students studying the molecular and cellular bases of cancer at the undergraduate, graduate, and medical school levels. The principles of cancer biology are presented in an organized, cogent, and in-depth manner. The clarity of writing, supported by an extensive full-color art program and numerous pedagogical features, makes the book accessible and engaging. The information unfolds through the presentation of key experiments that give readers a sense of discovery and provide insights into the conceptual foundation underlying modern cancer biology. The new Second Edition has been comprehensively revised and updated to include major advances in cancer biology over the past six years. Updates include current information on: The tumor microenvironment Metastatic dissemination Tumor immunology Cancer stem cells The epithelial-mesenchymal transition Multi-step tumorigenesis Invasion and metastasis Mutation of cancer cell genomes Greatly expanded treatment of traditional therapy Epigenetic contributions MicroRNA involvement The Warburg effect Besides its value as a textbook, The Biology of Cancer is a useful reference for individuals working in biomedical laboratories and for clinical professionals. Every copy of the book comes with an updated "Pathways in Human Cancer" poster and a DVD-ROM containing the book's art program, a greatly expanded selection of movies, audio file mini-lectures, Supplementary Sidebars, and a Media Guide.
Written by world-renowned researchers, including Michael Gazzaniga, Cognitive Neuroscience remains the gold standard in its field, showcasing the latest discoveries and clinical applications. In its new Fifth Edition, updated material is woven into the narrative of each chapter and featured in new Hot Science and Lessons from the Clinic sections. The presentation is also more accessible and focused as the result of Anatomical Orientation figures, Take-Home Message features, and streamlined chapter openers.
'Wonderful ... Illuminating ... Fun to read' Daniel Kahneman, author of Thinking, Fast and Slow A pioneer of artificial intelligence shows how the study of causality revolutionized science and the world 'Correlation does not imply causation.' This mantra was invoked by scientists for decades in order to avoid taking positions as to whether one thing caused another, such as smoking and cancer and carbon dioxide and global warming. But today, that taboo is dead. The causal revolution, sparked by world-renowned computer scientist Judea Pearl and his colleagues, has cut through a century of confusion and placed cause and effect on a firm scientific basis. Now, Pearl and science journalist Dana Mackenzie explain causal thinking to general readers for the first time, showing how it allows us to explore the world that is and the worlds that could have been. It is the essence of human and artificial intelligence. And just as Pearl's discoveries have enabled machines to think better, The Book of Why explains how we can think better.
An instant bestseller in 1859, few books have had such a revolutionary impact and left such a lasting impression as On the Origin of Species. Possibly the most important and challenging scientific book ever published, Darwin's language remains surprisingly modern and direct and is presented here in a faithful facsimile edition. The text is taken from the second edition (1860), which is the same as the first except for some minor corrections and so is the purest distillation of Darwin's original vision. It includes a new foreword by David Williams, Researcher at the Natural History Museum,and the introductory appendix, An Historical Sketch of the Recent Progress of Opinion on the Origin, which first appeared in the third edition (1861). As such it is an ideal scholarly resource as well an attractive and excellent value edition for the general reader.
Entrepreneurial cognition research is at a crossroads, where static views give way to dynamic approaches. This Handbook draws on a variety of perspectives from experts in the field of entrepreneurial cognition to highlight the key elements in a socially-situated view, where cognition is action-oriented, embodied, socially-situated, and distributed. It provides readers with some of the most up-to-date approaches to entrepreneurial cognition research and is designed to be an invaluable and timesaving companion for entrepreneurial cognition researchers. With insights from leading entrepreneurial cognition researchers the Handbook offers a comprehensive literature review of the field. Readers seeking to better understand and participate in some of the most up-to-date approaches to entrepreneurial cognition research will find this Handbook to be especially helpful in their research. Established scholars who are new to the research area will also be interested in this book. University libraries with research-focused business schools will also benefit from this Handbook.
Patricia Churchland, the distinguished founder of neurophilosophy, reaches beyond the familiar argument of nature versus nurture to bring together insights from philosophy and revolutionary research in neuroscience. Scientific research may not be able to say with certainty what is ethical, and the definition of morality varies from person to person. But, from birth, our brains are configured to form bonds, to co-operate and to care. Delving into research studies, including work on twins and psychopaths, Churchland deepens our understanding of the brain's role in creating an ethical system. She then turns to philosophy to explore why morality is central to all societies, how it is transmitted through the generations and why different cultures live by different moral systems.
'[A] beautifully written investigation of grief ... As an exploration of love and loss, as a portrait of a person and of the nature of personhood, this book is about as true as any I have read' James McConnachie, Sunday Times An audacious and beautiful account of grief and who we are. Memoir, neuroscience and myth interweave to create a book unlike any other When celebrated neuropsychologist Paul Broks' wife died of cancer, he found himself plunged into the world of the bereaved. As he experienced the pain, alienation and suffering that make us human, his clinician-self seemed to watch on with keen interest. He embarked upon a voyage of experience: a journey through grief, philosophy, consciousness, humanity and magical thinking - seen through the prism of a lifetime's work in neuroscience. Fusing an account of living with and recovering from loss with thought-provoking meditations on the nature of the mind and the self, The Darker the Night, the Brighter the Stars is an audacious and beautiful work by a writer of astonishing wisdom and compassion.
Unravelling the Double Helix covers the most colourful period in the history of DNA, from the discovery of 'nuclein' in the late 1860s to the landmark publication of James Watson's The Double Helix in 1968. These hundred years included the advent of the Nobel Prize, antibiotics, X-ray crystallography and the atom bomb as well as two devastating world wars - events which are strung along the narrative thread of DNA like beads on a necklace. The story of DNA is a saga packed with awful mistakes as well as brilliant science, with a wonderful cast of heroes and villains. Surprisingly, much of it is unfamiliar. The elucidation of the double helix was one of the most brilliant gems of twentieth-century science, but some of the scientists who played crucial roles have been airbrushed out of history. Others were plunged into darkness when the spotlight fell on James Watson, Francis Crick, Maurice Wilkins and Rosalind Franklin. Watson and Crick solved a magnificent mystery, but Gareth Williams shows that their contribution was to click into place the last few pieces of a gigantic jigsaw puzzle assembled over several decades.
The contemporary crisis of emerging disease has been a century and a half in the making. Human, veterinary, and crop health practitioners convinced themselves that disease could be controlled by medicating the sick, vaccinating those at risk, and eradicating the parts of the biosphere responsible for disease transmission. Evolutionary biologists assured themselves that coevolution between pathogens and hosts provided a firewall against disease emergence in new hosts. Most climate scientists made no connection between climate changes and disease. None of these traditional perspectives anticipated the onslaught of emerging infectious diseases confronting humanity today. As this book reveals, a new understanding of the evolution of pathogen-host systems, called the Stockholm Paradigm, explains what is happening. The planet is a minefield of pathogens with preexisting capacities to infect susceptible but unexposed hosts, needing only the opportunity for contact. Climate change has always been the major catalyst for such new opportunities, because it disrupts local ecosystem structure and allows pathogens and hosts to move. Once pathogens expand to new hosts, novel variants may emerge, each with new infection capacities. Mathematical models and real-world examples uniformly support these ideas. Emerging disease is thus one of the greatest climate change-related threats confronting humanity. While time is short, the danger is great, and we are largely unprepared, The Stockholm Paradigm offers hope for managing the crisis. By using the DAMA (document, assess, monitor, act) protocol, we can "anticipate to mitigate" emerging disease, buying time and saving money while we search for more effective ways to cope with this challenge.
Locked away remote from the rest of the body in its own custom-built casing of skull bone, with no intrinsic moving parts, the human brain remains a tantalising mystery. But now, more than ever before, we have the expertise to tackle this mystery - the last 20 years have seen astounding progress in brain research. Susan Greenfield begins by exploring the roles of different regions of the brain. She then switches to the opposite direction and examines how certain functions, such as movement and vision, are accommodated in the brain. She describes how a brain is made from a single fertilized egg, and the fate of the brain is traced through life as we see how it constantly changes as a result of experience to provide the essence of a unique individual.
Smart people are not only just as prone to making mistakes as everyone else, they may be even more susceptible to them. This is the "intelligence trap," the subject of David Robson's fascinating and provocative book. The Intelligence Trap explores cutting-edge ideas in our understanding of intelligence and expertise, including "strategic ignorance," "meta-forgetfulness," and "functional stupidity." Robson reveals the surprising ways that even the brightest minds and most talented organizations can go wrong-from some of Thomas Edison's worst ideas to failures at NASA, Nokia, and the FBI. And he offers practical advice to avoid mistakes based on the timeless lessons of Benjamin Franklin, Richard Feynman, and Daniel Kahneman.
Vast numbers of different prokaryotic microorganisms shape the biosphere, with diverse metabolic capabilities. Determination of genome sequences for a wide range of bacteria and archaea now requires an in-depth knowledge of prokaryotic metabolic function to give biochemical, physiological and ecological meaning to the genomic information. This new edition describes up-to-date knowledge of the key metabolic processes that occur under different conditions, and the cellular processes that determine prokaryotic roles in the environment, biotechnology and human health. Essential for students of microbiology, applied microbiology, biotechnology, genomics and systems biology, this advanced textbook covers prokaryotic structure, composition, nutrient transport, biosynthesis and growth. Newly characterised metabolic pathways are included, as well as the latest understanding of metabolic regulation and stress responses. Additionally, the link between energetics, growth and survival is discussed as well as the maintenance of genetic integrity by the bacterial immune system.
The bestselling author of Fermat's Last Theorem and The Code Book tells the story of the brilliant minds that deciphered the mysteries of the Big Bang. A fascinating exploration of the ultimate question: how was our universe created? Albert Einstein once said: `The most incomprehensible thing about the universe is that it is comprehensible.' Simon Singh believes geniuses like Einstein are not the only people able to grasp the physics that govern the universe. We all can. As well as explaining what the Big Bang theory actually is and why cosmologists believe it is an accurate description of the origins of the universe, this book is also the fascinating story of the scientists who fought against the established idea of an eternal and unchanging universe. Simon Singh, renowned for making difficult ideas much less daunting than they first seem, is the perfect guide for this journey. Everybody has heard of the Big Bang Theory. But how many of us can actually claim to understand it? With characteristic clarity and a narrative peppered with anecdotes and personal histories of those who have struggled to understand creation, Simon Singh has written the story of the most important theory ever.
To imagine - to see that which is not there - is the startling ability that has fuelled human development and innovation through the centuries. As a species we stand alone in our remarkable capacity to refashion the world after the pictures in our minds. Traversing the realms of science, politics, religion, culture, philosophy and history, Felipe Fernandez-Armesto reveals the thrilling and disquieting tales of our imaginative leaps - from the first Homo sapiens to the present day. Through groundbreaking insights in cognitive science, he explores how and why we have ideas in the first place, providing a tantalising glimpse into who we are and what we might yet accomplish. Fernandez-Armesto shows that bad ideas are often more influential than good ones; that the oldest recoverable thoughts include some of the best; that ideas of Western origin often issued from exchanges with the wider world; and that the pace of innovative thinking is under threat.
A fascinating and practical guide from two New York Times bestselling authors, backed by state-of-the-art scientific research Drawing on cutting-edge research, friends and Harvard collaborators Daniel Goleman and Richard Davidson expertly reveal what we can learn from a one-of-a-kind data pool that includes world-class meditators. They share for the first time remarkable findings that show how meditation - without drugs or high expense - can cultivate qualities such as selflessness, equanimity, love and compassion, and redesign our neural circuitry. Demonstrating two master thinkers at work, The Science of Meditation explains precisely how mind training benefits us. More than daily doses or sheer hours, we need smart practice, including crucial ingredients such as targeted feedback from a master teacher and a more spacious worldview. These two bestselling authors sweep away the misconceptions around these practices and show how smart practice can change our personal traits and even our genome for the better. Gripping in its storytelling and based on a lifetime of thought and action, this is one of those rare books that has the power to change us at the deepest level. 'This is a book that really can change your life.' - Arianna Huffington, author of the 'New York Times' best seller 'The Sleep Revolution' 'A happy synthesis of the authors' remarkable careers' - Jon Kabat-Zinn, author of 'Full Catastrophe Living' and 'Mindfulness for Beginners' The definitive book on the science of meditation. Rigorously researched and deeply illuminating' - Daniel Gilbert, PhD, author of the New York Times bestseller 'Stumbling on Happiness' 'This exquisite duet between a down-to-earth science writer and path-breaking neuroscientist is a tour-de-force, revealing how training the mind can transform the brain and our sense of self, inspiring us to create a greater sense of well-being, meaning, and connection in our world. Bravo!' - Daniel J. Siegel, M.D., author of the 'New York Times' best sellers, 'Mind' and 'Brainstorm'
Armed with extraordinary new discoveries about our genes, acclaimed science writer Matt Ridley turns his attention to the nature-versus-nurture debate in a thoughtful book about the roots of human behavior.
Ridley recounts the hundred years' war between the partisans of nature and nurture to explain how this paradoxical creature, the human being, can be simultaneously free-willed and motivated by instinct and culture. With the decoding of the human genome, we now know that genes not only predetermine the broad structure of the brain, they also absorb formative experiences, react to social cues, and even run memory. They are consequences as well as causes of the will.
Plant remains can preserve a critical part of history of life on Earth. While telling the fascinating evolutionary story of plants and vegetation across the last 500 million years, this book also crucially offers non-specialists a practical guide to studying, dealing with and interpreting plant fossils. It shows how various techniques can be used to reveal the secrets of plant fossils and how to identify common types, such as compressions and impressions. Incorporating the concepts of evolutionary floras, this second edition includes revised data on all main plant groups, the latest approaches to naming plant fossils using fossil-taxa and techniques such as tomography. With extensive illustrations of plant fossils and living plants, the book encourages readers to think of fossils as once-living organisms. It is written for students on introductory or intermediate courses in palaeobotany, palaeontology, plant evolutionary biology and plant science, and for amateurs interested in studying plant fossils.
This new updated and expanded 10th anniversary edition of The Biology of Belief will forever change how you think about your own thinking. Stunning new scientific discoveries about the biochemical effects of the brain's functioning show that all the cells of your body are affected by your thoughts. Bruce H. Lipton PhD, a renowned cell biologist, describes the precise molecular pathways through which this occurs. Using simple language, illustrations, humour and everyday examples, he demonstrates how the new science of epigenetics is revolutionizing our understanding of the link between mind and matter, and the profound effects it has on our personal lives and the collective life of our species. It has been 10 years since the publication of The Biology of Belief, Bruce Lipton's seminal book on the relationship between mind and body that changed the way we think about our lives, our health and our planet. During that time, research in this field has grown exponentially - Lipton's ground-breaking experiments have now been endorsed by more than a decade of rigorous scientific study. In this greatly expanded edition, Lipton, a former medical school professor and research scientist, explores his own experiments and those of other leading-edge scientists that have unravelled in ever greater detail how truly connected the mind, body and spirit are. It is now widely recognized that genes and DNA do not control our biology. Instead, they are controlled by signals from outside the cell, including energetic messages emanating from our thoughts. This profoundly hopeful synthesis of the latest and best research in cell biology and quantum physics puts the power to create a healthy, joyous life back in our own hands. When we transform our conscious and subconscious thoughts, we transform our lives, and in the process help humanity evolve to a new level of understanding and peace.
'A gripping new drama in science ... if you want to understand how the concept of life is changing, read this' Professor Andrew Briggs, University of Oxford When Darwin set out to explain the origin of species, he made no attempt to answer the deeper question: what is life? For generations, scientists have struggled to make sense of this fundamental question. Life really does look like magic: even a humble bacterium accomplishes things so dazzling that no human engineer can match it. And yet, huge advances in molecular biology over the past few decades have served only to deepen the mystery. So can life be explained by known physics and chemistry, or do we need something fundamentally new? In this penetrating and wide-ranging new analysis, world-renowned physicist and science communicator Paul Davies searches for answers in a field so new and fast-moving that it lacks a name, a domain where computing, chemistry, quantum physics and nanotechnology intersect. At the heart of these diverse fields, Davies explains, is the concept of information: a quantity with the power to unify biology with physics, transform technology and medicine, and even to illuminate the age-old question of whether we are alone in the universe. From life's murky origins to the microscopic engines that run the cells of our bodies, The Demon in the Machine is a breath-taking journey across the landscape of physics, biology, logic and computing. Weaving together cancer and consciousness, two-headed worms and bird navigation, Davies reveals how biological organisms garner and process information to conjure order out of chaos, opening a window on the secret of life itself.
A magisterial exploration of the natural history of the first four thousand million years of life on and in the earth, by one of Britain's most dazzling science writers. What do any of us know about the history of our planet before the arrival of man? Most of us have a dim impression of a swirling mass of dust solidifying to form a volcanic globe, briefly populated by dinosaurs, then by woolly mammoths and finally by our own hairy ancestors. This book, aimed at the curious and intelligent but perhaps mildly uninformed reader, brilliantly dispels such lingering notions forever. At the end of the book we understand the complexity of the history of life on earth, and the complexity of how it has come to be understood, as, perhaps, from no other single volume. The result is enthralling.
This thoroughly revised and expanded edition of the much acclaimed Encyclopedia of Coastal Science edited by M. Schwarz (Springer 2005), presents an interdisciplinary approach that includes biology, ecology, engineering, geology, geomorphology, oceanography, remote sensing, technological advances, and anthropogenic impacts on coasts. Within its covers the Encyclopedia of Coastal Science, 2nd ed. brings together and coordinates many aspects of coastal and related sciences that are widely dispersed in the scientific literature. The broadly interdisciplinary subject matter of this volume features contributions by almost 270 well-known international specialists in their respective fields and provides an abundance of figures in full-color with line drawings and photographs, and other illustrations such as satellite images. Not only does this volume offer a large number of new and revised entries, it also includes an illustrated glossary of coastal geomorphology, extensive bibliographic citations, and cross-references. It provides a comprehensive reference work for students, scientific and technical professionals as well as administrators, managers, and informed lay readers. Reviews from the first edition: Awarded for Excellence in Scholarly and Professional Publishing: "Honorable Mention", in the category Single Volume/Science from the Association of American Publishers (AAP) 2005. "The contents and approach are interdisciplinary and, under a single cover, one finds subjects normally scattered throughout scientific literature." "The topics cover a broad spectrum, so does the geographic range of the contributors. ... besides geomorphologists, biologists, ecologists, engineers, geographers, geologists, oceanographers and technologists will find information related to their respective fields ... . Inclusion of appendices ... is very useful. The illustrated glossary of geomorphology will prove very useful for many of us ... ." Roger H. Charlier, Journal of Coastal Research, Volume 21, Issue 4, Page 866, July 2005. "It is an excellent work that should be included in any carefully selected list of best science reference books of the year "Summing Up: Highly recommended. " M.L. Larsgaard, Choice, Volume 43, Issue 6, Page 989, February 2006. "This volume is a comprehensive collection of articles covering all aspects of the subject: social and economic, engineering, coastal processes, habitats, erosion, geological features, research and observation." ... "As with similar works reviewed, I chose to read articles on familiar topics to see if they covered the expected, and some on unfamiliar topics to see if they could be readily understood. The book passed both tests, but the style is denser and more fact-filled than most of the encyclopedias I have reviewed." John Goodier, Reference Reviews, Volume 20, Issue 2, pages 35-36, 2006
"Landscape Bionomics, or Bio-integrated Landscape Ecology, radically transforms the main principles of traditional Landscape Ecology by recognizing the landscape as a living entity rather than merely the spatial distribution of species and communities on the territory, often analysed in separate themes (water, species, pollution, etc.). To be more exact, the landscape is identified as the "life organization integrating a set of plants, animals and human communities and its system of natural, semi-natural, and human cultural ecosystems in a certain spatial configuration." This new perspective inevitably leads to significant changes in how to assess and manage the environment.
This book represents the culmination of an endeavor begun by the author, with the support of Richard Forman and Zev Naveh, more than a dozen years ago. It builds on the author s previous successful publication, "Landscape Ecology, A Widening Foundation," by addressing a range of additional topics and discussing the new theoretical and methodological concepts that have emerged during the past decade of research. Particular attention is paid to the fact that interventions in the landscape can be made with the best intentions yet cause serious damage Against this background, the author explains the need to study "landscape units" by applying methods comparable to those used in clinical diagnosis hence ecologists can be viewed as the physicians of ecological systems."
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