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The renowned Oxford Chemistry Primer series, which provides focused introductions to a range of important topics in chemistry, has been refreshed and updated to suit the needs of today's students, lecturers, and postgraduate researchers. The rigorous, yet accessible, treatment of each subject area is ideal for those wanting a primer in a given topic to prepare them for more advanced study or research. Moreover, cutting-edge examples and applications throughout the texts show the relevance of the chemistry being described to current research and industry. The learning features provided, including questions at the end of every chapter and online multiple-choice questions, encourage active learning and promote understanding. Furthermore, frequent diagrams, margin notes, further reading, and glossary definitions all help to enhance a student's understanding of these essential areas of chemistry. Foundations of Molecular Structure Determination covers a range of common spectroscopic and diffraction methods alongside frequent worked examples and problem questions to assist beginning undergraduates in developing their skills in structure analysis. Furthermore, the practical application of these techniques is emphasized, especially to biological and medical systems. Online Resource Centre The Online Resource Centre to accompany Foundations of Molecular Structure Determination features: For registered adopters of the text: * Figures from the book available to download For students: * Downloadable CIF data files * Multiple-choice questions for self-directed learning * Full worked solutions to the end-of-chapter exercises
The renowned Oxford Chemistry Primer series, which provides focused introductions to a range of important topics in chemistry, has been refreshed and updated to suit the needs of today's students, lecturers, and postgraduate researchers. The rigorous, yet accessible, treatment of each subject area is ideal for those wanting a primer in a given topic to prepare them for more advanced study or research. The learning features provided, including questions at the end of every chapter and online multiple-choice questions, encourage active learning and promote understanding. Moreover, cutting-edge examples and applications throughout the texts show the relevance to current research and industry of the chemistry being described. Electronic Paramagnetic Resonance provides a user-friendly introduction to this powerful tool for characterizing paramagnetic molecules. A versatile technique, EPR is becoming increasingly used across fields as diverse as biology, materials science, chemistry, and physics. This primer provides the perfect introduction to the subject by taking the reader through from basic principles to how spectra can be interpreted in practice, with frequent examples demonstrating the diverse ways in which the technique can be applied. Online Resource Centre The Online Resource Centre to accompany Electron Paramagnetic Resonance features: For registered adopters of the text: * Figures from the book available to download For students: * Full worked solutions to the end-of-chapter exercises * Multiple-choice questions for self-directed learning
This comprehensive handbook covers all fundamentals of electrochemistry for contemporary applications. It provides a rich presentation of related topics of electrochemistry with a clear focus on energy technologies. It covers all aspects of electrochemistry starting with theoretical concepts and basic laws of thermodynamics, non-equilibrium thermodynamics and multiscale modeling. It further gathers the basic experimental methods such as potentiometry, reference electrodes, ion-sensitive electrodes, voltammetry and amperometry. The contents cover subjects related to mass transport, the electric double layer, ohmic losses and experimentation affecting electrochemical reactions. These aspects of electrochemistry are especially examined in view of specific energy technologies including batteries, polymer electrolyte and biological fuel cells, electrochemical capacitors, electrochemical hydrogen production and photoelectrochemistry. Organized in six parts, the overall complexity of electrochemistry is presented and makes this handbook an authoritative reference and definitive source for advanced students, professionals and scientists particularly interested in industrial and energy applications.
A richly illustrated undergraduate textbook on the physics and biology of light Students in the physical and life sciences, and in engineering, need to know about the physics and biology of light. Recently, it has become increasingly clear that an understanding of the quantum nature of light is essential, both for the latest imaging technologies and to advance our knowledge of fundamental life processes, such as photosynthesis and human vision. From Photon to Neuron provides undergraduates with an accessible introduction to the physics of light and offers a unified view of a broad range of optical and biological phenomena. Along the way, this richly illustrated textbook builds the necessary background in neuroscience, photochemistry, and other disciplines, with applications to optogenetics, superresolution microscopy, the single-photon response of individual photoreceptor cells, and more. With its integrated approach, From Photon to Neuron can be used as the basis for interdisciplinary courses in physics, biophysics, sensory neuroscience, biophotonics, bioengineering, or nanotechnology. The goal is always for students to gain the fluency needed to derive every result for themselves, so the book includes a wealth of exercises, including many that guide students to create computer-based solutions. Supplementary online materials include real experimental data to use with the exercises. * Assumes familiarity with first-year undergraduate physics and the corresponding math * Overlaps the goals of the MCAT, which now includes data-based and statistical reasoning * Advanced chapters and sections also make the book suitable for graduate courses * An Instructor's Guide and illustration package is available to professors
Combines clear and concise discussions of key NMR concepts with succinct and illustrative examples Designed to cover a full course in Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) Spectroscopy, this text offers complete coverage of classic (one-dimensional) NMR as well as up-to-date coverage of two-dimensional NMR and other modern methods. It contains practical advice, theory, illustrated applications, and classroom-tested problems; looks at such important ideas as relaxation, NOEs, phase cycling, and processing parameters; and provides brief, yet fully comprehensible, examples. It also uniquely lists all of the general parameters for many experiments including mixing times, number of scans, relaxation times, and more. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: An Introduction to Principles, Applications, and Experimental Methods, 2nd Edition begins by introducing readers to NMR spectroscopy - an analytical technique used in modern chemistry, biochemistry, and biology that allows identification and characterization of organic, and some inorganic, compounds. It offers chapters covering: Experimental Methods; The Chemical Shift; The Coupling Constant; Further Topics in One-Dimensional NMR Spectroscopy; Two-Dimensional NMR Spectroscopy; Advanced Experimental Methods; and Structural Elucidation. Features classical analysis of chemical shifts and coupling constants for both protons and other nuclei, as well as modern multi?pulse and multi-dimensional methods Contains experimental procedures and practical advice relative to the execution of NMR experiments Includes a chapter-long, worked-out problem that illustrates the application of nearly all current methods Offers appendices containing the theoretical basis of NMR, including the most modern approach that uses product operators and coherence-level diagrams By offering a balance between volumes aimed at NMR specialists and the structure-determination-only books that focus on synthetic organic chemists, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: An Introduction to Principles, Applications, and Experimental Methods, 2nd Edition is an excellent text for students and post-graduate students working in analytical and bio-sciences, as well as scientists who use NMR spectroscopy as a primary tool in their work.
Characterisation Methods in Inorganic Chemistry provides a fresh alternative to the existing theoretical and descriptive inorganic chemistry texts by adopting a techniques-based approach and providing problem-solving opportunities to show how analytical methods are used to help us characterise inorganic compounds. The text covers the full range of analytical techniques employed by inorganic chemists, emphasizing those in most frequent use: NMR, diffraction, UV-Vis spectroscopy, and IR. The additional coverage on other techniques allows readers to study these less widely used methods when relevant to their specific course material. Each chapter follows a clear, structured format, which begins with a brief introduction to the technique and basic theory behind it before moving on to data collection and analysis, typical data and interpretation, with numerous worked examples, self- tests and problems. Online Resource Centre For registered adopters of the book: - Figures and tables of data from the book, ready to download - Additional problems and exercises For students: - Answers to self-test questions - Additional problems and data sets
One of the first texts to offer a simple presentation of the
theoretical foundations of steady-state laser spectroscopy, this
volume is geared toward beginning theorists and experimentalists.
It assists students in applying theoretical ideas to actual
calculations in laser spectroscopy with a systematic series of
examples and exercises. Starting at an elementary level, students
gradually build up their practical skills with demonstrations of
how simplified theoretical models relate to experimentally
observable quantities. Detailed derivations offer students the
opportunity to work out all results for themselves.
The chemical composition of any planetary atmosphere is of fundamental importance in determining its photochemistry and dynamics in addition to its thermal balance, climate, origin and evolution. Divided into two parts, this book begins with a set of introductory chapters, starting with a concise review of the Solar System and fundamental atmospheric physics. Chapters then describe the basic principles and methods of spectroscopy, the main tool for studying the chemical composition of planetary atmospheres, and of photochemical modeling and its use in the theoretical interpretation of observational data on chemical composition. The second part of the book provides a detailed review of the carbon dioxide atmospheres and ionospheres of Mars and Venus, and the nitrogen-methane atmospheres of Titan, Triton and Pluto. Written by an expert author, this comprehensive text will make a valuable reference for graduate students, researchers and professional scientists specializing in planetary atmospheres.
The author of this book won a Nobel Prize for his contributions to the knowledge of electronic structure and geometry of molecules. In this classic text, he offers a concise introduction to diatomic radicals and ions, linear and nonlinear polyatomic radicals and ions, dissociation, predissociation, and recombination. 106 illustrations. 1971 edition.
Unlike traditional NMR textbooks for chemists, this fresh look at the topic combines theory, technology and application in a wide range of fields, targeting biochemists, medicinal chemists, and structural biologists, as well as organic chemists. The text has been developed from a one-semester graduate-level course taught by the authors at the University of Zurich, and offers numerous intuitive illustrations, training exercises and plain-language explanations of complex theory. Divided into four major parts, the first introduces the theory, providing a profound understanding of why experiments work, without a rigorous mathematical treatment of all the physico-chemical computations and deliberately shorter than in most other NMR textbooks. Part two discusses current instrumentation and practical aspects, including sample preparation, processing of raw data and the use of databases, while the third part focuses on the main application of NMR, with examples and training spectra taken from a wide range of synthetic and natural compounds. Part four introduces a selection of modern NMR applications in chemistry, biochemistry, medicinal chemistry and molecular biology, explaining the protocols used and how to interpret the results. With its focus on practical aspects and applications, this text will prove useful long after leaving college, by helping users to select experimental methods and in setting up and running their own NMR experiments.
The third edition of this popular work is revised to include the latest developments in this fast-changing field. Its interdisciplinary approach elegantly combines the chemistry and engineering to explore the fundamentals and optimization processes involved.
In this book, the author deals mainly with two topics: (1) single-molecule visualization of switching behaviors in the DNA nanoframe system utilizing different kinds of molecular switches through the use of high-speed atomic force microscope (AFM); (2) construction of photocontrollable DNA nanostructures in programmed patterns and direct visualization of the dynamic assembling process. Here, high-speed AFM was employed to observe the dynamic movements of single molecules. Compared to a traditional single-molecule analysis method, such as fluorescence spectroscopy or electron microscopy, high-speed AFM makes possible the real-time observation of molecule behaviors. DNA nanostructures were designed and assembled as scaffolds to incorporate interested biomolecules. The observations were carried out under robust conditions without complicated pretreatment. Moreover, the photoresponsive molecules were successfully assembled into around 100 nm-sized DNA nanostructures. The assembly/disassembly of nanostructures can be regulated reversibly by photoirradiation. This book explains how DNA origami has gradually become a useful tool for the investigation of biochemical interactions in defined nanospace. It also shows the possibility of DNA nanostructures acting as nanodevices for application in biological systems, serving as a good introduction to basic DNA nanotechnology.
For more than five decades, scientists and researchers have relied on the Advances in Chromatography series for the most up-to-date information on a wide range of developments in chromatographic methods and applications. For Volume 55, established, well-known chemists offer cutting-edge reviews of chromatographic methods to pay tribute to the late Eli Grushka, beloved series editor, who inspired and mentored many in the field of separation science. The clear presentation of topics and vivid illustrations for which this series has become known makes the material accessible and engaging to analytical, biochemical, organic, polymer, and pharmaceutical chemists at all levels of technical skill.
A new edition of this practical approach to sampling, experimentation, and applications in the field of inductively coupled plasma spectrometry The second edition of Practical Inductively Coupled Plasma Spectrometry discusses many of the significant developments in the field which have expanded inductively coupled plasma (ICP) spectrometry from a useful optical emission spectroscopic technique for trace element analysis into a source for both atomic emission spectrometry and mass spectrometry, capable of detecting elements at sub-ppb (ng mL-1) levels with good accuracy and precision. Comprising nine chapters, this new edition has been fully revised and up-dated in each chapter. It contains information on everything you need to practically know about the different types of instrumentation as well as pre- and post-experimental aspects. Designed to be easily accessible, with a 'start-to-finish' approach, each chapter outlines the key practical aspects of a specific aspect of the topic. The author, a noted expert in the field, details specific applications of the techniques presented, including uses in environmental, food and industrial analysis. This edition: Emphasizes the importance of health and safety; Provides advanced information on sample preparation techniques; Presents an updated chapter on inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry; Features a new chapter on current and future development in ICP technology and one on practical trouble shooting and routine maintenance. Practical Inductively Coupled Plasma Spectrometry offers a practical guide that can be used for undergraduate and graduate students in the broad discipline of analytical chemistry, which includes biomedical science, environmental science, food science and forensic science, in both distance and open learning situations. It also provides an excellent reference for those in postgraduate training in these fields.
Martin Stein's thesis describes a novel methodology for natural product discovery. Due to its high degree of reproducibility, robustness and sensitivity, the technique can be utilized to detect even trace amounts of bioactive substances in heterogeneous matrices such as fermentation broths or crude organic extracts. This research is thus relevant for a large number of researchers working in natural product discovery. Applications of this novel NMR-based approach include suitable environmental triggers for the induction of biosynthetic machineries. The author demonstrates the extraordinary value of this approach by the successful isolation of two potent inhibitors of the pharmaceutically relevant proteasome core particle from the insect pathogen photorhabdus luminescens. This thesis has led to a number of publications in high-impact journals.
Second edition of the guide to the modern techniques that demonstrate the potential of Raman spectroscopy Completely revised and updated, the second edition of Modern Raman Spectroscopy presents the information needed for clear understanding and application of the technique of Raman Spectroscopy in a range of areas such as pharmaceuticals, forensics, and biology. The authors--noted experts on the topic--reveal how to make full use of the critical information presented and include a wealth of examples of the pitfalls that can be encountered. The text opens with a description of the basic theory to assist readers in making a practical interpretation of Raman Spectra. Chapters include the main equations that are used in order to highlight the theory's meaning and relevance while avoiding a full mathematical treatment. Modern Raman Spectroscopy provides a firm grounding, combined with a variety of references, from which to approach a more comprehensive study of specific aspects of Raman Spectroscopy. This new edition: Includes instrumentation sections that now contain Spatially Offset Raman scattering and transmission Raman scattering Offers an updated SERS chapter that presents recent examples and Tip enhanced Raman scattering Contains updated information with an emphasis on pharmaceutical, forensic, and biological applications Introduces modern techniques in the imaging and mapping of biological samples and more advanced methods which are becoming easier to use Written for users of Raman Spectroscopy in industry, including non-analysts, researchers, and academics, the second edition of Modern Raman Spectroscopy clearly demonstrates the potential of using Raman Spectroscopy for a wide range of applications.
Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is one of the most
powerful and widely used techniques in chemical research for
investigating structures and dynamics of molecules. Advanced
methods can even be utilized for structure determinations of
biopolymers, for example proteins or nucleic acids. NMR is also
used in medicine for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The method
is based on spectral lines of different atomic nuclei that are
excited when a strong magnetic field and a radiofrequency
transmitter are applied. The method is very sensitive to the
features of molecular structure because also the neighboring atoms
influence the signals from individual nuclei and this is
This thesis presents the development of theranostic gold nanostars (GNS) for multimodality cancer imaging and therapy. Furthermore, it demonstrates that a novel two-pronged treatment, combining immune-checkpoint inhibition and GNS-mediated photothermal nanotherapy, can not only eradicate primary treated tumors but also trigger immune responses to treat distant untreated tumors in a mouse animal model. Cancer has become a significant threat to human health with more than eight million deaths each year, and novel methods for cancer management to improve patients' overall survival are urgently needed. The developed multifunctional GNS nanoprobe with tip-enhanced plasmonics in the near-infrared region can be combined with (1) surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS), (2) two-photon photoluminescence (TPL), (3) X-ray computed tomography (CT), (4) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), (5) positron emission tomography (PET), and (6) photothermal therapy (PTT) for cancer imaging and treatment. The ability of the GNS nanoprobe to detect submillimeter intracranial brain tumors was demonstrated using PET scan - a superior non-invasive imaging modality - in a mouse animal model. In addition, delayed rechallenge with repeated cancer cell injection in cured mice did not lead to new tumor formation, indicating generation of a memorized immune response to cancer. The biocompatible gold nanostars with superior capabilities for cancer imaging and treatment have great potential for translational medicine applications.
Mass Spectrometry: Principles and Applications, Third Edition
Edmond de Hoffmann, "UniversitA(c) Catholique de Louvain, Belgium" and Vincent Stroobant, "Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research, Brussels Branch, Belgium."
"Mass Spectrometry, Third Edition" provides students with a complete overview of the principles, theories and key applications of modern mass spectrometry. Extensively revised and updated, the third edition of this successful textbook focuses on recent developments in techniques and applications. All instrumental aspects of mass spectrometry are clearly and concisely described. Emphasis is placed throughout the text on practical application examples. As with previous editions, it contains numerous tables of useful data, references and a series of exercises of increasing difficulty to encourage student understanding.
Provides a complete overview of the principles, theories and applications of modern mass spectrometry
An extensive revision and update including: increased coverage of MALDI and ESI, resolution and mass accuracy and activation of ions
New material about instruments such as linear traps, Orbitrap, TOF/TOF, hybrid instruments, and about new atmospheric ionisation techniques such as APPI, DESI, DART. The range of applications has been expanded and newer methods such as metabolome are included
Contains numerous examples and exercises to encourage student understanding
"Mass Spectrometry: Principles and Applications, Third Edition" will prove invaluable to undergraduates and postgraduates using this technique in departments of chemistry, biochemistry, medicine, pharmacology, agriculture, materials science and food science. It will alsoappeal to researchers looking for an overview of the latest techniques and developments.
Documenting critical advances in this rapidly evolving field, the Second Edition highlights the need for new applications and technologies that assist in the determination of molecular weight and molecular weight distributions of polymers in an accurate, efficient manner. This volume presents the latest findings from a international team of specialists, and will continue to inspire and extend practical applications of size exclusion chromatography (SEC). It includes six new chapters covering high-speed size exclusion chromatography, SEC of low molecular weight materials, and the extended family of techniques from two-dimensional liquid chromatography to high osmotic pressure chromatography.
This book mainly focuses on reducing the high parasitic resistance in the source/drain of germanium nMOSFET. With adopting of the Implantation After Germanide (IAG) technique, P and Sb co-implantation technique and Multiple Implantation and Multiple Annealing (MIMA) technique, the electron Schottky barrier height of NiGe/Ge contact is modulated to 0.1eV, the thermal stability of NiGe is improved to 600 and the contact resistivity of metal/n-Ge contact is drastically reduced to 3.8x10 7 *cm2, respectively. Besides, a reduced source/drain parasitic resistance is demonstrated in the fabricated Ge nMOSFET. Readers will find useful information about the source/drain engineering technique for high-performance CMOS devices at future technology node.
This thesis unites the fields of optical atomic clocks and ultracold molecular science, laying the foundation for optical molecular measurements of unprecedented precision. Building upon optical manipulation techniques developed by the atomic clock community, this work delves into attaining surgical control of molecular quantum states. The thesis develops two experimental observables that one can measure with optical-lattice-trapped ultracold molecules: extremely narrow optical spectra, and angular distributions of photofragments that are ejected when the diatomic molecules are dissociated by laser light pulses. The former allows molecular spectroscopy approaching the level of atomic clocks, leading into molecular metrology and tests of fundamental physics. The latter opens the field of ultracold chemistry through observation of quantum effects such as matter-wave interference of photofragments and tunneling through reaction barriers. The thesis also describes a discovery of a new method of thermometry that can be used near absolute zero temperatures for particles lacking cycling transitions, solving a long-standing experimental problem in atomic and molecular physics.
Edited by two very well-known and respected scientists in the
field, this excellent practical guide is the first to cover the
fundamentals and a wide range of applications, as well as showing
readers how to efficiently use this increasingly important
In this thesis, magnetism and transport phenomena in spin-charge coupled systems on frustrated lattices are theoretically investigated, focusing on Ising-spin Kondo lattice models and using a combination of Monte Carlo simulation and other techniques such as variational calculations and perturbation theory. The emphasis of the study is on how the cooperation of spin-charge coupling and geometrical frustration affects the thermodynamic properties of the Kondo lattice models; it presents the emergence of various novel magnetic states, such as the partial disorder, loop-liquid, and spin-cluster states. The thesis also reveals that the magnetic and electronic states and transport properties of these models demonstrate peculiar features, such as Dirac half-metals, anomalous Hall insulators, and spin Hall effects. Study of novel magnetic states and exotic transport phenomena in Kondo lattice systems is a field experiencing rapid progress. The interplay of charge and spin degrees of freedom potentially gives rise to various novel phases and transport phenomena which are related to strongly correlated electrons, frustrated magnetism, and topological states of matter. The results presented in this thesis include numerical calculations that are free from approximations. Accordingly, they provide reliable reference values, both for studying magnetism and transports of related models and for experimentally exploring novel states of matter in metallic magnets.
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