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Germany had no national police force until 1920 when it was formed by the Weimar regime. The National Socialists were instrumental in its development. The duties performed by the Ordnungspolizei were the same as those performed in any other country in peace time. However, it did supervise the professional and voluntary fire services and provided advice to private factory security units.
During the war the uniformed police undertook an important new task. it was used to assist the security police in carrying out duties in occupied territories. To this end a total of 38 police regiments and a number of local regiments in occupied territories were formed. Police members were used to raise and man two Waffen-SS divisions to fight alongside the army. The police were at the core of the civil defenses in the Third Reich providing the organization for defense against air raids in towns and industrial complexes. Outstanding service was given in fighting fires and in the protection of members of the population.
This book will attempt to show the complete organization of the police forces of the Third Reich and will provide biographical information on the most senior officers of the forces.
.,."notable, impressive research... a desirable book for any WWII collection..." Henry Berry, 04/2008
This book discusses the echoes of the trauma that are traced in the relational narratives that the sons and daughters of Holocaust survivors tell about their experiences growing up in survivor families. An innovative combination of the Core Conflictual Relationship Theme (CCRT) method with narrative-qualitative analysis revealed common themes and emotional patterns that are played out in the survivors' children's meaningful relationships, especially in those with their parents. The relational world of the second generation is understood in the context of an intergenerational communication style called "knowing-not knowing," in which there is a dialectical tension between knowing and not knowing the parental trauma. In the survivors' children's current parent-adolescent relationships with their own children (survivors' grandchildren), they aspire to correct the child-parent dynamics that they had experienced by trying to openly negotiate conflicts and to maintain close bonds. Clinicians treating descendents of other massive trauma would benefit from the insights offered into these complex intergenerational psychological processes.
Lilo was a child during the Holocaust. Now that the older generation of Holocaust survivors, such as her parents, have mostly passed on, she and others like her are the "last survivors of the Holocaust" -- the final witnesses to the horrors that Hitler perpetrated on the Jewish people. After Lilo attended a workshop given by Hana Greenfield, noted author, lecturer, and Holocaust child survivor, where she spoke about the importance of child survivors sharing their experiences of the Holocaust, Lilo began compiling her history and experiences. She started speaking to schools and groups, and received more and more requests to share her story, presented here in a special volume illustrated by Lilo herself. Through narrative, poems and illustrations, this book shares the voice of a childhood lived in the shadow of the ultimate darkness.
Classes and books on the Holocaust often center on the experiences of victims, perpetrators, and bystanders, but rescuers also occupy a prominent space in Holocaust courses and literature even though incidents of rescue were relatively few and rescuers constituted less than 1 percent of the population in Nazi-occupied Europe. As inspiring figures and role models, rescuers challenge us to consider how we would act if we found ourselves in similarly perilous situations of grave moral import. Their stories speak to us and move us. Yet this was not always the case. Seventy years ago these brave men and women, today regarded as the Righteous Among the Nations, went largely unrecognized; indeed, sometimes they were even singled out for abuse from their co-nationals for their selfless actions. Unlikely Heroes traces the evolution of the humanitarian hero, looking at the ways in which historians, politicians, and filmmakers have treated individual rescuers like Raoul Wallenberg and Oskar Schindler, as well as the rescue efforts of humanitarian organizations. Contributors in this edited collection also explore classroom possibilities for dealing with the role of rescuers, at both the university and the secondary level.
The Exodus 1947 affair was both a political and a human drama. This book presents a number of new facts of the affair based on previously-unused archival material, and new interpretations of some of the events that took place, in a dramatized account.
Drawing on testimonies, memoirs, and personal interviews of Holocaust survivors, Francoise S. Ouzan reveals how the experience of Nazi persecution impacted their personal reconstruction, rehabilitation, and reintegration into a free society. She sheds light on the life trajectories of various groups of Jews, including displaced persons, partisan fighters, hidden children, and refugees from Nazism. Ouzan shows that personal success is not only a unifying factor among these survivors but is part of an ethos that unified ideas of homeland, social justice, togetherness, and individual aspirations in the redemptive experience. Exploring how Holocaust survivors rebuilt their lives after World War II, Ouzan tells the story of how they coped with adversity and psychic trauma to contribute to the culture and society of their country of residence.
This is a unique book, comprising seven essays designed to make the reader think more critically about the Holocaust. It combines the author's familiarity with the history, research, bibliography and teaching of the Holocaust, to present clear examples of the importance of approaching the subject critically. It provides the tools necessary for those that read and study the Holocaust to find their way in the ever-growing bibliography of the subject.
Fackenheim was one of the philosophically serious, knowledgeable, and provocative contemporary Jewish thinkers. His original focus as a philosophical theologian was mainly on revelation, but in his later work he concerned himself primarily with the wide-ranging implications of the Holocaust. In this book, Kenneth Green examines Fackenheim's intellectual trajectory and traces how and why he focused so intently on the Holocaust. He explores the deeper thought that Fackenheim developed about the Holocaust, which he construed as a cataclysmic event that ruptured history and one that also brought about a change in the very structure of being. As Green demonstrates, the Holocaust, according to Fackenheim's interpretation, changes how we view all things, from God to man to history. It also radically affects Judaism, Christianity, and philosophy, the major traditions that have shaped the Western world.
A two-volume book in which Maurice Rajsfus, a French activist and former investigative journalist for Le Monde, shares his research and personal recollections in order to shed new light on France's role in the Holocaust. In the first volume, "Operation Yellow Star," Rajsfus meticulously analyzes archival documents, demonstrating the extent of police collaboration with the Vichy regime and how it facilitated the persecution, deportation, and ultimately the death of hundreds of thousands of Jews. Examining long-unseen arrest records and transcripts, Rajsfus seeks to understand how and why many average French citizens resisted Nazi occupation while others were willingly complicit. In the second book, "Black Thursday," Rajsfus recounts his own experiences of July 16, 1942, when he and his family were arrested as part of the Vel' d'Hiv roundup, the largest ever in France, of 13,000 Jews. While most of those detained during the two-day sweep eventually died in Auschwitz, the author survived and has spent the rest of his life grappling with his country's betrayal. Together, the two volumes by Rajsfus offer a damning expose of the bureaucracy of genocide, laying bare how cultural bias, political self-interest, and the influence of right-wing media led to the implementation of the Yellow Star as a segregationist device and determined France's culpability in the Holocaust. Maurice Rajsfus is the author of thirty books and from 1994--2012 he created and circulated "Que fait la police," a "Cop Watch" bulletin detailing human rights abuses. He lives in Paris with his wife, sons and grandchildren.
Before Pep Guardiola and before Jose Mourinho, there was Bela Guttmann: the first superstar football coach, and the man who paved the way for the celebrated coaches of the modern age. He was also a Holocaust survivor. In 1944, much of Europe had wanted Guttmann dead. He hid for months in an attic near Budapest as thousands of fellow Jews in the neighbourhood were dragged off to be murdered. Later, he escaped from a slave labour camp before a planned deportation and almost certain death. His father, sister and wider family were murdered. But by 1961, as coach of Benfica, he had lifted Europe's greatest sporting prize, the European Cup, a feat he repeated the following year. This biography spans two contrasting visions of Europe: one of barbarism and genocide, and one of beauty, wonder and romance, of balmy evenings in magnificent cities, where great players would stretch every sinew in a bid to win football's holy grail. With dark forces rising once again in that continent, the story of Bela Guttmann's life asks the question: which vision will triumph in our times?
Well, let's face it. There's no question in my mind that some of the people over there [U.S. State Department]--whose names are in my book--were actually just plain anti-Semitic. It's just that simple. There's no question according to the transcript of Josiah E. DuBois, Jr., during a tape-recorded interview conducted for the Harry S. Truman Library, 1973. Blowing the Whistle on Genocide tells the story of Josiah E. DuBois, Jr., a young treasury department lawyer who risked his career to alert the world to the Holocaust. As Nazism rose in Germany, many countries refused to allow Jewish immigration. The United States, spurred on by the America First Committee, wanted to remain neutral during the early days of World War II. Anti-Semitic influences kept the United States from filling its quotas for refugees, supposedly to keep Nazi spies out of the country. DuBois exposed the inequities in America's refugee policy and forced the United States government to take action to rescue the displaced Jews. Josiah E. DuBois, Jr., was a different kind of hero of the Holocaust. He was not a rescuer, and he did not shelter refugees. He was a whistle-blower and opened the eyes of the global community to Nazi atrocities.
The Holocaust, Corporations, and the Law explores the challenge posed by the Holocaust to legal and political thought by examining the issues raised by the restitution class action suits brought against Swiss banks and German corporations before American federal courts in the 1990s. Although the suits were settled for unprecedented amounts of money, the defendants did not formally assume any legal responsibility. Thus, the lawsuits were bitterly criticized by lawyers for betraying justice and by historians for distorting history. Leora Bilsky argues class action litigation and settlement offer a mode of accountability well suited to addressing the bureaucratic nature of business involvement in atrocities. Prior to these lawsuits, legal treatment of the Holocaust was dominated by criminal law and its individualistic assumptions, consistently failing to relate to the structural aspects of Nazi crimes. Engaging critically with contemporary debates about corporate responsibility for human rights violations and assumptions about ""law,"" she argues for the need to design processes that make multinational corporations accountable, and examines the implications for transitional justice, the relationship between law and history, and for community and representation in a post-national world. In an era when corporations are ever more powerful and international, Bilsky's arguments will attract attention beyond those interested in the Holocaust and its long shadow.
While Anne Frank was in hiding during the German Occupation of the Netherlands, she wrote what has become the world's most famous diary. But how could an unknown Jewish girl from Amsterdam be transformed into an international icon? Renowned Dutch scholar David Barnouw investigates the facts and controversies that surround the global phenomenon of Anne Frank. Barnouw highlights the ways in which Frank's life and ultimate fate have been represented, interpreted, and exploited. He follows the evolution of her diary into a book (with translations into nearly 60 languages and editions that added previously unknown material), an American play, and a movie. As he asks, "Who owns Anne Frank?" Barnouw follows her emergence as a global phenomenon and what this means for her historical persona as well as for her legacy as a symbol of the Holocaust.
Silence can be a powerful form of communication. It is often the form that communication takes in the wake of unspeakable trauma. After a half a century, the Holocaust still dominates the homes of survivors and their families. Memory haunts and permeates the home, conditioning survivors' thoughts, their behaviour, their responses to their family, their reactions to government and authority. Applied linguist and academic Dr. Ruth Wajnryb grew up in such a home, living the aftermath of her parents' war as they strove to reconstruct their lives in the wake of a nightmare that could not be talked about. Using interviews with children of survivors, "The Silence" explores the process of communication in survivor families from the perspective of the post-war generation. It maps the interconnections of narrative and trauma, and lays bare the oblique and roundabout pathways where talk fragments and disappears into the cracks. Ruth Wajnryb retrieves the fragments and gives words, meaning and a larger coherence to a silence suffered quietly in countless homes. Along the way, readers learn the author's own story and that of her generation, and understand in a broader sense how trauma is transm
How is the Holocaust remembered in Romania since the fall of communism? Alexandru Florian and an international group of contributors unveil how and why Romania, a place where large segments of the Jewish and Roma populations perished, still fails to address its recent past. These essays focus on the roles of government and public actors that choose to promote, construct, defend, or contest the memory of the Holocaust, as well as the tools-the press, the media, monuments, and commemorations-that create public memory. Coming from a variety of perspectives, these essays provide a compelling view of what memories exist, how they are sustained, how they can be distorted, and how public remembrance of the Holocaust can be encouraged in Romanian society today.
Of one-and-a-half million surviving photographs related to Nazi concentration camps, only four depict the actual process of mass killing perpetrated at the gas chambers. Images in "Spite of All" reveals that these rare photos of Auschwitz, taken clandestinely by one of the Jewish prisoners forced to help carry out the atrocities there, were made as a potent act of resistance. Available today because they were smuggled out of the camp and into the hands of Polish resistance fighters, the photographs show a group of naked women being herded into the gas chambers and the cremation of corpses that have just been pulled out. Georges Didi-Huberman's relentless consideration of these harrowing scenes demonstrates how Holocaust testimony can shift from texts and imaginations to irrefutable images that attempt to speak the unspeakable. Including a powerful response to those who have criticized his interest in these images as voyeuristic, Didi-Huberman's eloquent reflections constitute an invaluable contribution to debates over the representability of the Holocaust and the status of archival photographs in an image-saturated world.
Peter Prager was born in Berlin and came to Britain via the "kindertransports." In The English Teacher from Berlin, he gives a fascinating, vivid account of life in Berlin before, during and after the war, as experienced by German Jews. His account of life once he arrived in Britain is told with sensitivity and humour, and includes hilarious stories from his early teaching career. Later, he makes a poignant return to Germany as an exchange teacher and reunites with contemporaries from his former Gymnasium, some of whom give their own short accounts.
In this pathbreaking study of responses to the Holocaust in wartime and postwar Polish literature, Rachel Feldhay Brenner explores seven writers' compulsive need to share their traumatic experience of witness with the world. The Holocaust put the ideological convictions of Kornel Filipowicz, Jozef Mackiewicz, Tadeusz Borowski, Zofia Kossak, Leopold Buczkowski, Jerzy Andrzejewski, and Stefan Otwinowski to the ultimate test. Tragically, witnessing the horror of the Holocaust implied complicity with the perpetrator and produced an existential crisis that these writers, who were all exempted from the genocide thanks to their non-Jewish identities, struggled to resolve in literary form. Poland and the Holocaust: Literary Testimonies, 1942-1947 is a particularly timely book in view of the continuing debates about the attitudes of Poles toward the Jews during the war. The literary voices from the past that Brenner examines posit questions that are as pertinent now as they were then. And so, while this book speaks to readers who are interested in literary responses to the Holocaust, it also illuminates the universal issue of the responsibility of witnesses toward the victims of any atrocity.
Although Auschwitz is probably the most well known of the Nazi extermination camps, it is Treblinka which is the most notorious. During the 13 months of its existence, 850,000 were robbed and murdered within its precincts. This camp, along with Belzec and Sobibor, also located in Poland, are often neglected and their history little known, despite being the locations where the Germans killed most of Europe's largest Jewish communities. Here, as opposed to Auschwitz, people were not imprisoned for long periods or exploited as labourers, but were killed off as quickly and effectively as possible. This study by a Polish new generation historian examines the structure and history of the camp.
"Multidirectional Memory" brings together Holocaust studies and
postcolonial studies for the first time. Employing a comparative
and interdisciplinary approach, the book makes a twofold argument
about Holocaust memory in a global age by situating it in the
unexpected context of decolonization. On the one hand, it
demonstrates how the Holocaust has enabled the articulation of
other histories of victimization at the same time that it has been
declared "unique" among human-perpetrated horrors. On the other, it
uncovers the more surprising and seldom acknowledged fact that
public memory of the Holocaust emerged in part thanks to postwar
events that seem at first to have little to do with it. In
particular, "Multidirectional Memory" highlights how ongoing
processes of decolonization and movements for civil rights in the
Caribbean, Africa, Europe, the United States, and elsewhere
unexpectedly galvanized memory of the Holocaust.
Etty Hillesum, Shoah, existential search
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